valid as on 02/06/2020

Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 18
Effective from 01.04.2014 to 31.03.2018

Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 18

Revenue

(This Indian Accounting Standard includes paragraphs set in bold type and plain type, which have equal authority. Paragraphs in bold type indicate the main principles.)

Objective

Income is defined in the Framework for the Preparation and Presentation of Financial Statements issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India as increases in economic benefits during the accounting period in the form of inflows or enhancements of assets or decreases of liabilities that result in increases in equity, other than those relating to contributions from equity participants. Income encompasses both revenue and gains. Revenue is income that arises in the course of ordinary activities of an entity and is referred to by a variety of different names including sales, fees, interest, dividends and royalties. The objective of this Standard is to prescribe the accounting treatment of revenue arising from certain types of transactions and events.

The primary issue in accounting for revenue is determining when to recognise revenue. Revenue is recognised when it is probable that future economic benefits will flow to the entity and these benefits can be measured reliably. This Standard identifies the circumstances in which these criteria will be met and, therefore, revenue will be recognised. It also provides practical guidance on the application of these criteria.

Scope

1 This Standard shall be applied in accounting for revenue arising from the following transactions and events2:

(a) the sale of goods;

(b) the rendering of services; and

(c) the use by others of entity assets yielding interest and royalties.

1A This Standard deals with recognition of interest. However, the following are dealt in accordance with Ind AS 109, Financial Instruments:

(a) measurement of interest charges for the use of cash or cash equivalents or amounts due to the entity; and

(b) recognition and measurement of dividend.

1B The impairment of any contractual right to receive cash or another financial asset arising from this Standard shall be dealt in accordance with Ind AS 109, Financial Instruments.

2 *

3 Goods includes goods produced by the entity for the purpose of sale and goods purchased for resale, such as merchandise purchased by a retailer or land and other property held for resale.

4 The rendering of services typically involves the performance by the entity of a contractually agreed task over an agreed period of time. The services may be rendered within a single period or over more than one period. Some contracts for the rendering of services are directly related to construction contracts, for example, those for the services of project managers and architects. Revenue arising from these contracts is not dealt with in this Standard but is dealt with in accordance with the requirements for construction contracts as specified in Ind AS 11 Construction Contracts

5 The use by others of entity assets gives rise to revenue in the form of:

(a) interest—charges for the use of cash or cash equivalents or amounts due to the entity;

(b) royalties—charges for the use of long-term assets of the entity, for example, patents, trademarks, copyrights and computer software; and

(c) dividends—distributions of profits to holders of equity investments in proportion to their holdings of a particular class of capital.

6 This Standard does not deal with revenue arising from:

(a) lease agreements (see Ind AS 17 Leases);

(b) dividends arising from investments which are accounted for under the equity method (see Ind AS 28 Investments in Associates and Joint Ventures);

(c) insurance contracts within the scope of Ind AS 104 Insurance Contracts;

(d) changes in the fair value of financial assets and financial liabilities or their disposal (see Ind AS 109 Financial Instruments);

(e) changes in the value of other current assets;

(f) initial recognition and from changes in the fair value of biological assets related to agricultural activity (see Ind AS 41 Agriculture);

(g) initial recognition of agricultural produce (see Ind AS 41); and

(h) the extraction of mineral ores.

Definitions

7 The following terms are used in this Standard with the meanings specified:

Revenue is the gross inflow of economic benefits during the period arising in the course of the ordinary activities of an entity when those inflows result in increases in equity, other than increases relating to contributions from equity participants.

Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date.(See Ind AS 113, Fair Value Measurement)

8 Revenue includes only the gross inflows of economic benefits received and receivable by the entity on its own account. Amounts collected on behalf of third parties such as sales taxes, goods and services taxes and value added taxes are not economic benefits which flow to the entity and do not result in increases in equity. Therefore, they are excluded from revenue. Similarly, in an agency relationship, the gross inflows of economic
benefits include amounts collected on behalf of the principal and which do not result in increases in equity for the entity. The amounts collected on behalf of the principal are not revenue. Instead, revenue is the amount of commission.

Measurement of revenue

9 Revenue shall be measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable.

10 The amount of revenue arising on a transaction is usually determined by agreement between the entity and the buyer or user of the asset. It is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable taking into account the amount of any trade discounts and volume rebates allowed by the entity.

11 In most cases, the consideration is in the form of cash or cash equivalents and the amount of revenue is the amount of cash or cash equivalents received or receivable. However, when the inflow of cash or cash equivalents is deferred, the fair value of the consideration may be less than the nominal amount of cash received or receivable. For example, an entity may provide interest-free credit to the buyer or accept a note receivable
bearing a below-market interest rate from the buyer as consideration for the sale of goods. When the arrangement effectively constitutes a financing transaction, the fair value of the consideration is determined by discounting all future receipts using an imputed rate of interest. The imputed rate of interest is the more clearly determinable of either:

(a) the prevailing rate for a similar instrument of an issuer with a similar credit rating; or

(b) a rate of interest that discounts the nominal amount of the instrument to the current cash sales price of the goods or services.

The difference between the fair value and the nominal amount of the consideration is recognised as interest revenue in accordance with Ind AS 109.

