valid as on 22/10/2020

Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 28
Effective from 01.04.2014, fontsf in blue is effective from 01.04.2018

Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 28

Investments in Associates and Joint Ventures
(This Indian Accounting Standard includes paragraphs set in bold type and plain type, which have equal authority. Paragraphs in bold type indicate the main principles.)

Objective
1 The objective of this Standard is to prescribe the accounting for investments in associates and to set out the requirements for the application of the equity method when accounting for investments in associates and joint ventures.

Scope
2 This Standard shall be applied by all entities that are investors with joint control of, or significant influence over, an investee.

Definitions
3 The following terms are used in this Standard with the meanings specified:

An associate is an entity over which the investor has significant influence.

Consolidated financial statements are the financial statements of a group in which assets, liabilities, equity, income, expenses and cash flows of the parent and its subsidiaries are presented as those of a single economic entity.

The equity method is a method of accounting whereby the investment is initially recognised at cost and adjusted thereafter for the post-acquisition change in the investor’s share of the investee’s net assets. The investor’s profit or loss includes its share of the investee’s profit or loss and the investor’s other comprehensive income includes its share of the investee’s other comprehensive income.

A joint arrangement is an arrangement of which two or more parties have joint control.

Joint control is the contractually agreed sharing of control of an arrangement, which exists only when decisions about the relevant activities require the unanimous consent of the parties sharing control.

A joint venture is a joint arrangement whereby the parties that have joint control of the arrangement have rights to the net assets of the arrangement.

A joint venturer is a party to a joint venture that has joint control of that joint venture.

Significant influence is the power to participate in the financial and operating policy decisions of the investee but is not control or joint control of those policies.

4 The following terms are defined in paragraph 4 of Ind AS 27, Separate Financial Statements, and in Appendix A of Ind AS 110, Consolidated Financial Statements, and are used in this Standard with the meanings specified in the Ind ASs in which they are defined:

• control of an investee
• group
• parent
• separate financial statements
• subsidiary.

Significant influence
5 If an entity holds, directly or indirectly (eg through subsidiaries), 20 per cent or more of the voting power of the investee, it is presumed that the entity has significant influence, unless it can be clearly demonstrated that this is not the case. Conversely, if the entity holds, directly or indirectly (eg through subsidiaries), less than 20 per cent of the voting power of the investee, it is presumed that the entity does not have significant influence, unless such influence can be clearly demonstrated. A substantial or majority ownership by another investor does not necessarily preclude an entity from having significant influence.

6 The existence of significant influence by an entity is usually evidenced in one or more of the following ways:

(a) representation on the board of directors or equivalent governing body of the investee;
(b) participation in policy-making processes, including participation in decisions about dividends or other distributions;

(c) material transactions between the entity and its investee;
(d) interchange of managerial personnel; or
(e) provision of essential technical information.

7 An entity may own share warrants, share call options, debt or equity instruments that are convertible into ordinary shares, or other similar instruments that have the potential, if exercised or converted, to give the entity additional voting power or to reduce another party’s voting power over the financial and operating policies of another entity (ie potential voting rights). The existence and effect of potential voting rights that are currently exercisable or convertible, including potential voting rights held by other entities, are considered when assessing whether an entity has significant influence. Potential voting rights are not currently exercisable or convertible when, for example, they cannot be exercised or converted until a future date or until the occurrence of a future event.

8 In assessing whether potential voting rights contribute to significant influence, the entity examines all facts and circumstances (including the terms of exercise of the potential voting rights and any other contractual arrangements whether considered individually or in combination) that affect potential rights, except the intentions of management and the financial ability to exercise or convert those potential rights.

9 An entity loses significant influence over an investee when it loses the power to participate in the financial and operating policy decisions of that investee. The loss of significant influence can occur with or without a change in absolute or relative ownership levels. It could occur, for example, when an associate becomes subject to the control of a Government, court, administrator or regulator. It could also occur as a result of a contractual arrangement.

Equity method
10 Under the equity method, on initial recognition the investment in an associate or a joint venture is recognised at cost, and the carrying amount is increased or decreased to recognise the investor’s share of the profit or loss of the investee after the date of acquisition. The investor’s share of the investee’s profit or loss is recognised in the investor’s profit or loss. Distributions received from an investee reduce the carrying amount of the investment. Adjustments to the carrying amount may also be necessary for changes in the investor’s proportionate interest in the investee arising from changes in the investee’s other comprehensive income. Such changes include those arising from the revaluation of property, plant and equipment and from foreign exchange translation differences. The investor’s share of those changes is recognised in the investor’s other comprehensive income (see Ind AS 1, Presentation of Financial Statements).

11 The recognition of income on the basis of distributions received may not be an adequate measure of the income earned by an investor on an investment in an associate or a joint venture because the distributions received may bear little relation to the performance of the associate or joint venture. Because the investor has joint control of, or
significant influence over, the investee, the investor has an interest in the associate’s or joint venture’s performance and, as a result, the return on its investment. The investor accounts for this interest by extending the scope of its financial statements to include its share of the profit or loss of such an investee. As a result, application of the equity method provides more informative reporting of the investor’s net assets and profit or loss.

