(1) Notwithstanding the provisions of section 230 and section 232, a scheme of merger or amalgamation may be entered into between two or more small companies or between a and its wholly-owned or such other class or classes of companies , subject to the following, namely:—
(a) a of the proposed scheme inviting objections or suggestions, if any, from the and where registered office of the respective companies are situated or persons affected by the scheme within thirty days is issued by the transferor company or companies and the transferee company;
(b) the objections and suggestions received are considered by the companies in their respective general meetings and the scheme is approved by the respective or class of members at a general meeting holding at least ninety per cent. Of the total number of ;
(c) each of the companies involved in the merger files a declaration of solvency, in the , with the Registrar of the place where the registered office of the company is situated; and
(d) the scheme is approved by majority representing nine-tenths in value of the creditors or class of creditors of respective companies indicated in a meeting convened by the company by giving a notice of twenty-one days along with the scheme to its creditors for the purpose or otherwise approved in writing.
(2) The transferee company shall file a copy of the scheme so approved in the manner , with the , Registrar and the Official Liquidator where the registered office of the company is situated.
(3) On the receipt of the scheme, if the Registrar or the Official Liquidator has no objections or suggestions to the scheme, the shall register the same and issue a thereof to the companies.
(4) If the Registrar or Official Liquidator has any objections or suggestions, he may communicate the same in writing to the within a period of thirty days:
Provided that if no such communication is made, it shall be presumed that he has no objection to the scheme.
(5) If the after receiving the objections or suggestions or for any reason is of the opinion that such a scheme is not in public interest or in the interest of the creditors, it may file an before the within a period of sixty days of the receipt of the scheme under sub-section (2) stating its objections and requesting that the Tribunal may consider the scheme under section 232.
(6) On receipt of an application from the or from any person, if the Tribunal, for reasons to be recorded in writing, is of the opinion that the scheme should be considered as per the procedure laid down in section 232, the Tribunal may direct accordingly or it may confirm the scheme by passing such order as it deems fit:
Provided that if the Central Government does not have any objection to the scheme or it does not file any application under this section before the Tribunal, it shall be deemed that it has no objection to the scheme.
(7) A copy of the order under sub-section (6) confirming the scheme shall be communicated to the Registrar having jurisdiction over the transferee company and the persons concerned and the shall register the scheme and issue a confirmation thereof to the companies and such confirmation shall be communicated to the Registrars where transferor company or companies were situated.
(8) The registration of the scheme under sub-section (3) or sub-section (7) shall be deemed to have the effect of dissolution of the transferor company without process of winding-up.
(9) The registration of the scheme shall have the following effects, namely:—
(a) transfer of property or liabilities of the transferor company to the transferee company so that the property becomes the property of the transferee company and the liabilities become the liabilities of the transferee company;
(b) the charges, if any, on the property of the transferor company shall be applicable and enforceable as if the charges were on the property of the transferee company;
(c) legal proceedings by or against the transferor company pending before any court of law shall be continued by or against the transferee company; and
(d) where the scheme provides for purchase of shares held by the dissenting shareholders or settlement of debt due to dissenting creditors, such amount, to the extent it is unpaid, shall become the liability of the transferee company.
(10) A transferee company shall not on merger or amalgamation, hold any shares in its own name or in the name of any trust either on its behalf or on behalf of any of its subsidiary or and all such shares shall be cancelled or extinguished on the merger or amalgamation.
(11) The transferee company shall file an application with the Registrar along with the scheme registered, indicating the revised and pay the prescribed fees due on revised capital:
Provided that the fee, if any, paid by the transferor company on its authorised capital prior to its merger or amalgamation with the transferee company shall be set-off against the fees payable by the transferee company on its authorised capital enhanced by the merger or amalgamation.
(12) The provisions of this section shall mutatis mutandis apply to a company or companies specified in sub-section (1) in respect of a scheme of compromise or arrangement referred to in section 230 or division or transfer of a company referred to clause (b) of subsection (1) of section 232.
(13) The Central Government may provide for the merger or amalgamation of companies in such manner as may be prescribed.