12 When goods or services are exchanged or swapped for goods or services which are of a similar nature and value, the exchange is not regarded as a transaction which generates revenue. This is often the case with commodities like oil or milk where suppliers exchange or swap inventories in various locations to fulfil demand on a timely basis in a particular location. When goods are sold or services are rendered in exchange for dissimilar goods or
services, the exchange is regarded as a transaction which generates revenue. The revenue is measured at the fair value of the goods or services received, adjusted by the amount of any cash or cash equivalents transferred. When the fair value of the goods or services received cannot be measured reliably, the revenue is measured at the fair value of the goods or services given up, adjusted by the amount of any cash or cash equivalents
transferred.

Identification of the transaction

13 The recognition criteria in this Standard are usually applied separately to each transaction. However, in certain circumstances, it is necessary to apply the recognition criteria to the separately identifiable components of a single transaction in order to reflect the substance of the transaction. For example, when the selling price of a product includes an identifiable amount for subsequent servicing, that amount is deferred and recognised as revenue over the period during which the service is performed. Conversely, the recognition criteria are applied to two or more transactions together when they are linked in such a way that the commercial effect cannot be understood without reference to the series of transactions as a whole. For example, an entity may sell goods and, at the same time, enter into a separate agreement to repurchase the goods at a later date, thus negating the substantive effect of the transaction; in such a case, the two transactions are dealt with together.

Sale of goods

14 Revenue from the sale of goods shall be recognised when all the following conditions have been satisfied:

(a) the entity has transferred to the buyer the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods;

(b) the entity retains neither continuing managerial involvement to the degree usually associated with ownership nor effective control over the goods sold;

(c) the amount of revenue can be measured reliably;

(d) it is probable that the economic benefits associated with the transaction will flow to the entity; and

(e) the costs incurred or to be incurred in respect of the transaction can be measured reliably.

15 The assessment of when an entity has transferred the significant risks and rewards of ownership to the buyer requires an examination of the circumstances of the transaction. In most cases, the transfer of the risks and rewards of ownership coincides with the transfer of the legal title or the passing of possession to the buyer. This is the case for most retail sales. In other cases, the transfer of risks and rewards of ownership occurs at a different time from the transfer of legal title or the passing of possession.

16 If the entity retains significant risks of ownership, the transaction is not a sale and revenue is not recognised. An entity may retain a significant risk of ownership in a number of ways. Examples of situations in which the entity may retain the significant risks and rewards of ownership are:

(a) when the entity retains an obligation for unsatisfactory performance not covered by normal warranty provisions;

(b) when the receipt of the revenue from a particular sale is contingent on the derivation of revenue by the buyer from its sale of the goods;

(c) when the goods are shipped subject to installation and the installation is a significant part of the contract which has not yet been completed by the entity; and

(d) when the buyer has the right to rescind the purchase for a reason specified in the sales contract and the entity is uncertain about the probability of return.

17 If an entity retains only an insignificant risk of ownership, the transaction is a sale and revenue is recognised. For example, a seller may retain the legal title to the goods solely to protect the collectability of the amount due. In such a case, if the entity has transferred the significant risks and rewards of ownership, the transaction is a sale and revenue is recognised. Another example of an entity retaining only an insignificant risk of ownership
may be a retail sale when a refund is offered if the customer is not satisfied. Revenue in such cases is recognised at the time of sale provided the seller can reliably estimate future returns and recognises a liability for returns based on previous experience and other relevant factors.

18 Revenue is recognised only when it is probable that the economic benefits associated with the transaction will flow to the entity. In some cases, this may not be probable until the consideration is received or until an uncertainty is removed. For example, it may be uncertain that a foreign governmental authority will grant permission to remit the consideration from a sale in a foreign country. When the permission is granted, the
uncertainty is removed and revenue is recognised. However, when an uncertainty arises about the collectability of an amount already included in revenue, the uncollectible amount or the amount in respect of which recovery has ceased to be probable is recognised as an expense, rather than as an adjustment of the amount of revenue
originally recognised.

19 Revenue and expenses that relate to the same transaction or other event are recognised simultaneously; this process is commonly referred to as the matching of revenues and expenses. Expenses, including warranties and other costs to be incurred after the shipment of the goods can normally be measured reliably when the other
conditions for the recognition of revenue have been satisfied. However, revenue cannot be recognised when the expenses cannot be measured reliably; in such circumstances, any consideration already received for the sale of the goods is recognised as a liability.

Rendering of services

20 When the outcome of a transaction involving the rendering of services can be estimated reliably, revenue associated with the transaction shall be recognised by reference to the stage of completion of the transaction at the end of the reporting period. The outcome of a transaction can be estimated reliably when all the following conditions are satisfied:

(a) the amount of revenue can be measured reliably;

(b) it is probable that the economic benefits associated with the transaction will flow to the entity;

(c) the stage of completion of the transaction at the end of the reporting period can be measured reliably; and

(d) the costs incurred for the transaction and the costs to complete the transaction can be measured reliably.

21 The recognition of revenue by reference to the stage of completion of a transaction is often referred to as the percentage of completion method. Under this method, revenue is recognised in the accounting periods in which the services are rendered. The recognition of revenue on this basis provides useful information on the extent of service activity and performance during a period. Ind AS 11 also requires the recognition of revenue on this
basis. The requirements of that Standard are generally applicable to the recognition of revenue and the associated expenses for a transaction involving the rendering of services.