12 When potential voting rights or other derivatives containing potential voting rights exist, an entity’s interest in an associate or a joint venture is determined solely on the basis of existing ownership interests and does not reflect the possible exercise or conversion of potential voting rights and other derivative instruments, unless paragraph 13 applies.

13 In some circumstances, an entity has, in substance, an existing ownership as a result of a transaction that currently gives it access to the returns associated with an ownership interest. In such circumstances, the proportion allocated to the entity is determined by taking into account the eventual exercise of those potential voting rights and other derivative instruments that currently give the entity access to the returns.

14 Ind AS 109, Financial Instruments, does not apply to interests in associates and joint ventures that are accounted for using the equity method. When instruments containing potential voting rights in substance currently give access to the returns associated with an ownership interest in an associate or a joint venture, the instruments are not subject to Ind AS 109. In all other cases, instruments containing potential voting rights in an associate or a joint venture are accounted for in accordance with Ind AS 109.

An entity also applies Ind AS 109 to other financial instruments in an associate or joint venture to which the equity method is not applied. These include long-term interests that, in substance, form part of the entity’s net investment in an associate or joint venture (see paragraph 38). An entity applies Ind AS 109 to such long-term interests before it applies paragraph 38 and paragraphs 40–43 of this Standard. In applying Ind AS 109, the entity does not take account of any adjustments to the carrying amount of long-term interests that arise from applying this Standard.

15 Unless an investment, or a portion of an investment, in an associate or a joint venture is classified as held for sale in accordance with Ind AS 105, Non-current Assets Held for Sale and Discontinued Operations, the investment, or any retained interest in the investment not classified as held for sale, shall be classified as a non-current asset.

Application of the equity method
16 An entity with joint control of, or significant influence over, an investee shall account for its investment in an associate or a joint venture using the equity method except when that investment qualifies for exemption in accordance with paragraphs 17–19.

Exemptions from applying the equity method
17 An entity need not apply the equity method to its investment in an associate or a joint venture if the entity is a parent that is exempt from preparing consolidated financial statements by the scope exception in paragraph 4(a) of Ind AS 110 or if all the following apply:

(a) The entity is a wholly-owned subsidiary, or is a partially-owned subsidiary of another entity and its other owners, including those not otherwise entitled to vote, have been informed about, and do not object to, the entity not applying the equity method.

(b) The entity’s debt or equity instruments are not traded in a public market (a domestic or foreign stock exchange or an over-the-counter market, including local and regional markets).

(c) The entity did not file, nor is it in the process of filing, its financial statements with a securities commission or other regulatory organisation, for the purpose of issuing any class of instruments in a public market.

(d) The ultimate or any intermediate parent of the entity produces consolidated financial statements available for public use that comply with Ind ASs.

The ultimate or any intermediate parent of the entity produces financial statements available for public use that comply with Ind ASs, in which subsidiaries are consolidated or are measured at fair value through profit or loss in accordance with Ind AS 110.

When an investment in an associate or a joint venture is held by, or is held indirectly through, an entity that is a venture capital organisation, or a mutual fund, unit trust and similar entities including investment-linked insurance funds, the entity may elect to measure that investment at fair value through profit or loss in accordance with Ind AS 109. An entity shall make this election separately for each associate or joint venture, at initial recognition of the associate or joint venture.

18 When an investment in an associate or a joint venture is held by, or is held indirectly through, an entity that is a venture capital organisation, or a mutual fund, unit trust and similar entities including investment-linked insurance funds, the entity may elect to measure investments in those associates and joint ventures at fair value through profit or loss in accordance with Ind AS 109.

19 When an entity has an investment in an associate, a portion of which is held indirectly through a venture capital organisation, or a mutual fund, unit trust and similar entities including investment-linked insurance funds, the entity may elect to measure that portion of the investment in the associate at fair value through profit or loss in accordance with Ind AS 109 regardless of whether the venture capital organisation has significant influence over that portion of the investment. If the entity makes that election, the entity shall apply the equity method to any remaining portion of its investment in an associate that is not held through a venture capital organisation.

Classification as held for sale
20 An entity shall apply Ind AS 105 to an investment, or a portion of an investment, in an associate or a joint venture that meets the criteria to be classified as held for sale. Any retained portion of an investment in an associate or a joint venture that has not been classified as held for sale shall be accounted for using the equity method until disposal of the portion that is classified as held for sale takes place. After the disposal takes place, an entity shall account for any retained interest in the associate or joint venture in accordance with Ind AS 109 unless the retained interest continues to be an associate or a joint venture, in which case the entity uses the equity method.

