(2) The liquidator shall hold the liquidation estate as a fiduciary for the benefit of all the creditors.
(3) Subject to sub-section (4), the liquidation estate shall comprise all liquidation estate assets which shall include the following:—
(a) any assets over which the corporate debtor has ownership rights, including all rights and interests therein as evidenced in the balance sheet of the corporate debtor or an information utility or records in the registry or any depository recording securities of the corporate debtor or by any other means as may be specified by the Board, including shares held in any subsidiary of the corporate debtor;
(b) assets that may or may not be in possession of the corporate debtor including but not limited to encumbered assets;
(c) tangible assets, whether movable or immovable;
(d) intangible assets including but not limited to intellectual property, securities (including shares held in a subsidiary of the corporate debtor) and financial instruments, insurance policies, contractual rights;
(e) assets subject to the determination of ownership by the court or authority;
(f) any assets or their value recovered through proceedings for avoidance of transactions in accordance with this Chapter;
(g) any asset of the corporate debtor in respect of which a secured creditor has relinquished security interest;
(h) any other property belonging to or vested in the corporate debtor at the insolvency commencement date; and
(i) all proceeds of liquidation as and when they are realised.
(4) The following shall not be included in the liquidation estate assets and shall not be used for recovery in the liquidation:—
(a) assets owned by a third party which are in possession of the corporate debtor, including—
(i) assets held in trust for any third party;
(ii) bailment contracts;
(iii) all sums due to any workman or employee from the provident fund, the pension fund and the gratuity fund;
(iv) other contractual arrangements which do not stipulate transfer of title but only use of the assets; and
(v) such other assets as may be notified by the Central Government in consultation with any financial sector regulator;
(b) assets in security collateral held by financial services providers and are subject to netting and set-off in multi-lateral trading or clearing transactions;
(c) personal assets of any shareholder or partner of a corporate debtor as the case may be provided such assets are not held on account of avoidance transactions that may be avoided under this Chapter;
(d) assets of any Indian or foreign subsidiary of the corporate debtor; or
(e) any other assets as may be specified by the Board, including assets which could be subject to set-off on account of mutual dealings between the corporate debtor and any creditor.
2.5.32:Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India (Liquidation Process) Regulations, 2016
The liquidator may sell-
(a) an asset on a standalone basis;
(b) the assets in a slump sale;
(c) a set of assets collectively;
(d) the assets in parcels;
(e) the corporate debtor as a going concern; or
(f) the business(s) of the corporate debtor as a going concern:
Provided that where an asset is subject to security interest, it shall not be sold under any of the clauses (a) to (f) unless the security interest therein has been relinquished to the liquidation estate.
32. Manner of sale. The liquidator may (a) sell an asset on a standalone basis; or (b) sell (i) the assets in a slump sale, (ii) a set of assets collectively, or (iii) the assets in parcels.
2.5.33:Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India (Liquidation Process) Regulations, 2016
33. Mode of sale.
(a) the asset is perishable;
(b) the asset is likely to deteriorate in value significantly if not sold immediately;
(c) the asset is sold at a price higher than the reserve price of a failed auction; or
(d) the prior permission of the Adjudicating Authority has been obtained for such sale:
Provided that the liquidator shall not sell the assets, without prior permission of the Adjudicating Authority, by way of private sale to-
(a) a related party of the corporate debtor;
(b) his related party; or
(c) any professional appointed by him.
(3) The liquidator shall not proceed with the sale of an asset if he has reason to believe that there is any collusion between the buyers, or the corporate debtor’s related parties and buyers, or the creditors and the buyer, and shall submit a report to the Adjudicating Authority in this regard, seeking appropriate orders against the colluding parties.
2.5.34:Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India (Liquidation Process) Regulations, 2016
34. Asset memorandum.
(1) On forming the liquidation estate under section 36, the liquidator shall prepare an asset memorandum in accordance with this Regulation within seventy-five days from the liquidation commencement date.
(2) The asset memorandum shall provide the following details in respect of the assets which are intended to be realized by way of sale-
(a) value of the asset, valued in accordance with Regulation 35;
(b) value of set of assets or assets in parcels or assets in a slump sale, as the case may be, valued in accordance with Regulation 35, if intended to be sold as specified in Regulation 32(b);
(c) intended manner of sale in accordance with Regulation 32, and reasons for the same;
(d) the intended mode of sale and reasons for the same in accordance with Regulation 33;
(e) expected amount of realization from sale; and
(f) any other information that may be relevant for the sale of the asset.
(3) The asset memorandum shall provide the following details in respect of each of the assets other than those referred to in sub-regulation (2)-
(a) value of the asset;
(b) intended manner and mode of realization, and reasons for the same;
(c) expected amount of realization; and
(d) any other information that may be relevant for the realization of the asset.
(4) The liquidator shall file the asset memorandum along with the preliminary report to the Adjudicating Authority.
(5) The asset memorandum shall not be accessible to any person during the course of liquidation, unless permitted by the Adjudicating Authority.