22 Revenue is recognised only when it is probable that the economic benefits associated with the transaction will flow to the entity. However, when an uncertainty arises about the collectability of an amount already included in revenue, the uncollectible amount, or the amount in respect of which recovery has ceased to be probable, is recognised as an expense, rather than as an adjustment of the amount of revenue originally recognised.

23 An entity is generally able to make reliable estimates after it has agreed to the following with the other parties to the transaction:

(a) each party’s enforceable rights regarding the service to be provided and received by the parties;

(b) the consideration to be exchanged; and

(c) the manner and terms of settlement.

It is also usually necessary for the entity to have an effective internal financial budgeting and reporting system. The entity reviews and, when necessary, revises the estimates of revenue as the service is performed. The need for such revisions does not necessarily indicate that the outcome of the transaction cannot be estimated reliably.

24 The stage of completion of a transaction may be determined by a variety of methods. An entity uses the method that measures reliably the services performed. Depending on the nature of the transaction, the methods may include:

(a) surveys of work performed;

(b) services performed to date as a percentage of total services to be performed; or

(c) the proportion that costs incurred to date bear to the estimated total costs of the transaction. Only costs that reflect services performed to date are included in costs incurred to date. Only costs that reflect services performed or to be performed are included in the estimated total costs of the transaction.

Progress payments and advances received from customers often do not reflect the services performed.

25 For practical purposes, when services are performed by an indeterminate number of acts over a specified period of time, revenue is recognised on a straight-line basis over the specified period unless there is evidence that some other method better represents the stage of completion. When a specific act is much more significant than any other acts, the recognition of revenue is postponed until the significant act is executed.

26 When the outcome of the transaction involving the rendering of services cannot be estimated reliably, revenue shall be recognised only to the extent of the expenses recognised that are recoverable.

27 During the early stages of a transaction, it is often the case that the outcome of the transaction cannot be estimated reliably. Nevertheless, it may be probable that the entity will recover the transaction costs incurred. Therefore, revenue is recognised only to the extent of costs incurred that are expected to be recoverable. As the outcome of the transaction cannot be estimated reliably, no profit is recognised.

28 When the outcome of a transaction cannot be estimated reliably and it is not probable that the costs incurred will be recovered, revenue is not recognised and the costs incurred are recognised as an expense. When the uncertainties that prevented the outcome of the contract being estimated reliably no longer exist, revenue is recognised in accordance with paragraph 20 rather than in accordance with paragraph 26.

Interest and Royalties

29 Revenue arising from the use by others of entity assets yielding interest and royalties shall be recognised on the bases set out in paragraph 30 when:

(a) it is probable that the economic benefits associated with the transaction will flow to the entity; and

(b) the amount of the revenue can be measured reliably.

30 Revenue shall be recognised on the following bases:

(a) interest shall be recognised using the effective interest method as set out in Ind AS109; and

(b) royalties shall be recognised on an accrual basis in accordance with the substance of the relevant agreement.

(c) Omitted*

31 Omitted*

32 Omitted*

33 Royalties accrue in accordance with the terms of the relevant agreement and are usually recognised on that basis unless, having regard to the substance of the agreement, it is more appropriate to recognise revenue on some other systematic and rational basis.

34 Revenue is recognised only when it is probable that the economic benefits associated with the transaction will flow to the entity. However, when an uncertainty arises about the collectibility of an amount already included in revenue, the uncollectible amount, or the amount in respect of which recovery has ceased to be probable, is recognised as an expense, rather than as an adjustment of the amount of revenue originally recognised.

Disclosure

35 An entity shall disclose:
(a) the accounting policies adopted for the recognition of revenue, including the methods adopted to determine the stage of completion of transactions involving the rendering of services;

(b) the amount of each significant category of revenue recognised during the period, including revenue arising from:

(i) the sale of goods;

(ii) the rendering of services; and

(iii) Omitted*

(iv) royalties

(v) Omitted *

(c) the amount of revenue arising from exchanges of goods or services included in each significant category of revenue.

36 An entity discloses any contingent liabilities and contingent assets in accordance with Ind AS 37, Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets. Contingent liabilities and contingent assets may arise from items such as warranty costs, claims, penalties or possible losses.

Appendix A
Revenue—Barter Transactions Involving Advertising Services

Issue

1 An entity (Seller) may enter into a barter transaction to provide advertising services in exchange for receiving advertising services from its customer (Customer). Advertisements may be displayed on the Internet or poster sites, broadcast on the television or radio, published in magazines or journals, or presented in another medium.

2 In some cases, no cash or other consideration is exchanged between the entities. In some other cases, equal or approximately equal amounts of cash or other consideration are also exchanged.

3 A Seller that provides advertising services in the course of its ordinary activities recognises revenue under Ind AS 18 from a barter transaction involving advertising when, amongst other criteria, the services exchanged are dissimilar (paragraph 12 of Ind AS 18) and the amount of revenue can be measured reliably (paragraph 20(a) of Ind AS 18.This Appendix only applies to an exchange of dissimilar advertising services. An exchange of similar advertising services is not a transaction that generates revenue under Ind AS 18.

4 The issue is under what circumstances can a Seller reliably measure revenue at the fair value of advertising services received or provided in a barter transaction.