21 When an investment, or a portion of an investment, in an associate or a joint venture previously classified as held for sale no longer meets the criteria to be so classified, it shall be accounted for using the equity method retrospectively as from the date of its classification as held for sale. Financial statements for the periods since classification as held for sale shall be amended accordingly.

Discontinuing the use of the equity method
22 An entity shall discontinue the use of the equity method from the date when its investment ceases to be an associate or a joint venture as follows:

(a) If the investment becomes a subsidiary, the entity shall account for its investment in accordance with Ind AS 103, Business Combinations, and Ind AS 110.
(b) If the retained interest in the former associate or joint venture is a financial asset, the entity shall measure the retained interest at fair value. The fair value of the retained interest shall be regarded as its fair value on initial recognition as a financial asset in accordance with Ind AS 109. The entity shall recognise in profit or loss any difference between:

(i) the fair value of any retained interest and any proceeds from disposing of a part interest in the associate or joint venture; and
(ii) the carrying amount of the investment at the date the equity method was discontinued.

(c) When an entity discontinues the use of the equity method, the entity shall account for all amounts previously recognised in other comprehensive income in relation to that investment on the same basis as would have been required if the investee had directly disposed of the related assets or liabilities.

23 Therefore, if a gain or loss previously recognised in other comprehensive income by the investee would be reclassified to profit or loss on the disposal of the related assets or liabilities, the entity reclassifies the gain or loss from equity to profit or loss (as a reclassification adjustment) when the equity method is discontinued. For example, if an associate or a joint venture has cumulative exchange differences relating to a foreign operation and the entity discontinues the use of the equity method, the entity shall reclassify to profit or loss the gain or loss that had previously been recognised in other comprehensive income in relation to the foreign operation.

24 If an investment in an associate becomes an investment in a joint venture or an investment in a joint venture becomes an investment in an associate, the entity continues to apply the equity method and does not remeasure the retained interest.

Changes in ownership interest
25 If an entity’s ownership interest in an associate or a joint venture is reduced, but the entity continues to apply the equity method, the entity shall reclassify to profit or loss the proportion of the gain or loss that had previously been recognised in other comprehensive income relating to that reduction in ownership interest if that gain or loss would be required to be reclassified to profit or loss on the disposal of the related assets or liabilities.

Equity method procedures
26 Many of the procedures that are appropriate for the application of the equity method are similar to the consolidation procedures described in Ind AS 110. Furthermore, the concepts underlying the procedures used in accounting for the acquisition of a subsidiary are also adopted in accounting for the acquisition of an investment in an associate or a joint venture.

27 A group’s share in an associate or a joint venture is the aggregate of the holdings in that associate or joint venture by the parent and its subsidiaries. The holdings of the group’s other associates or joint ventures are ignored for this purpose. When an associate or a joint venture has subsidiaries, associates or joint ventures, the profit or loss, other comprehensive income and net assets taken into account in applying the equity method are those recognised in the associate’s or joint venture’s financial statements (including the associate’s or joint venture’s share of the profit or loss, other comprehensive income and net assets of its associates and joint ventures), after any adjustments necessary to give effect to uniform accounting policies (see paragraphs 35 and 36).

A group’s share in an associate or a joint venture is the aggregate of the holdings in that associate or joint venture by the parent and its subsidiaries. The holdings of the group’s other associates or joint ventures are ignored for this purpose. When an associate or a joint venture has subsidiaries, associates or joint ventures, the profit or loss, other comprehensive income and net assets taken into account in applying the equity method are those recognised in the associate’s or joint venture’s financial statements (including the associate’s or joint venture’s share of the profit or loss,
other comprehensive income and net assets of its associates and joint ventures),
after any adjustments necessary to give effect to uniform accounting policies (see
paragraphs 35–36A).

28 Gains and losses resulting from ‘upstream’ and ‘downstream’ transactions between an entity (including its consolidated subsidiaries) and its associate or joint venture are recognised in the entity’s financial statements only to the extent of unrelated investors’ interests in the associate or joint venture. ‘Upstream’ transactions are, for example, sales of assets from an associate or a joint venture to the investor. ‘Downstream’ transactions are, for example, sales or contributions of assets from the investor to its associate or its joint venture. The investor’s share in the associate’s or joint venture’s gains or losses resulting from these transactions is eliminated.

29 When downstream transactions provide evidence of a reduction in the net realisable value of the assets to be sold or contributed, or of an impairment loss of those assets, those losses shall be recognised in full by the investor. When upstream transactions provide evidence of a reduction in the net realisable value of the assets to be purchased or of an impairment loss of those assets, the investor shall recognise its share in those losses.

30 The contribution of a non-monetary asset to an associate or a joint venture in exchange for an equity interest in the associate or joint venture shall be accounted for in accordance with paragraph 28, except when the contribution lacks commercial substance, as that term is described in Ind AS 16, Property, Plant and Equipment. If such a contribution lacks commercial substance, the gain or loss is regarded as unrealised and is not recognised unless paragraph 31 also applies. Such unrealised gains and losses shall be eliminated against the investment accounted for using the equity method and shall not be presented as deferred gains or losses in the entity’s consolidated balance sheet or in the entity’s balance sheet in which investments are accounted for using the equity method.