(14) A company covered under this section may use the provisions of section 232 for the approval of any scheme for merger or amalgamation.
Explanation.- For the purposes of this clause, the expression “company” includes any body corporate;
(i) controls the composition of the Board of Directors; or
(ii) exercises or controls more than one-half of the total voting power either at its own or together with one or more of its subsidiary companies:
Provided that such class or classes of holding companies as may be prescribed shall not have layers of subsidiaries beyond such numbers as may be prescribed.
Explanation.—For the purposes of this clause,—
(a) a company shall be deemed to be a subsidiary company of the holding company even if the control referred to in sub-clause (i) or sub-clause (ii) is of another subsidiary company of the holding company;
(b) the composition of a company’s Board of Directors shall be deemed to be controlled by another company if that other company by exercise of some power exercisable by it at its discretion can appoint or remove all or a majority of the directors;
(c) the expression “company” includes any body corporate;
(d) “layer” in relation to a holding company means its subsidiary or subsidiaries.
(i) the subscriber to the memorandum of the company who shall be deemed to have agreed to become member of the company, and on its registration, shall be entered as member in its register of members;
(ii) every other person who agrees in writing to become a member of the company and whose name is entered in the register of members of the company;
(iii) every person holding shares of the company and whose name is entered as a beneficial owner in the records of a depository
- In form INC-28, refer rule 25 of companies (Compromises, Arrangements and Amalgamations) Rules, 2016. To view the rule,Click Here
- Form INC-28 has been revised vide MCA Notification dated 19.01.2023 regarding Companies (Incorporation) Amendment Rules, 2023. To view the Notification, Click here and to view the revised Return, Click here.
Explanation.—For the purpose of this clause—
(a) the expression “significant influence” means control of at least twenty per cent. of total voting power, or control of or participation in business decisions under an agreement;
(b) the expression “joint venture” means a joint arrangement whereby the parties that have joint control of the arrangement have rights to the net assets of the arrangement;
15.1.25- Companies (Compromises, Arrangements and Amalgamations) Rules, 2016
25. Merger or Amalgamation of certain companies.— (1) The notice of the proposed scheme, under clause (a) of subsection (1) of section 233 of the Act, to invite objections or suggestions from the Registrar and Official Liquidator or persons affected by the scheme shall be in
A scheme of merger or amalgamation under section 233 of the Act may be entered into between any of the following class of companies, namely:-
(i) two or more start-up companies; or
(ii) one or more start-up company with one or more small company.
For the purposes of this sub-rule, “start-up company” means a private company incorporated under the Companies Act, 2013 or Companies Act, 1956 and recognised as such in accordance with notification number G.S.R. 127 (E), dated the 19th February, 2019 issued by the Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade.
(2) For the purposes of clause (c) of sub-section (1) of section 233 of the Act the declaration of solvency shall be filed by each of the companies involved in the scheme of merger or amalgamation in along with the fee as provided in the Companies (Registration Offices and Fees) Rules, 2014, before convening the meeting of members and creditors for approval of the scheme.
(3) For the purposes of clause (b) and (d) of sub-section (1) of section 233 of the Act, the notice of the meeting to the members and creditors shall be accompanied by –
(a) a statement, as far as applicable, referred to in sub-section (3) of section 230 of the Act read with sub-rule (3) of rule 6 hereof;
(b) the declaration of solvency made in pursuance of clause (c) of sub-section (1) of section 233 of the Act in
(c) a copy of the scheme.
(4)(a) For the purposes of sub-section (2) of section 233 of the Act, the transferee company shall, within seven days after the conclusion of the meeting of members or class of members or creditors or class of creditors, file a copy of the scheme as agreed to by the members and creditors, along with a report of the result of each of the meetings in Form No. CAA.11 with the Central Government, along with the fees as provided under the Companies (Registration Offices and Fees) Rules, 2014.
(b) Copy of the scheme shall also be filed, along with with –
(i) the Registrar of Companies in along with fees provided under the Companies (Registration Offices and Fees) Rules, 2014; and
(ii) the Official Liquidator through hand delivery or by registered post or speed post.