2.5.35:Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India (Liquidation Process) Regulations, 2016
(1) Where the valuation has been conducted under regulation 35 of the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India (Insolvency Resolution Process for Corporate Persons) Regulations, 2016 or regulation 34 of the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India (Fast Track Insolvency Resolution Process for Corporate Persons) Regulations, 2017, as the case may be, the liquidator shall consider the average of the estimates of the values arrived under those provisions for the purposes of valuations under these regulations.
(2) In cases not covered under sub-regulation (1), the liquidator shall within seven days of the liquidation commencement date, appoint two registered valuers to determine the realisable value of the assets or businesses under clauses (a) to (f) of regulation 32 of the corporate debtor:
Provided that the following persons shall not be appointed as registered valuers, namely:-
(a) a relative of the liquidator;
(b) a related party of the corporate debtor;
(c) an auditor of the corporate debtor at any time during the five years preceding the insolvency commencement date; or
(d) a partner or director of the insolvency professional entity of which the liquidator is a partner or director.
(3) The Registered Valuers appointed under sub-regulation (2) shall independently submit to the liquidator the estimates of realisable value of the assets or businesses, as the case may be, computed in accordance with the Companies (Registered Valuers and Valuation) Rules, 2017, after physical verification of the assets of the corporate debtor.
(4) The average of two estimates received under sub-regulation (3) shall be taken as the value of the assets or businesses.
35. Valuation of assets intended to be sold. (1) The liquidator shall appoint at least two registered valuers to value the assets as required under Regulation 34(2). (2) The provisions of Regulation 7 shall apply mutatis mutandis to registered valuers appointed under subregulation (1). (3) The registered valuers appointed under sub-regulation (1) shall independently submit to the liquidator the estimates of the realizable value of the asset(s) computed in accordance with internationally accepted valuation standards, after physical verification of the assets of the corporate debtor. (4) The average of the estimates received under sub-regulation (3) shall be considered the value of the assets.
IBC-Enforcement Notification [S.O.3687(E)] dated 09/12/2016
The Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India (Liquidation Process) (Amendment) Regulations, 2018 w.e.f., 01.04.2018
Schedule I-Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India (Liquidation Process) Regulations, 2016
MODE OF SALE
(Under Regulation 33 of the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India (Liquidation Process) Regulations, 2016)
(1) Where an asset is to be sold through auction, a liquidator shall do so the in the manner specified herein.
(2) The liquidator shall prepare a marketing strategy, with the help of marketing professionals, if required, for sale of the asset. The strategy may include-
(a) releasing advertisements;
(b) preparing information sheets for the asset;
(c) preparing a notice of sale; and
(d) liaising with agents.
(3) The liquidator shall prepare terms and conditions of sale, including reserve price, earnest money deposit as well as pre-bid qualifications, if any.
(4) The reserve price shall be the value of the asset arrived at in accordance with Regulation 34. Such valuation shall not be more than six months old. However, in the event that an auction fails at such price, the liquidator may reduce the reserve price up to seventy-five per cent of such value to conduct subsequent auctions.
(5) The liquidator shall make a public announcement of an auction in the manner specified in Regulation 12(3);
Provided that the liquidator may apply to Adjudicating Authority to dispense with the requirement of Regulation 12(3)(a) keeping in view the value of the asset intended to be sold by auction.
(6) The liquidator shall provide all assistance necessary for the conduct of due diligence by interested buyers.
(7) The liquidator shall sell the assets through an electronic auction on an online portal, if any, designated by the Board, where the interested buyers can register, bid and receive confirmation of the acceptance of their bid online.
(8) If the liquidator is of the opinion that a physical auction is likely to maximize the realization from the sale of assets and is in the best interests of the creditors, he may sell assets through a physical auction after obtaining the permission of the Adjudicating Authority. The liquidator may engage the services of qualified professional auctioneers specializing in auctioning such assets for this purpose.
(9) An auction shall be transparent, and the highest bid at any given point shall be visible to the other bidders.
(10) If the liquidator is of the opinion that an auction where bid amounts are not visible is likely to maximize realizations from the sale of assets and is in the best interests of the creditors, he may apply, in writing, to the Adjudicating Authority for its permission to conduct an auction in such manner.
(11) If required, the liquidator may conduct multiple rounds of auctions to maximize the realization from the sale of the assets, and to promote the best interests of the creditors.
(12) On the close of the auction, the highest bidder shall be invited to provide balance sale consideration within fifteen days of the date when he is invited to provide the balance sale consideration. On payment of the full amount, the sale shall stand completed, the liquidator shall execute certificate of sale or sale deed to transfer such assets and the assets shall be delivered to him in the manner specified in the terms of sale.
2. PRIVATE SALE
(1) Where an asset is to be sold through private sale, a liquidator shall conduct the sale in the manner specified herein.
(2) The liquidator shall prepare a strategy to approach interested buyers for assets to be sold by private sale.
(3) Private sale may be conducted through directly liaising with potential buyers or their agents, through retail shops, or through any other means that is likely to maximize the realizations from the sale of assets.
(4) The sale shall stand completed in accordance with the terms of sale.
(5) Thereafter, the assets shall be delivered to the purchaser, on receipt of full consideration for the assets, in the manner specified in the terms of sale.