(1) A secured creditor in the liquidation proceedings may—
(a) relinquish its security interest to the liquidation estate and receive proceeds from the sale of assets by the liquidator in the manner specified in section 53; or
(b) realise its security interest in the manner specified in this section.
(3) Before any security interest is realised by the secured creditor under this section, the liquidator shall verify such security interest and permit the secured creditor to realise only such security interest, the existence of which may be proved either—
(a) by the records of such security interest maintained by an information utility; or
(b) by such other means as may be specified by the Board.
(4) A secured creditor may enforce, realise, settle, compromise or deal with the secured assets in accordance with such law as applicable to the security interest being realised and to the secured creditor and apply the proceeds to recover the debts due to it.
(5) If in the course of realising a secured asset, any secured creditor faces resistance from the corporate debtor or any person connected therewith in taking possession of, selling or otherwise disposing off the security, the secured creditor may make an application to the Adjudicating Authority to facilitate the secured creditor to realise such security interest in accordance with law for the time being in force.
(6) The Adjudicating Authority, on the receipt of an application from a secured creditor under sub-section (5) may pass such order as may be necessary to permit a secured creditor to realise security interest in accordance with law for the time being in force.
(7) Where the enforcement of the security interest under sub-section (4) yields an amount by way of proceeds which is in excess of the debts due to the secured creditor, the secured creditor shall—
(a) account to the liquidator for such surplus; and
(b) tender to the liquidator any surplus funds received from the enforcement of such secured assets.
(8) The amount of insolvency resolution process costs, due from secured creditors who realise their security interests in the manner provided in this section, shall be deducted from the proceeds of any realisation by such secured creditors, and they shall transfer such amounts to the liquidator to be included in the liquidation estate.
(9) Where the proceeds of the realisation of the secured assets are not adequate to repay debts owed to the secured creditor, the unpaid debts of such secured creditor shall be paid by the liquidator in the manner specified in clause (e) of sub-section (1) of section 53.
2.5.37:Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India (Liquidation Process) Regulations, 2016
37. Realization of security interest by secured creditor.
(1) A secured creditor who seeks to realize its security interest under section 52 shall intimate the liquidator of the price at which he proposes to realize its secured asset.
(2) The liquidator shall inform the secured creditor within twenty one days of receipt of the intimation under sub-regulation (1) if a person is willing to buy the secured asset before the expiry of thirty days from the date of intimation under sub-regulation (1), at a price higher than the price intimated under sub-regulation (1).
(3) Where the liquidator informs the secured creditor of a person willing to buy the secured asset under subregulation (2), the secured creditor shall sell the asset to such person.
(4) If the liquidator does not inform the secured creditor in accordance with sub-regulation (2), or the person does not buy the secured asset in accordance with sub-regulation (2), the secured creditor may realize the secured asset in the manner it deems fit, but at least at the price intimated under sub-regulation (1).
(5) Where the secured asset is realized under sub-regulation (3), the secured creditor shall bear the cost of identification of the buyer under sub-regulation (2).
(7) The provisions of this Regulation shall not apply if the secured creditor enforces his security interest under the Securitization and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest Act, 2002 (54 of 2002) or the Recovery of Debts and Bankruptcy Act, 1993 (51 of 1993).
A secured creditor shall not sell or transfer an asset, which is subject to security interest, to any person, who is not eligible under the Code to submit a resolution plan for insolvency resolution of the corporate debtor.
(1) A liquidator may assign or transfer a not readily realisable asset through a transparent process, in consultation with the stakeholders’ consultation committee in accordance with regulation 31A, for a consideration to any person, who is eligible to submit a resolution plan for insolvency resolution of the corporate debtor.
Explanation.-For the purposes of this sub-regulation, “not readily realisable asset” means any asset included in the liquidation estate which could not be sold through available options and includes contingentor disputed assets and assets underlying proceedings for preferential, undervalued, extortionate credit and fraudulent transactions referred to in sections43 to 51 and section 66 of the Code.