Accounting Principles

5 Revenue from a barter transaction involving advertising cannot be measured reliably at the fair value of advertising services received. However, a Seller can reliably measure revenue at the fair value of the advertising services it provides in a barter transaction, by reference only to non-barter transactions that:

(a) involve advertising similar to the advertising in the barter transaction;

(b) occur frequently;

(c) represent a predominant number of transactions and amount when compared to all transactions to provide advertising that is similar to the advertising in the barter transaction;

(d) involve cash and/or another form of consideration (eg marketable securities, non-monetary assets, and other services) that has a reliably measurable fair value; and

(e) do not involve the same counterparty as in the barter transaction.

Appendix B
Customer Loyalty Programmes

Background

1 Customer loyalty programmes are used by entities to provide customers with incentives to buy their goods or services. If a customer buys goods or services, the entity grants the customer award credits (often described as ‘points’). The customer can redeem the award credits for awards such as free or discounted goods or services.

2 The programmes operate in a variety of ways. Customers may be required to accumulate a specified minimum number or value of award credits before they are able to redeem them. Award credits may be linked to individual purchases or groups of purchases, or to continued custom over a specified period. The entity may operate the customer loyalty programme itself or participate in a programme operated by a third party. The awards offered may include goods or services supplied by the entity itself and/or rights to claim goods or services from a third party.

Scope

3 This Appendix applies to customer loyalty award credits that:

(a) an entity grants to its customers as part of a sales transaction, ie a sale of goods, rendering of services or use by a customer of entity assets; and

(b) subject to meeting any further qualifying conditions, the customers can redeem in the future for free or discounted goods or services.

The Appendix addresses accounting by the entity that grants award credits to its customers.

Issues

4 The issues addressed in this Appendix are:
(a) whether the entity’s obligation to provide free or discounted goods or services (‘awards’) in the future should be recognised and measured by:

(i) allocating some of the consideration received or receivable from the sales transaction to the award credits and deferring the recognition of revenue (applying paragraph 13 of Ind AS 18); or

(ii) providing for the estimated future costs of supplying the awards (applying paragraph 19 of Ind AS18); and

(b) if consideration is allocated to the award credits:

(i) how much should be allocated to them;

(ii) when revenue should be recognised; and

(iii) if a third party supplies the awards, how revenue should be measured.

Accounting Principles

5 An entity shall apply paragraph 13 of Ind AS 18 and account for award credits as a separately identifiable component of the sales transaction(s) in which they are granted (the ‘initial sale’). The fair value of the consideration received or receivable in respect of the initial sale shall be allocated between the award credits and the other components of the sale.

6 The consideration allocated to the award credits shall be measured by reference to their fair value.

7 If the entity supplies the awards itself, it shall recognise the consideration allocated to award credits as revenue when award credits are redeemed and it fulfils its obligations to supply awards. The amount of revenue recognised shall be based on the number of award credits that have been redeemed in exchange for awards, relative to the total number expected to be redeemed.

8 If a third party supplies the awards, the entity shall assess whether it is collecting the consideration allocated to the award credits on its own account (ie as the principal in the transaction) or on behalf of the third party (ie as an agent for the third party).

(a) If the entity is collecting the consideration on behalf of the third party, it shall:

(i) measure its revenue as the net amount retained on its own account, ie the difference between the consideration allocated to the award credits and the amount payable to the third party for supplying the awards; and

(ii) recognise this net amount as revenue when the third party becomes obliged to supply the awards and entitled to receive consideration for doing so. These events may occur as soon as the award credits are granted. Alternatively, if the customer can choose to claim awards from either the entity or a third party, these events may occur only when the customer chooses to claim awards from the third party.

(b) If the entity is collecting the consideration on its own account, it shall measure its revenue as the gross consideration allocated to the award credits and recognise the revenue when it fulfils its obligations in respect of the awards.

9 If at any time the unavoidable costs of meeting the obligations to supply the awards are expected to exceed the consideration received and receivable for them (ie the consideration allocated to the award credits at the time of the initial sale that has not yet been recognised as revenue plus any further consideration receivable when the customer redeems the award credits), the entity has onerous contracts. A liability shall be recognised for the excess in accordance with Ind AS 37. The need to recognise such a liability could arise if the expected costs of supplying awards increase, for example if the entity revises its expectations about the number of award credits that will be redeemed.

Application guidance on Appendix B
This application guidance is an integral part of Appendix B.

Measuring the fair value of award credits

AG1 Paragraph 6 of Appendix B requires the consideration allocated to award credits to be measured by reference to their fair value. If there is not a quoted market price for an identical award credit, fair value must be measured using another valuation technique.

AG2 An entity may measure the fair value of award credits by reference to the fair value of the awards for which they could be redeemed. The fair value of the award credits takes into account, as appropriate:

(a) the amount of the discounts or incentives that would otherwise be offered to customers who have not earned award credits from an initial sale;

(b) the proportion of award credits that are not expected to be redeemed by customers; and

(c) non-performance risk.

If customers can choose from a range of different awards, the fair value of the award credits reflects the fair values of the range of available awards, weighted in proportion to the frequency with which each award is expected to be selected.

