valid as on 26/09/2022

IBC Section 53-Distribution of assets.
Effective from 15.12.2016

(1) Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in any law enacted by the Parliament or any State Legislature for the time being in force, the shall be distributed in the following order of priority and within such period and in such manner as may be specified, namely :—

(a) the insolvency resolution process costs and the liquidation costs paid in full;

(b) the following debts which shall rank equally between and among the following :—

(i) workmen’s dues for the period of twenty-four months preceding the liquidation commencement date; and

(ii) debts owed to a secured creditor in the event such secured creditor has relinquished security in the manner set out in section 52;

(c) wages and any unpaid dues owed to employees other than workmen for the period of twelve months preceding the liquidation commencement date;

(d) financial debts owed to unsecured creditors;

(e) the following dues shall rank equally between and among the following:—

(i) any amount due to the Central Government and the State Government including the amount to be received on account of the Consolidated Fund of India and the Consolidated Fund of a State, if any, in respect of the whole or any part of the period of two years preceding the liquidation commencement date;

(ii) debts owed to a secured creditor for any amount unpaid following the enforcement of security interest;

(f) any remaining debts and dues;

(g) preference shareholders, if any; and

(h) equity shareholders or partners, as the case may be.

(2) Any contractual arrangements between recipients under sub-section (1) with equal ranking, if disrupting the order of priority under that sub-section shall be disregarded by the liquidator.

(3) The fees payable to the liquidator shall be deducted proportionately from the proceeds payable to each class of recipients under sub-section (1), and the proceeds to the relevant recipient shall be distributed after such deduction.

Explanation.—For the purpose of this section—

(i) it is hereby clarified that at each stage of the distribution of proceeds in respect of a class of recipients that rank equally, each of the debts will either be paid in full, or will be paid in equal proportion within the same class of recipients, if the proceeds are insufficient to meet the debts in full; and

(ii) the term “workmen’s dues” shall have the same meaning as assigned to it in section 326 of the Companies Act, 2013.

Refer regulation 41-46 of Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India (Liquidation Process) Regulations, 2016 . To view the regulation,Click Here and Refer IBBI Clarification dated 13.11.2020 regarding Mistakes committed by insolvency professionals in conduct of corporate insolvency resolution process. To view the circular,Click Here

2.5.41:Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India (Liquidation Process) Regulations, 2016

41. All money to be paid in to bank account.

(1) The liquidator shall open a bank account in the name of the corporate debtor followed by the words ‘in liquidation’, in a scheduled bank, for the receipt of all moneys due to the corporate debtor.

(2) The liquidator shall deposit in the bank account opened under sub-regulation (1) all moneys, including cheques and demand drafts received by him as the liquidator of the corporate debtor, and the realizations of each day shall be deposited into the bank account without any deduction not later than the next working day.

(3) The liquidator may maintain a cash of one lakh rupees or such higher amount as may be permitted by the Adjudicating Authority to meet liquidation costs.

(4) All payments out of the account by the liquidator above five thousand rupees shall be made by cheques drawn or online banking transactions against the bank account.


2.5.42:Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India (Liquidation Process) Regulations, 2016

42. Distribution.

(1) Subject to the provisions of section 53, the liquidator shall not commence distribution before the list of stakeholders and the asset memorandum has been filed with the Adjudicating Authority.

(2) The liquidator shall distribute the proceeds from realization within six months from the receipt of the amount to the stakeholders.

(3) The insolvency resolution process costs, if any, and the liquidation costs shall be deducted before such distribution is made.

Substituted vide IBBI (Liquidation Process) (Amendment) Regulations, 2019 dated 25.07.2019 applicable only to liquidation processes, which commenced on or after 25th July, 2019. To view the notification,Click Here

2.5.43:Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India (Liquidation Process) Regulations, 2016

43. Return of money.

A stakeholder shall forthwith return any monies received by him in distribution, which he was not entitled to at the time of distribution, or subsequently became not entitled to.


2.5.44:Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India (Liquidation Process) Regulations, 2016

44. Completion of liquidation.

The liquidator shall liquidate the corporate debtor within a period of one year from the liquidation commencement date, notwithstanding pendency of any application for avoidance of transactions under Part II of the Code, before the Adjudicating Authority or any action thereof:

(1) The liquidator shall liquidate the corporate debtor within a period of two years.

(2) If the liquidator fails to liquidate the corporate debtor within two years , he shall make an application to the Adjudicating Authority to continue such liquidation, along with a report explaining why the liquidation has not been completed and specifying the additional time that shall be required for liquidation.

In relation to the liquidation processes commenced prior to the commencement of the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India (Liquidation Process) (Amendment) Regulations, 2019, the requirements of this regulation as existing before such commencement, shall apply.

The liquidator shall, on the advice of the consultation committee, provide in the application along with the final report filed under regulation 45 for the manner in which proceedings in respect of avoidance transactions, if any, under Chapter III or fraudulent or wrongful trading under Chapter VI of Part II of the Code, will be pursued after the dissolution or closure of liquidation process and the manner in which the proceeds, if any, from such proceedings shall be distributed.