31 If, in addition to receiving an equity interest in an associate or a joint venture, an entity receives monetary or nonmonetary assets, the entity recognises in full in profit or loss the portion of the gain or loss on the non-monetary contribution relating to the monetary or non-monetary assets received.

32 An investment is accounted for using the equity method from the date on which it becomes an associate or a joint venture. On acquisition of the investment, any difference between the cost of the investment and the entity’s share of the net fair value of the investee’s identifiable assets and liabilities is accounted for as follows:

(a) Goodwill relating to an associate or a joint venture is included in the carrying amount of the investment. Amortisation of that goodwill is not permitted.
(b) Any excess of the entity’s share of the net fair value of the investee’s identifiable assets and liabilities over the cost of the investment is recognised directly in equity as capital reserve in the period in which the investment is acquired.

Appropriate adjustments to the entity’s share of the associate’s or joint venture’s profit or loss after acquisition are made in order to account, for example, for depreciation of the depreciable assets based on their fair values at the acquisition date. Similarly, appropriate adjustments to the entity’s share of the associate’s or joint venture’s profit or loss after acquisition are made for impairment losses such as for goodwill or property, plant and equipment.

33 The most recent available financial statements of the associate or joint venture are used by the entity in applying the equity method. When the end of the reporting period of the entity is different from that of the associate or joint venture, the associate or joint venture prepares, for the use of the entity, financial statements as of the same date as the financial statements of the entity unless it is impracticable to do so.

34 When, in accordance with paragraph 33, the financial statements of an associate or a joint venture used in applying the equity method are prepared as of a date different from that used by the entity, adjustments shall be made for the effects of significant transactions or events that occur between that date and the date of the entity’s financial statements. In any case, the difference between the end of the reporting period of the associate or joint venture and that of the entity shall be no more than three months. The length of the reporting periods and any difference between the ends of the reporting periods shall be the same from period to period.

35 The entity’s financial statements shall be prepared using uniform accounting policies for like transactions and events in similar circumstances unless, in case of an associate, it is impracticable to do so.

36 If an associate or a joint venture uses accounting policies other than those of the entity for like transactions and events in similar circumstances, adjustments shall be made to make the associate’s or joint venture’s accounting policies conform to those of the entity when the associate’s or joint venture’s financial statements are used by the entity in applying the equity method.

Except as described in paragraph 36A, if an associate or a joint venture uses accounting policies other than those of the entity for like transactions and events in similar circumstances, adjustments shall be made to make the associate’s or joint venture’s accounting policies conform to those of the entity when the associate’s or
joint venture’s financial statements are used by the entity in applying the equity method.

Notwithstanding the requirement in paragraph 36, if an entity that is not itself an investment entity has an interest in an associate or joint venture that is an investment entity, the entity may, when applying the equity method, elect to retain the fair value measurement applied by that investment entity associate or joint venture to the investment entity associate’s or joint venture’s interests in subsidiaries. This election is made separately for each investment entity associate or joint venture, at the later of the date on which (a) the investment entity associate or joint venture is initially recognised; (b) the associate or joint venture becomes an investment entity; and (c) the investment entity associate or joint venture first becomes a parent.

Notwithstanding the requirement in paragraph 36, if an entity that is not itself an
investment entity has an interest in an associate or joint venture that is an investment entity, the entity may, when applying the equity method, retain the fair value measurement applied by that investment entity associate or joint venture to the investment entity associate’s or joint venture’s interests in subsidiaries.

37 If an associate or a joint venture has outstanding cumulative preference shares that are held by parties other than the entity and are classified as equity, the entity computes its share of profit or loss after adjusting for the dividends on such shares, whether or not the dividends have been declared.

38 If an entity’s share of losses of an associate or a joint venture equals or exceeds its interest in the associate or joint venture, the entity discontinues recognising its share of further losses. The interest in an associate or a joint venture is the carrying amount of the investment in the associate or joint venture determined using the equity method together with any long-term interests that, in substance, form part of the entity’s net investment in the associate or joint venture. For example, an item for which settlement is neither planned nor likely to occur in the foreseeable future is, in substance, an extension of the entity’s investment in that associate or joint venture. Such items may include preference shares and long-term receivables or loans, but do not include trade receivables, trade payables or any long-term receivables for which adequate collateral exists, such as secured loans. Losses recognised using the equity method in excess of the entity’s investment in ordinary shares are applied to the other components of the entity’s interest in an associate or a joint venture in the reverse order of their seniority (ie priority in liquidation).

39 After the entity’s interest is reduced to zero, additional losses are provided for, and a liability is recognised, only to the extent that the entity has incurred legal or constructive obligations or made payments on behalf of the associate or joint venture. If the associate or joint venture subsequently reports profits, the entity resumes recognising its share of those profits only after its share of the profits equals the share of losses not recognised.