AG3 In some circumstances, other valuation techniques may be used. For example, if a third party will supply the awards and the entity pays the third party for each award credit it grants, it could measure the fair value of the award credits by reference to the amount it pays the third party, adding a reasonable profit margin. Judgement is required to select and apply the valuation technique that satisfies the requirements of paragraph 6 of Appendix B and is most appropriate in the circumstances.

Appendix C
Transfers of Assets from Customers

Background

1 In the utilities industry, an entity may receive from its customers items of property, plant and equipment that must be used to connect those customers to a network and provide them with ongoing access to a supply of commodities such as electricity, gas or water. Alternatively, an entity may receive cash from customers for the acquisition or construction of such items of property, plant and equipment. Typically, customers are
required to pay additional amounts for the purchase of goods or services based on usage.

2 Transfers of assets from customers may also occur in industries other than utilities. For example, an entity outsourcing its information technology functions may transfer its existing items of property, plant and equipment to the outsourcing provider.

3 In some cases, the transferor of the asset may not be the entity that will eventually have ongoing access to the supply of goods or services and will be the recipient of those goods or services. However, for convenience this Appendix refers to the entity transferring the asset as the customer.

Scope

4 This Appendix applies to the accounting for transfers of items of property, plant and equipment by entities that receive such transfers from their customers.

5 Agreements within the scope of this Appendix are agreements in which an entity receives from a customer an item of property, plant and equipment that the entity must then use either to connect the customer to a network or to provide the customer with ongoing access to a supply of goods or services, or to do both.

6 This Appendix also applies to agreements in which an entity receives cash from a customer when that amount of cash must be used only to construct or acquire an item of property, plant and equipment and the entity must then use the item of property, plant and equipment either to connect the customer to a network or to provide the customer with ongoing access to a supply of goods or services, or to do both.

7 This Appendix does not apply to agreements in which the transfer is either a government grant as defined in Ind AS 20 or infrastructure used in a service concession arrangement that is within the scope of Appendix A of Ind AS 11 Service Concession Arrangements.

Issues

8 The Appendix addresses the following issues:

(a) Is the definition of an asset met?

(b) If the definition of an asset is met, how should the transferred item of property, plant and equipment be measured on initial recognition?

(c) If the item of property, plant and equipment is measured at fair value on initial recognition, how should the resulting credit be accounted for?

(d) How should the entity account for a transfer of cash from its customer?

Accounting Principles

Is the definition of an asset met?

9 When an entity receives from a customer a transfer of an item of property, plant and equipment, it shall assess whether the transferred item meets the definition of an asset set out in the Framework for the Preparation and Presentation of Financial Statements issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India. Paragraph 49(a) of the Framework states that ‘an asset is a resource controlled by the entity as a result of past events and from which future economic benefits are expected to flow to the entity.’ In most circumstances, the entity obtains the right of ownership of the transferred item of property, plant and equipment. However, in determining whether an asset exists, the right of ownership is not essential. Therefore, if the customer continues to control the
transferred item, the asset definition would not be met despite a transfer of ownership.

10 An entity that controls an asset can generally deal with that asset as it pleases. For example, the entity can exchange that asset for other assets, employ it to produce goods or services, charge a price for others to use it, use it to settle liabilities, hold it, or distribute it to owners. The entity that receives from a customer a transfer of an item of property, plant and equipment shall consider all relevant facts and circumstances when assessing
control of the transferred item. For example, although the entity must use the transferred item of property, plant and equipment to provide one or more services to the customer, it may have the ability to decide how the transferred item of property, plant and equipment is operated and maintained and when it is replaced. In this case, the entity would normally conclude that it controls the transferred item of property, plant and equipment.

How should the transferred item of property, plant and equipment be measured on initial recognition?

11 If the entity concludes that the definition of an asset is met, it shall recognise the transferred asset as an item of property, plant and equipment in accordance with paragraph 7 of Ind AS 16 and measure its cost on initial recognition at its fair value in accordance with paragraph 24 of that Standard.

How should the credit be accounted for?
12 The following discussion assumes that the entity receiving an item of property, plant and equipment has concluded that the transferred item should be recognised and measured in accordance with paragraphs 9–11.

13 Paragraph 12 of Ind AS 18 states that ‘When goods are sold or services are rendered in exchange for dissimilar goods or services, the exchange is regarded as a transaction which generates revenue.’ According to the terms of the agreements within the scope of this Appendix, a transfer of an item of property, plant and equipment would be an exchange for dissimilar goods or services. Consequently, the entity shall recognise revenue in  accordance with Ind AS 18.

Identifying the separately identifiable services

14 An entity may agree to deliver one or more services in exchange for the transferred item of property, plant and equipment, such as connecting the customer to a network, providing the customer with ongoing access to a supply of goods or services, or both. In accordance with paragraph 13 of Ind AS 18, the entity shall identify the separately identifiable services included in the agreement.

15 Features that indicate that connecting the customer to a network is a separately identifiable service include:

(a) a service connection is delivered to the customer and represents stand-alone value for that customer;

(b) the fair value of the service connection can be measured reliably.

16 A feature that indicates that providing the customer with ongoing access to a supply of goods or services is a separately identifiable service is that, in the future, the customer making the transfer receives the ongoing access, the goods or services, or both at a price lower than would be charged without the transfer of the item of property, plant and equipment.