Substituted vide IBBI (Liquidation Process) (Amendment) Regulations, 2019 dated 25.07.2019 applicable only to liquidation processes, which commenced on or after 25th July, 2019. To view the notification,Click Here
Omitted vide Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India (Liquidation Process) (Second Amendment) Regulations, 2021 dated 30.09.2021. To view the notification, Click Here
Omitted vide IBBI (Liquidation Process) (Second Amendment) Regulations, 2022 dated 16.09.2022. To view the notification,Click Here
Substituted vide IBBI (Liquidation Process) (Amendment) Regulations, 2019 dated 25.07.2019 applicable only to liquidation processes, which commenced on or after 25th July, 2019. To view the notification,Click Here
Inserted vide IBBI (Liquidation Process) (Amendment) Regulations, 2022 dated 28.04.2022. To view the notification, Click Here
Inserted vide IBBI (Liquidation Process) (Second Amendment) Regulations, 2022 dated 16.09.2022. To view the notification, Click Here

2.5.45:Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India (Liquidation Process) Regulations, 2016

45. Final report prior to dissolution.

(1) When the corporate debtor is liquidated, the liquidator shall make an account of the liquidation, showing how it has been conducted and how the corporate debtor’s assets have been liquidated.

(2) If the liquidation cost exceeds the estimated liquidation cost provided in the Preliminary Report, the liquidator shall explain the reasons for the same.

The liquidator shall submit an application along with the final report and the compliance certificate in  to the Adjudicating Authority for –

(a) closure of the liquidation process of the corporate debtor where the corporate debtor is sold as a going concern; or

(b) for the dissolution of the corporate debtor, in cases not covered under clause (a).

(3) The final report shall form part of the application for the dissolution of the corporate debtor to the Adjudicating Authority to be made under section 54.

(1) The liquidator shall preserve copies of all such records which give a complete account of the liquidation process.

(2) Without prejudice to the generality of the provisions of sub-regulation (1), the liquidator shall preserve copies of records relating to or forming the basis of:-

a) his appointment as liquidator, including the terms of appointment;

b) handing over and taking over of the assignment;

c) admission of corporate debtor into liquidation;

d) public announcement;

e) the constitution of consultation committee and minutes of consultation committee meetings during liquidation process;

f) claims, verification of claims, and list of stakeholders;

g) details of relinquishment or otherwise by secured creditors in liquidation process;

h) engagement of professionals, registered valuers, etc. including work done, reports etc., submitted by them;

i) Invitation, consideration and approval of plans / proposals / scheme received, in case of going concern sale in liquidation process or compromise or arrangement under section 230 of the Companies Act, 2013;

j) all filings with the Adjudicating Authority, Appellate Authority, High Courts, Supreme Court, whichever applicable and their orders;

k) statutory filings with Board and insolvency professional agencies;

l) correspondence during the liquidation process

m) cost of liquidation process;

n) all reports, registers, documents such as preliminary report, asset memorandum, progress reports, asset sale report, annual status report, final report prior to dissolution, various registers and books, etc. mentioned in regulations 5 and 6 of these Regulations.

o) preferential, undervalued, extortionate credit transactions or fraudulent or wrongful trading.

p) any other records, which is required to give a complete account of the process.

(3) The liquidator shall preserve:

a. electronic copy of all records(physical and electronic) for a minimum period of eight years; and

b. a physical copy of records for a minimum period of three years;

from the date of dissolution of the corporate debtor or closure of the liquidation process or the conclusion of any proceeding relating to the liquidation process, before the Board, the Adjudicating Authority, Appellate Authority or any Court, whichever is later.

(4) In case of replacement of liquidator, the outgoing liquidator shall handover the records under subregulation (1) and (2) to the new liquidator and be responsible for preserving the records not handed over, for any reason, to the new liquidator.

(5) Where the corporate debtor has been sold as a going concern under clause (e) of regulation 32, the general records of the corporate debtor shall be handed over to the successful buyer.

(6) The records of the corporate debtor shall be preserved by the liquidator as per the applicable laws.

(7) The liquidator shall preserve the records at a secure place and shall be obliged to produce records as may be required under the Code and the Regulations made thereunder.

Explanation – The records referred to in this regulation include records pertaining to the period of a liquidation process during which the liquidator acted as such, irrespective of the fact that he did not take up the assignment from its commencement or continued the assignment till its conclusion.

Substituted vide IBBI (Liquidation Process) (Amendment) Regulations, 2019 dated 25.07.2019 applicable only to liquidation processes, which commenced on or after 25th July, 2019. To view the notification,Click Here
Refer form H of Schedule II. To view the schedule,Click Here
Inserted vide IBBI (Liquidation Process) (Second Amendment) Regulations, 2022 dated 16.09.2022. To view the notification,Click Here

2.5.46:Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India (Liquidation Process) Regulations, 2016

 

(1) The Board shall operate and maintain an Account to be called the Corporate Liquidation Account in the Public Accounts of India:

Provided that until the Corporate Liquidation Account is operated as part of the Public Accounts of India, the Board shall open a with a scheduled bank for the purposes of this regulation.