(5) Where no objection or suggestion is received to the scheme from the Registrar of Companies and Official Liquidator or where the objection or suggestion of Registrar and Official Liquidator is deemed to be not sustainable and the Central Government is of the opinion that the scheme is in the public interest or in the interest of creditors, the Central Government shall issue a confirmation order of such scheme of merger or amalgamation in .
(6) Where objections or suggestions are received from the Registrar of Companies or Official Liquidator and the Central Government is of the opinion, whether on the basis of such objections or otherwise, that the scheme is not in the public interest or in the interest of creditors, it may file an application before the Tribunal in within sixty days of the receipt of the scheme stating its objections or opinion and requesting that Tribunal may consider the scheme under section 232 of the Act.
(7) The confirmation order of the scheme issued by the Central Government or Tribunal under sub-section (7) of section 233 of the Act, shall be filed, within thirty days of the receipt of the order of confirmation, in along with the fees as provided under Companies (Registration Offices and Fees) Rules, 2014 with the Registrar of Companies having jurisdiction over the transferee and transferor companies respectively.
(8) For the purpose of this rule, it is clarified that with respect to schemes of arrangement or compromise falling within the purview of section 233 of the Act, the concerned companies may, at their discretion, opt to undertake such schemes under sections 230 to 232 of the Act, including where the condition prescribed in clause (d) of sub-section (1) of section 233 of the Act has not been met.
(1) A foreign company incorporated outside India may merge with an Indian company after obtaining prior approval of Reserve Bank of India and after complying with the provisions of sections 230 to 232 of the Act and these rules.
(2) (a) A company may merge with a foreign company incorporated in any of the jurisdictions specified in Annexure B after obtaining prior approval of the Reserve Bank of India and after complying with provisions of sections 230 to 232 of the Act and these rules.
(b) The transferee company shall ensure that valuation is conducted by valuers who are members of a recognised professional body in the jurisdiction of the transferee company and further that such valuation is in accordance with internationally accepted principles on accounting and valuation. A declaration to this effect shall be attached with the application made to Reserve Bank of India for obtaining its approval under clause (a) of this sub-rule.
(3) The concerned company shall file an application before the Tribunal as per provisions of section 230 to section 232 of the Act and these rules after obtaining approvals specified in sub-rule (1) and sub-rule (2), as the case may be.
Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-rule (3), in case of a compromise or an arrangement or merger or demerger between an Indian company and a company or body corporate which has been incorporated in a country which shares land border with India, a declaration in shall be required at the stage of submission of application under section 230 of the Act.
Explanation 1._ For the purposes of this rule the term “company” means a company as defined in clause (20) of section 2 of the Act and the term “foreign company” means a company or body corporate incorporated outside India whether having a place of business in India or not:
Explanation 2. For the purposes of this rule, it is clarified that no amendment shall be made in this rule without consultation of the Reserve Bank of India.
Jurisdictions referred to in clause (a) of sub-rule (2) of rule 25A
(i) whose securities market regulator is a signatory to International Organization of Securities Commission’s Multilateral Memorandum of Understanding (Appendix A Signatories) or a signatory to bilateral Memorandum of Understanding with SEBI, or
(ii) whose central bank is a member of Bank for International Settlements (BIS), and
(iii) a jurisdiction, which is not identified in the public statement of Financial Action Task Force (FATF) as:
(a) a jurisdiction having a strategic Anti-Money Laundering or Combating the Financing of Terrorism deficiencies to which counter measures apply; or
(b) a jurisdiction that has not made sufficient progress in addressing the deficiencies or has not committed to an action plan developed with the Financial Action Task Force to address the deficiencies
Amalgamations) Amendment Rules, 2021 dated 01.02.2021.To view the notification Click Here.
Amalgamations) Amendment Rules, 2021 dated 01.02.2021.To view the notification Click Here.
Amalgamations) Amendment Rules, 2022 dated 30.05.2022. To view the notification, Click Here.
Companies (Compromises, Arrangements and Amalgamations) Amendment Rules, 2017 dated 13/04/2017