17 Conversely, a feature that indicates that the obligation to provide the customer with ongoing access to a supply of goods or services arises from the terms of the entity’s operating licence or other regulation rather than from the agreement relating to the transfer of an item of property, plant and equipment is that customers that make a
transfer pay the same price as those that do not for the ongoing access, or for the goods or services, or for both.

Revenue recognition

18 If only one service is identified, the entity shall recognise revenue when the service is performed in accordance with paragraph 20 of Ind AS 18. If such a service is ongoing, revenue shall be recognised in accordance with paragraph 20 of this Appendix.

19 If more than one separately identifiable service is identified, paragraph 13 of Ind AS 18 requires the fair value of the total consideration received or receivable for the agreement to be allocated to each service and the recognition criteria of Ind AS 18 are then applied to each service.

20 If an ongoing service is identified as part of the agreement, the period over which revenue shall be recognised for that service is generally determined by the terms of the agreement with the customer. If the agreement does not specify a period, the revenue shall be recognised over a period no longer than the useful life of the transferred asset used to provide the ongoing service.

How should the entity account for a transfer of cash from its customer?

21 When an entity receives a transfer of cash from a customer, it shall assess whether the agreement is within the scope of this Appendix in accordance with paragraph 6. If it is, the entity shall assess whether the constructed or acquired item of property, plant and equipment meets the definition of an asset in accordance with paragraphs 9 and 10. If the definition of an asset is met, the entity shall recognise the item of property, plant and equipment at its cost in accordance with Ind AS 16 and shall recognise revenue in accordance with paragraphs 13–20 at the amount of cash received from the customer.

Appendix D

References to matters contained in other Indian Accounting Standards

This Appendix is an integral part of Indian Accounting Standard 18.

This appendix lists the appendices which are part of other Indian Accounting Standards and make reference to Ind AS 18, Revenues

1. Appendix A, Service Concession Arrangements contained in Ind AS 11 Construction Contracts.

2. Appendix B, Evaluating the Substance of Transactions Involving the Legal Form of a Lease contained in Ind AS 17 Leases.

Appendix 1
Note: This appendix is not a part of the Indian Accounting Standard. The purpose of this Appendix is only to bring out the differences, if any, between Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 18 and the corresponding International Accounting Standard (IAS) 18, Revenue, SIC 31, Revenue- Barter Transactions Involving Advertising Services, IFRIC 13, Customer
Loyalty Programmes and IFRIC 18, Transfers Of Assets from Customers.

Comparison with IAS 18, Revenue, SIC 31, IFRIC 13 and IFRIC 18

1. The transitional provisions given in IAS 18, SIC 13 and IFRIC 13 have not been given in Ind AS 18, since all transitional provisions related to Ind ASs, wherever considered appropriate have been included in Ind AS 101, First-time Adoption of Indian Accounting Standards corresponding to IFRS 1, First-time Adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards.

2. On the basis of principles of the IAS 18, IFRIC 15 on Agreement for Construction of Real Estate prescribes that construction of real estate should be treated as sale of goods and revenue should be recognised when the entity has transferred significant risks and rewards of ownership and retained neither continuing managerial involvement nor effective control. IFRIC 15 has not been included in Ind AS 18. Instead, a footnote has been
given specifying that the Guidance Note on the subject being issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India shall be followed.

3. Paragraph 2 of IAS 18 which states that IAS 18 supersedes the earlier version IAS 18 is deleted in Ind AS 18 as this is not relevant in Ind AS 18. However, paragraph number 2 is retained in Ind AS 18 to maintain consistency with paragraph numbers of IAS 18.
4. Paragraph number 31 appear as ‘Deleted ‘in IAS 18. In order to maintain consistency with paragraph numbers of IAS 18, the paragraph number is retained in Ind AS 18.

5. Paragraph 30(c), 32, 35 b(iii), 35b(v) appear as ‘Deleted’ in Ind AS 18 which addresses revenue in form of interest and dividend. The recognition, measurement of dividend is given in Ind AS 109, whereas the measurement of interest is given in Ind AS 109.

6. Paragraph 1A is inserted which states that recognition of interest is dealt in this standard whereas measurement of interest charges for the use of cash or cash equivalents or amounts due to the entity and recognition and measurement of dividend is dealt in accordance with Ind AS 109, Financial Instruments.

7. Paragraph 1B is inserted, which prescribes the impairment of any contractual right to receive cash or another financial asset arising from this standard, shall be dealt in accordance with Ind AS 109, Financial Instruments.’’

21. In the principal rules, in the “Annexure”, under the heading “B. Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS)”, in “Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 19”, –

(i) for paragraph 83, the following paragraph shall be substituted, namely:-

‘‘83 The rate used to discount post-employment benefit obligations (both funded and unfunded) shall be determined by reference to market yields at the end of the reporting period on government bonds. However, for currencies other than Indian rupee for which there is deep market in high quality corporate bonds, the market yields (at the end of the reporting period) on such high quality corporate bonds denominated in that currency shall be used. The currency and term of the government bonds or corporate bonds shall be consistent with the currency and estimated term of the post-employment benefit obligations.’’;

(ii) in Appendix 1, for paragraph 2, the following paragraph shall be substituted, namely:-

‘‘2 According to Ind AS 19 the rate to be used to discount post-employment benefit obligation shall be determined by reference to the market yields on government bonds, whereas under IAS 19 , the government bonds can be used only for those currencies where there is no deep market of high quality corporate bonds. However, requirements given in IAS 19 in this regard have been retained with appropriate modifications for currencies other than Indian rupee.’’.