Impairment losses
40 After application of the equity method, including recognising the associate’s or joint venture’s losses in accordance with paragraph 38, the entity applies paragraphs 41A-41Cto determine whether it isany objective evidence that its net investment in the associate or joint venture is impaired.

41A The net investment in an associate or joint venture is impaired and impairment losses are incurred if, and only if, there is objective evidence of impairment as a result of one or more events that occurred after the initial recognition of the net investment (a ‘loss event’) and that loss event (or events) has an impact on the estimated future cash flows from the net investment that can be reliably estimated. It may not be possible to identify a single, discrete event that caused the impairment. Rather the combined effect of several events may have caused the impairment. Losses expected as a result of future events, no matter how likely, are not recognised. Objective evidence that the net investment is impaired includes observable data that comes to the attention of the entity about the following loss events:

(a) significant financial difficulty of the associate or joint venture;
(b) a breach of contract, such as a default or delinquency in payments by the associate or joint venture;
(c) the entity, for economic or legal reasons relating to its associate’s or joint venture’s financial difficulty, granting to the associate or joint venture a concession that the entity would not otherwise consider;
(d) it becoming probable that the associate or joint venture will enter bankruptcy or other financial reorganisation; or
(e) the disappearance of an active market for the net investment because of financial difficulties of the associate or joint venture.

41B The disappearance of an active market because the associate’s or joint venture’s equity or financial instruments are no longer publicly traded is not evidence of impairment. A downgrade of an associate’s or joint venture’s credit rating or a decline in the fair value of the associate or joint venture, is not of itself, evidence of impairment, although it may be evidence of impairment when considered with other available information.

41C In addition to the types of events in paragraph 41A, objective evidence of impairment for the net investment in the equity instruments of the associate or joint venture includes information about significant changes with an adverse effect that have taken place in the technological, market, economic or legal environment in which the associate or joint venture operates, and indicates that the cost of the investment in the equity instrument may not be recovered. A significant or prolonged decline in the fair value of an investment in an equity instrument below its cost is also objective evidence of impairment.

42 Because goodwill that forms part of the carrying amount of the net investment in an associate or a joint venture is not separately recognised, it is not tested for impairment separately by applying the requirements for impairment testing goodwill in Ind AS 36, Impairment of Assets. Instead, the entire carrying amount of the investment is tested for impairment in accordance with Ind AS 36 as a single asset, by comparing its recoverable
amount (higher of value in use and fair value less costs to sell) with its carrying amount, whenever application of paragraphs 41A-41C indicates that the net investment may be impaired. An impairment loss recognised in those circumstances is not allocated to any asset, including goodwill, that forms part of the carrying amount of the net investment in the associate or joint venture. Accordingly, any reversal of that impairment loss is recognised in accordance with Ind AS 36 to the extent that the recoverable amount of the net investment subsequently increases. In determining the value in use of the net investment, an entity estimates:

(a) its share of the present value of the estimated future cash flows expected to be generated by the associate or joint venture, including the cash flows from the operations of the associate or joint venture and the proceeds from the ultimate disposal of the investment; or
(b) the present value of the estimated future cash flows expected to arise from dividends to be received from the investment and from its ultimate disposal.

Using appropriate assumptions, both methods give the same result.

43 The recoverable amount of an investment in an associate or a joint venture shall be assessed for each associate or joint venture, unless the associate or joint venture does not generate cash inflows from continuing use that are largely independent of those from other assets of the entity.

Separate financial statements
44 An investment in an associate or a joint venture shall be accounted for in the entity’s separate financial statements in accordance with paragraph 10 of Ind AS 27.

45 *

45A *

45B *

45C *

45D *

45E Annual Improvements to Ind AS – Amendments in Ind AS 112 and 28, amended paragraphs 18 and 36A. An entity shall apply those amendments retrospectively in accordance with Ind AS 8 for annual periods beginning on or after 1st April, 2018.

45F *

45G Long-term Interests in Associates and Joint Ventures, added paragraph 14A and deleted paragraph 41. An entity shall apply those amendments retrospectively in accordance with Ind AS 8 for annual reporting periods beginning on or after 1 April, 2019, except as specified in paragraphs 45H–K

45H An entity that first applies the amendments in paragraph 45G at the same time it first applies Ind AS 109 shall apply the transition requirements in Ind AS 109 to the long-term interests described in paragraph 14A.

45I An entity that first applies the amendments in paragraph 45G after it first applies Ind AS 109 shall apply the transition requirements in Ind AS 109 necessary for applying the requirements set out in paragraph 14A to long-term interests. For that purpose, references to the date of initial application in Ind AS 109 shall be read as referring to the beginning of the annual reporting period in which the entity first applies the amendments (the date of initial application of the amendments). The entity is not required to restate prior periods to reflect the application of the amendments. The entity may restate prior periods only if it is possible without the use of hindsight.