(2) A liquidator shall deposit the amount of unclaimed dividends, if any, and undistributed proceeds, if any, in a liquidation process along with any income earned thereon till the date of deposit into the Corporate Liquidation Account before he submits an application under sub-regulation (3) of regulation 45.

(3) A liquidator, who holds any amount of unclaimed dividends or undistributed proceeds in a liquidation process on the date of commencement of the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India (Liquidation Process) (Amendment) Regulations, 2020, shall deposit the same within fifteen days of the date of such commencement, along with any income earned thereon till the date of deposit.

(4) A liquidator, who fails to deposit any amount into the Corporate Liquidation Account under this regulation, shall deposit the same along with interest thereon at the rate of twelve percent per annum from the due date of deposit till the date of deposit.

(5) A liquidator shall submit to the authority with which the corporate debtor is registered and the Board, the evidence of deposit of the amount into the Corporate Liquidation Account under this regulation, and a statement in Form-I setting forth the nature of the amount deposited into the Corporate Liquidation Account, and the names and last known addresses of the stakeholders entitled to receive the unclaimed dividends or undistributed proceeds.

(6) The liquidator shall be entitled to a receipt from the Board for any amount deposited into the Corporate Liquidation Account under this regulation.

(7) A stakeholder, who claims to be entitled to any amount deposited into the Corporate Liquidation Account, may apply to the Board in Form J for an order for withdrawal of the amount:

Provided that if any other person other than the stakeholder claims to be entitled to any amount deposited into the Corporate Liquidation Account, he shall submit evidence to satisfy the Board that he is so entitled.

(8) The Board may, if satisfied that the stakeholder or any other person referred to under sub-regulation (7) is entitled to withdrawal of any amount from the Corporate Liquidation Account, make an order for the same in favour of that stakeholder or that other person.

(9) The Board shall maintain a corporate debtor-wise ledger of the amount deposited into and the amount withdrawn from the Corporate Liquidation Account under this regulation.

(10) The Board shall nominate an officer of the level of Executive Director of the Board as the custodian of the Corporate Liquidation Account and no proceeds shall be withdrawn without his approval.

(11) The Board shall maintain proper accounts of the Corporate Liquidation Account and get the same audited annually.

(12) The audit report along with the statement of accounts of the Corporate Liquidation Account referred to in sub-regulation (11) shall be placed before the Governing Board and shall be forwarded to the Central Government.

(13) Any amount deposited into the Corporate Liquidation Account in pursuance of this regulation, which remains unclaimed or undistributed for a period of fifteen years from the date of order of dissolution of the corporate debtor and any amount of income or interest received or earned in the Corporate Liquidation Account shall be transferred to the Consolidated Fund of India.

46. Unclaimed proceeds of liquidation or undistributed assets.

(1) Before the order of dissolution is passed under section 54(2), the liquidator shall apply to the Adjudicating Authority for an order to pay into the Companies Liquidation Account in the Public Account of India any unclaimed proceeds of liquidation or undistributed assets or any other balance payable to the stakeholders in his hands on the date of the order of dissolution.

(2) Any liquidator who retains any money which should have been paid by him into the Companies Liquidation Account under this Regulation shall pay interest on the amount retained at the rate of twelve per cent per annum, and also pay such penalty as may be determined by the Board.

(3) The liquidator shall, when making any payment referred to in sub-regulation (1), furnish to the authority with which the corporate debtor is registered, and the Board, a statement setting forth the nature of the sums included, the names and last known addresses of the stakeholders entitled to participate therein, the amount to which each is entitled to and the nature of their claim.

(4) The liquidator shall be entitled to a receipt from the Reserve Bank of India for any money paid to it under sub-regulation (2), and such receipt shall be an effectual discharge of the liquidator in respect thereof.

(5) A person claiming to be entitled to any money paid into the Companies Liquidation Account may apply to the Board for an order for payment of the money claimed; which may, if satisfied that such person is entitled to the whole or any part of the money claimed, make an order for the payment to that person of the sum due to him, after taking such security from him as it may think fit.

(6) Any money paid into the Companies Liquidation Account in pursuance of this Regulation, which remains unclaimed thereafter for a period of fifteen years, shall be transferred to the general revenue account of the Central Government.

Substituted vide the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India (Liquidation Process) (Amendment) Regulations, 2020 dated 06.01.2020. To view the Notification, Click Here.
IBBI provides the details of the separate bank account for deposit of unclaimed dividends and/or undistributed proceeds of liquidation processes vide its Circular dated 09.01.2020. To view the Circular, Click Here.

IBC-Enforcement Notification [S.O.3687(E)] dated 09/12/2016


Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India (Liquidation Process) (Amendment) Regulations, 2019 dated 25.07.2019


The Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India (Liquidation Process) (Amendment) Regulations, 2020 dated 06.01.2020


Circular pertaining to deposit of unclaimed dividends and / or undistributed proceeds of liquidation process in accordance with regulation 46 of the IBBI (Liquidation Process) Regulations, 2016 dated 09.01.2020


IBBI Clarification dated 13.11.2020 regarding Mistakes committed by insolvency professionals in conduct of corporate insolvency resolution process


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