22. In the principal rules, in the “Annexure”, under the heading “B. Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS)”, in “Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 23”, in Appendix A, for paragraph 2, the following paragraph shall be substituted, namely:-

‘‘2 Appendix A, Service Concession Arrangements contained in Ind AS 11, Construction Contracts, makes reference to this Standard also.’’.

23. In the principal rules, in the “Annexure”, under the heading “B. Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS)”, in “Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 28”, –

(i) in paragraph 17, for item (d), the following item shall be substituted, namely:-

‘‘(d) The ultimate or any intermediate parent of the entity produces financial statements available for public use that comply with Ind ASs, in which subsidiaries are
consolidated or are measured at fair value through profit or loss in accordance with Ind AS 110.’’;

(ii) for paragraph 27, the following paragraph shall be substituted, namely:-

‘‘27 A group’s share in an associate or a joint venture is the aggregate of the holdings in that associate or joint venture by the parent and its subsidiaries. The holdings of the group’s other associates or joint ventures are ignored for this purpose. When an
associate or a joint venture has subsidiaries, associates or joint ventures, the profit or
loss, other comprehensive income and net assets taken into account in applying the
equity method are those recognised in the associate’s or joint venture’s financial
statements (including the associate’s or joint venture’s share of the profit or loss,
other comprehensive income and net assets of its associates and joint ventures),
after any adjustments necessary to give effect to uniform accounting policies (see
paragraphs 35–36A).’’;

(iii) for paragraph 36, the following paragraph shall be substituted, namely:-

‘‘36 Except as described in paragraph 36A, if an associate or a joint venture uses
accounting policies other than those of the entity for like transactions and events in
similar circumstances, adjustments shall be made to make the associate’s or joint
venture’s accounting policies conform to those of the entity when the associate’s or
joint venture’s financial statements are used by the entity in applying the equity
method.’’;

(iv) after paragraph 36, the following paragraph shall be inserted, namely:-

‘‘36A Notwithstanding the requirement in paragraph 36, if an entity that is not itself an
investment entity has an interest in an associate or joint venture that is an
investment entity, the entity may, when applying the equity method, retain the fair
value measurement applied by that investment entity associate or joint venture
to the investment entity associate’s or joint venture’s interests in subsidiaries.’’.

24. In the principal rules, in the “Annexure”, under the heading “B. Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS)”, in “Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 32”,

(i) in Appendix A, for paragraph AG21, the following paragraph shall be substituted, namely:-

‘‘AG21 A contract that involves the receipt or delivery of physical assets does not give rise to a financial asset of one party and a financial liability of the other party unless any corresponding payment is deferred past the date on which the physical assets are transferred. Such is the case with the purchase or sale of goods on trade credit.’’;

(ii) in Appendix B, for paragraph 1, the following paragraph shall be substituted, namely:-

‘‘1. Appendix A, Service Concession Arrangements contained in Ind AS 11, Construction Contracts.’’.

25. In the principal rules, in the “Annexure”, under the heading “B. Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS)”, in “Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 34”,-

(i) in paragraph 5, for item (e), the following item shall be substituted, namely:-

‘‘(e) notes, comprising significant accounting policies and other explanatory information;’’;

(ii) in paragraph 15B, for item (b), the following item shall be substituted, namely:-

‘‘(b) recognition of a loss from the impairment of financial assets, property, plant and equipment, intangible assets, or other assets, and the reversal of such an impairment loss;

(iii) in paragraph 16A, for the opening paragraph, starting with ‘In addition to’ and ending with ‘year-to-date basis.’, the following paragraph shall be substituted, namely:-

‘‘16A In addition to disclosing significant events and transactions in accordance with
paragraphs 15–15C, an entity shall include the following information, in the notes to its interim financial statements or elsewhere in the interim financial report. The following disclosures shall be given either in the interim financial statements or incorporated by cross-reference from the interim financial statements to some other statement (such as management commentary or risk report) that is available to users of the financial statements on the same terms as the interim financial statements and at the same time. If users of the financial statements do not have access to the information incorporated by cross-reference on the same terms and at the same time, the interim financial report is incomplete. The information shall normally be reported on a financial year-to-date basis.’’;

(iv) in paragraph 16A, item (l) shall be omitted.

26. In the principal rules, in the “Annexure”, under the heading “B. Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS)”, in “Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 36”, in paragraph 2, for item (b), the following item shall be substituted namely:-

‘‘(b) assets arising from construction contracts (see Ind AS 11, Construction Contracts and Ind AS 18, Revenue );’’.