45J *

45K If an entity does not restate prior periods applying paragraph 45I , at the date of initial application of the amendments it shall recognise in the opening retained earnings (or other component of equity, as appropriate) any difference between:

(a) the previous carrying amount of long-term interests described in paragraph 14A at that date; and
(b) the carrying amount of those long-term interests at that date.

Appendix A
Illustrative Example-Long-term Interests in Associates and Joint Ventures

This example portrays a hypothetical situation illustrating how an entity (investor) accounts for long-term interests that, in substance, form part of the entity’s net investment in an associate (long-term interests) applying Ind AS 109 and Ind AS 28 based on the assumptions presented. The entity applies Ind AS 109 in accounting for long-term interests. The entity applies Ind AS 28 to its net investment in the associate, which includes long-term interests. The analysis in this example is not intended to represent the only manner in which the requirements in Ind AS 28 could be applied.

Assumptions
The investor has the following three types of interests in the associate:

(a) O Shares—ordinary shares representing a 40% ownership interest to which the investor applies the equity method. This interest is the least senior of the three interests, based on their relative priority in liquidation.

(b) P Shares—non-cumulative preference shares that form part of the net investment in the associate and that the investor measures at fair value through profit or loss applying Ind AS 109.

(c) LT Loan—a long-term loan that forms part of the net investment in the associate and that the investor measures at amortised cost applying Ind AS 109, with a stated interest rate and an effective interest rate of 5% a year. The associate makes interest-only payments to the investor each year. The LT Loan is the most senior of the three interests.

The LT Loan is not an originated credit-impaired loan. Throughout the years illustrated, there has not been any objective evidence that the net investment in the associate is impaired applying Ind AS 28, nor does the LT Loan become credit-impaired applying Ind AS 109.

The associate does not have any outstanding cumulative preference shares classified as equity, as described in paragraph 37 of Ind AS 28. Throughout the years illustrated, the associate neither declares nor pays dividends on O Shares or P Shares.

The investor has not incurred any legal or constructive obligations, nor made payments on behalf of the associate, as described in paragraph 39 of Ind AS 28. Accordingly, the investor does not recognise its share of the associate’s losses once the carrying amount of its net investment in the associate is reduced to zero.

The amount of the investor’s initial investment in O Shares is ₹200, in P Shares is ₹100 and in the LT Loan is ₹100. On acquisition of the investment, the cost of the investment equals the investor’s share of the net fair value of the associate’s identifiable assets and liabilities.

This table summarises the carrying amount at the end of each year for P Shares and the LT Loan applying Ind AS 109 but before applying Ind AS 28, and the associate’s profit (loss) for each year. The amounts for the LT Loan are shown net of the loss allowance.

At the end ofP Shares applying Ind AS 109 (fair value)LT Loan applying Ind AS 109 (amortised cost)Profit (Loss) of the associate
Year 1₹110₹90₹50
Year 2₹90₹70₹(200)
Year 3₹50₹50₹(500)
Year 4₹40₹50₹(150)
Year 5₹60₹60-
Year 6₹80₹70₹500
Year 7₹110₹90₹500

*Refer Appendix 1 

Analysis
Year 1
The investor recognises the following in Year 1:

Investments in the associate:
DR. O Shares                                                                                                        ₹200
DR. P Shares                                                                                                        ₹100
DR. LT Loan                                                                                                          ₹100
CR. Cash                                                                                                                                        ₹400
To recognise the initial investment in the associate
DR. P Shares                                                                                                          ₹10
CR. Profit or loss                                                                                                                           ₹10
To recognise the change in fair value (₹110 − ₹100)
DR. Profit or loss                                                                                                  ₹10
CR. Loss allowance (LT Loan)                                                                                                  ₹10
To recognise an increase in the loss allowance (₹90 − ₹100)
DR. O Shares                                                                                                          ₹20
CR. Profit or loss                                                                                                                           ₹20
To recognise the investor’s share of the associate’s profit (₹50 × 40%)

At the end of Year 1, the carrying amount of O Shares is ₹220, P Shares is ₹110 and the LT Loan (net of loss allowance) is ₹90.

Year 2
The investor recognises the following in Year 2:
DR. Profit or loss                                                                                                  ₹20
CR. P Shares                                                                                                                                   ₹20
To recognise the change in fair value (₹90 − ₹110)
DR. Profit or loss                                                                                                  ₹20
CR. Loss allowance (LT Loan)                                                                                                  ₹20
To recognise an increase in the loss allowance (₹70 – ₹90)
DR. Profit or loss                                                                                                  ₹80
CR. O Shares                                                                                                                                   ₹80
To recognise the investor’s share of the associate’s loss (₹200 × 40%)

At the end of Year 2, the carrying amount of O Shares is ₹140, P Shares is ₹90 and the LT Loan (net of loss allowance) is ₹70.