27. In the principal rules, in the “Annexure”, under the heading “B. Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS)”, in “Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 37”, –

(i) for paragraph 5, the following paragraph shall be substituted, namely:-

‘‘5. When another Standard deals with a specific type of provision, contingent liability or contingent asset, an entity applies that Standard instead of this Standard. For example, some types of provisions are addressed in Standards on:

(a) construction contracts (see Ind AS 11, Construction Contracts);

(b) income taxes (see Ind AS 12, Income Taxes);

(c) leases (see Ind AS 17, Leases). However, as Ind AS 17 contains no specific requirements to deal with operating leases that have become onerous, this Standard applies to such cases;

(d) employee benefits (see Ind AS 19, Employee Benefits);

(e) insurance contracts (see Ind AS 104, Insurance Contracts). However, this Standard applies to provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets of an insurer, other than those arising from its contractual obligations and rights under insurance contracts within the scope of Ind AS 104; and

(f) contingent consideration of an acquirer in a business combination (see Ind AS 103, Business Combinations). ’’;

(ii) for paragraph 6, the following paragraph shall be substituted, namely:-

‘‘6. Some amounts treated as provisions may relate to the recognition of revenue, for example where an entity gives guarantees in exchange for a fee. This Standard does not address the recognition of revenue. Ind AS 18, Revenue, identifies the circumstances in which revenue is recognised and provides practical guidance on the application of the recognition criteria. This Standard does not change the requirements of Ind AS 18.’’;

(iii) in Appendix D, for paragraph (i), the following paragraph shall be substituted, namely:-

‘‘(i) Appendix A, Service Concession Arrangements and Appendix B, Service Concession Arrangements: Disclosures, contained in Ind AS 11, Construction Contracts.’’;

(iv) in Appendix 1, for paragraph 3, the following paragraph shall be substituted, namely:-

‘‘3. The following paragraph numbers appear as ‘Deleted’ in IAS 37. In order to maintain consistency with paragraph numbers of IAS 37, the paragraph numbers are retained in Ind AS 37 :

(i) paragraph 1(b)
(ii) paragraph 4’’.

28. In the principal rules, in the “Annexure”, under the heading “B. Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS)”, in “Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 38”,

(i) in paragraph 3, for item (a), the following item shall be substituted, namely:-

‘‘(a) intangible assets held by an entity for sale in the ordinary course of business (see Ind AS 2, Inventories, and Ind AS 11, Construction Contracts).’’;

(ii) in paragraph 3, item (i) shall be omitted.

(iii) for paragraph 114, the following paragraph shall be substituted, namely:-

‘‘114 The disposal of an intangible asset may occur in a variety of ways (eg by sale, by entering into a finance lease, or by donation). In determining the date of disposal of such an asset, an entity applies the criteria in Ind AS 18, Revenue, for recognising revenue from the sale of goods. Ind AS 17 applies to disposal by a sale and leaseback.’

(iv) for paragraph 116, the following shall be substituted, namely:-

‘‘116 The consideration receivable on disposal of an intangible asset is recognised initially at its fair value. If payment for the intangible asset is deferred, the consideration received is recognised initially at the cash price equivalent. The difference between the nominal amount of the consideration and the cash price equivalent is recognised as interest revenue in accordance with Ind AS 18 reflecting the effective yield on the receivable. ’’;

(v) in Appendix A, for paragraph 6, the following paragraph shall be substituted, namely:-

‘‘6 Ind AS 38 does not apply to intangible assets held by an entity for sale in the ordinary course of business (see Ind AS 2 and Ind AS 11) or leases that fall within the scope of Ind AS 17. Accordingly, this Appendix does not apply to expenditure on the development or operation of a web site (or web site software) for sale to another entity. When a web site is leased under an operating lease, the lessor applies this Appendix. When a web site is leased under a finance lease, the lessee applies this Appendix after initial recognition of the leased asset. ’’;

(vi) in Appendix B, –

(a) for paragraph 1, the following paragraph shall be substituted, namely:-

‘1 Appendix A, Service Concession Arrangements contained in Ind AS 11, Construction Contracts. ’’;

(b) for paragraph 2, the following paragraph shall be substituted, namely:-

‘‘2 Appendix B, Service Concession Arrangements: Disclosures contained in Ind AS 11, Construction Contracts. ’’.

29. In the principal rules, in the “Annexure”, under the heading “B. Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS)”, in “Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 40”,

(i) in paragraph 3, for item (b), the following item shall be substituted namely:-

‘‘(b) recognition of lease income from investment property (see also Ind AS 18, Revenue);

(ii) in paragraph 9, for item (b), the following item shall be substituted, namely:-

‘‘(b) property being constructed or developed on behalf of third parties (see Ind AS 11, Construction Contracts). ’’;

(iii) for paragraph 67, the following paragraph shall be substituted, namely:-

‘‘67 The disposal of an investment property may be achieved by sale or by entering into a finance lease. In determining the date of disposal for investment property, an entity applies the criteria in Ind AS 18 for recognising revenue from the sale of goods. Ind AS 17 applies to a disposal effected by entering into a finance lease and to a sale and leaseback.

(iv) for paragraph 70, the following paragraph shall be substituted, namely:-

‘‘70 The consideration receivable on disposal of an investment property is recognised initially at fair value. In particular, if payment for an investment property is deferred, the consideration received is recognised initially at the cash price equivalent. The difference between the nominal amount of the consideration and the cash price equivalent is recognised as interest revenue in accordance with Ind AS 18 using the effective interest method. ’’;

(v) in Appendix 1, in paragraph 7, item (i) shall be omitted.

 

 

Omitted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2018 dated 28th March,2018 effective from 01st April,2018.

Inserted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2016, GSR 365(E) dated 31.03.2016. To view the notification,Click Here


Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2016 [GSR 365(E)] dated 30/03/2016


The Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2018 dated 28.03.2018 w.e.f., 01.04.2018


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