Year 3
Applying paragraph 14A of Ind AS 28, the investor applies Ind AS 109 to P Shares and the LT Loan before it applies paragraph 38 of Ind AS 28. Accordingly, the investor recognises the following in Year 3:

DR. Profit or loss                                                                                                   ₹40
CR. P Shares                                                                                                                                    ₹40
To recognise the change in fair value (₹50 − ₹90)
DR. Profit or loss                                                                                                   ₹20
CR. Loss allowance (LT Loan)                                                                                                   ₹20
To recognise an increase in the loss allowance (₹50 – ₹70)
DR. Profit or loss                                                                                                 ₹200
CR. O Shares                                                                                                                                  ₹140
CR. P Shares                                                                                                                                     ₹50
CR. LT Loan                                                                                                                                       ₹10

To recognise the investor’s share of the associate’s loss in reverse order of seniority as specified in paragraph 38 of Ind AS 28 (₹500 × 40%)

At the end of Year 3, the carrying amount of O Shares is zero, P Shares is zero and the LT Loan (net of loss allowance) is ₹40.

Year 4

Applying Ind AS 109 to its interests in the associate, the investor recognises the following in Year 4:
DR. Profit or loss                                                                                                      ₹10
CR. P Shares                                                                                                                                     ₹10
To recognise the change in fair value (₹40 − ₹50)

Recognition of the change in fair value of ₹10 in Year 4 results in the carrying amount of P Shares being negative ₹10. Consequently, the investor recognises the following to reverse a portion of the associate’s losses previously allocated to P Shares:
DR. P Shares                                                                                                              ₹10
CR. Profit or loss                                                                                                                             ₹10
To reverse a portion of the associate’s losses previously allocated to P Shares

Applying paragraph 38 of Ind AS 28, the investor limits the recognition of the associate’s losses to ₹40 because the carrying amount of its net investment in the associate is then zero. Accordingly, the investor recognises the following:
DR. Profit or loss                                                                                                     ₹40
CR. LT Loan                                                                                                                                       ₹40
To recognise the investor’s share of the associate’s loss
At the end of Year 4, the carrying amount of O Shares is zero, P Shares is zero and the LT Loan (net of loss allowance) is zero. There is also an unrecognised share of the associate’s losses of ₹30 (the investor’s share of the associate’s cumulative losses of ₹340 – ₹320 losses recognised cumulatively + ₹10 losses reversed).

Year 5
Applying Ind AS 109 to its interests in the associate, the investor recognises the following in Year 5:
DR. P Shares                                                                                                             ₹20
CR. Profit or loss                                                                                                                             ₹20
To recognise the change in fair value (₹60 − ₹40)
DR. Loss allowance (LT Loan)                                                                            ₹10
CR. Profit or loss                                                                                                                             ₹10
To recognise a decrease in the loss allowance (₹60 – ₹50)
After applying Ind AS 109 to P Shares and the LT Loan, these interests have a positive carrying amount. Consequently, the investor allocates the previously unrecognised share of the associate’s losses of ₹30 to these interests.
DR. Profit or loss                                                                                                     ₹30
CR. P Shares                                                                                                                                    ₹20
CR. LT Loan                                                                                                                                      ₹10
To recognise the previously unrecognised share of the associate’s losses

At the end of Year 5, the carrying amount of O Shares is zero, P Shares is zero and the LT Loan (net of loss allowance) is zero.

Year 6
Applying Ind AS 109 to its interests in the associate, the investor recognises the following in Year 6:
DR. P Shares                                                                                                            ₹20
CR. Profit or loss                                                                                                                         ₹20
To recognise the change in fair value (₹80 − ₹60)
DR. Loss allowance (LT Loan)                                                                           ₹10
CR. Profit or loss                                                                                                                         ₹10
To recognise a decrease in the loss allowance (₹70 – ₹60)
The investor allocates the associate’s profit to each interest in the order of seniority. The investor limits the amount of the associate’s profit it allocates to P Shares and the LT Loan to the amount of equity method losses previously allocated to those interests, which in this example is ₹60 for both interests.
DR. O Shares                                                                                                           ₹80
DR. P Shares                                                                                                           ₹60
DR. LT Loan                                                                                                             ₹60

CR. Profit or loss                                                                                                                       ₹200
To recognise the investor’s share of the associate’s profit (₹500 × 40%)
At the end of Year 6, the carrying amount of O Shares is ₹80, P Shares is ₹80 and the LT Loan
(net of loss allowance) is ₹70.

Year 7
The investor recognises the following in Year 7:

DR. P Shares                                                                                                          ₹30
CR. Profit or loss                                                                                                                         ₹30
To recognise the change in fair value (₹110 − ₹80)
DR. Loss allowance (LT Loan)                                                                        ₹20
CR. Profit or loss                                                                                                                          ₹20
To recognise a decrease in the loss allowance (₹90 – ₹70)
DR. O Shares                                                                                                      ₹200
CR. Profit or loss                                                                                                                        ₹200

To recognise the investor’s share of the associate’s profit (₹500 × 40%)
At the end of Year 7, the carrying amount of O Shares is ₹280, P Shares is ₹110 and the LT Loan (net of loss allowance) is ₹90.

Years 1–7

When recognising interest revenue on the LT Loan in each year, the investor does not take account of any adjustments to the carrying amount of the LT Loan that arose from applying Ind AS 28 (paragraph 14A of Ind AS 28). Accordingly, the investor recognises the following in each year:
DR. Cash                                                                                                                    ₹5
CR. Profit or loss                                                                                                                               ₹5
To recognise interest revenue on LT Loan based on the effective interest rate of 5%
Summary of amounts recognised in profit or loss
This table summarises the amounts recognised in the investor’s profit or loss.

Items recognised DuringImpairment (losses),
including reversals,
applying Ind AS 109
Gains (losses) of P Shares applying
Ind AS 109
Share of profit (loss) of the associate
recognised applying the equity method
Interest revenue
applying Ind AS 109
Year 1₹(10)₹10₹20₹5
Year 2₹(20)₹(20)₹(80)₹5
Year 3₹(20)₹(40)₹(200)₹5
Year 4-₹(10)₹(30)₹5
Year 5₹10₹20₹(30)₹5
Year 6₹10₹20₹200₹5
Year 7₹20₹30₹200₹5

Appendix 1
Note : This Appendix is not a part of the Indian Accounting Standard. The purpose of this Appendix is only to bring out the major differences, if any, between Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 28, Investments in Associates and Joint Ventures, and the corresponding International Accounting Standard (IAS) 28, Investments in Associates and Joint Ventures, issued by the International Accounting Standards Board.

Comparison with IAS 28, Investments in Associates and Joint Ventures
1. Paragraph 35 of Ind AS 28 requires use of uniform accounting policies, unless, in case of an associate, it is impracticable, which IAS 28 does not provide. This change has been made because the investor does not have ‘control’ over the associate, it may not be able to influence the associate to prepare additional financial statements or to follow the accounting policies that are followed by the investor.

2. Paragraph 32 (b) has been modified on the lines of Ind AS 103, Business Combinations, to transfer excess of the investor’s share of the net fair value of the investee’s identifiable assets and liabilities over the cost of investment in capital reserve whereas in IAS 28, it is recognised in profit or loss.

3. Different terminology is used, as used in existing laws, eg, the term ‘balance sheet’ is used instead of ‘Statement of financial position’.

Paragraphs 45 to 45D have not been included as these paragraphs relate to effective date and transition that are not relevant in Indian context. However, in order to maintain consistency with paragraph numbers of IAS 28, the paragraph numbers are retained in Ind AS 28.

Paragraph 41 appears as ‘deleted’ in IAS 28. In order to maintain consistency with paragraph numbers of IAS 28, the paragraph number is retained in Ind AS 28.

Paragraph 45F of IAS 28 has not been included as it refers to amendments due to issuance of IFRS 17, Insurance Contracts, for which corresponding Ind AS is under formulation. Paragraph 45J of IAS 28 related to temporary exemption from IFRS 9 in accordance with IFRS 4, Insurance Contracts, has not been included in Ind AS 28 since the said exemption has not been given under Ind AS 104. However, in order to maintain consistency with paragraph numbers of IAS 28, the paragraph number is retained in Ind AS 28.

 

Substituted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Second Amendment Rules, 2019 dated 30.03.2019. To view the Notification, Click Here.
Substituted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2016, GSR 365(E) dated 30.03.2016. To view the notification,Click Here
Substituted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting
Standards) Amendment Rules, 2018 dated 28.03.2018 effective from 01.04.2018. To view the notification,Click Here
Substituted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2016, GSR 365(E) dated 30.03.2016. To view the notification,Click Here
Substituted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2016, GSR 365(E) dated 30.03.2016. To view the notification,Click Here
Substituted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting
Standards) Amendment Rules, 2018 dated 28.03.2018 effective from 01.04.2018. To view the notification,Click Here
Inserted  vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2016, GSR 365(E) dated 30.03.2016. To view the notification,Click Here
Omitted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Second Amendment Rules, 2019 dated 30.03.2019. To view the Notification, Click Here.
Inserted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2018 dated 28.03.2018 effective from 01.04.2018. To view the notification,Click Here
Inserted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2018 dated 28.03.2018 effective from 01.04.2018. To view the notification,Click Here
Inserted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Second Amendment Rules, 2019 dated 30.03.2019. To view the Notification, Click Here.
Inserted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Second Amendment Rules, 2019 dated 30.03.2019. To view the Notification, Click Here.

Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2016 [GSR 365(E)] dated 30/03/2016


The Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2018 dated 28.03.2018 w.e.f., 01.04.2018


The Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Second Amendment Rules, 2019 dated 30.03.2019


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