valid as on 09/12/2019

Section 133. Central Government to prescribe accounting standards
Effective from 12-09-2013 except fonts in green

Regulation 48 of LODR

The Central Government  the standards of accounting or any addendum thereto, as recommended by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India, constituted under section 3 of the Chartered Accountants Act, 1949, in consultation with and after examination of the recommendations made by the National Financial Reporting Authority.

 that until the National financial Reporting Authority is constituted under section 132 of the Companies Act, 2013 (18 of 2013),  the standards of accounting or any addendum  there to as recommended  by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India constituted under  section 3 of the Chartered Accountants Act. 1949 (18 of 1949) in consultation with and after examination or the recommendations made by National Advisory Committee on Accounting Standards constituted under section 210 A of the Companies Act, I956. (Effective from 1st April,2015)

All Regional Directors and Registrar of Companies are instructed by MCA that till the Standards of Accounting or any addendum thereto are prescribed by Central Government in consultation and recommendation of the National Financial Reporting Authority, the existing Accounting Standards notified under the Companies Act, 1956 shall continue to apply vide General Circular 15/2013. To view the clarification,Click Here
inserted vide Companies (Removal of Difficulties) Second Order,20I6. To view the order,Click Here
 In exercise of the powers conferred by Section 133 read with section 469 of the Companies Act, 2013 (18 of 2013) and sub-section (1) of Section 210A of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956), the Central Government, in consultation with the National Advisory Committee on Accounting Standards, hereby makes rules on Accounting Standards. To view the rules and amendment thereto Click Here

9.1.7-Companies (Accounts) Rules,2014

7. Transitional provisions with respect to Accounting Standards.-

(1) The standards of accounting as specified under the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956) shall be deemed to be the accounting standards until accounting standards are specified by the Central Government under section 133.

(2) Till the National Financial Reporting Authority is constituted under section 132 of the Act, the Central Government may prescribe the standards of accounting or any addendum thereto, as recommended by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India in consultation with and after examination of the recommendations made by the National Advisory Committee on Accounting Standards constituted under section 210A of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956).


9.3.1- Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015

Short title and commencement.-
(1) These rules may be called the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015.
(2) They shall come into force on the 1st day of April, 2015.


9.3.2- Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015

Definitions.-
(1) In these rules, unless the context otherwise requires,-
(a)“Accounting Standards” means the standards of accounting, or any addendum thereto for companies or class of companies as specified in rule 3;
(b)“Act” means the Companies Act, 2013 (18 of 2013);
(c)“Annexure” in relation to these rules means the Annexure containing the Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS) appended to these rules;
(d)“entity” means a company as defined in clause (20) of Section 2 of the Act;
(e)“financial statements” means financial statements as defined in clause (40) of Section 2 of the Act;
(f)“net worth” shall have the meaning assigned to it in clause (57) of Section 2 of the Act.
(2) used herein and not defined in these rules but defined in the Act shall have the same meaning respectively assigned to them in the Act.

 words and expressions used and not defined in this Act but defined in the Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1956 (42 of 1956) or the Securities and Exchange Board of India Act, 1992 (15 of 1992) or the Depositories Act, 1996 (22 of 1996) shall have the meanings respectively assigned to them in those Acts

9.3.3- Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015

Applicability of Accounting Standards. –
(1) The accounting standards as specified in the Annexure to these rules to be called the Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS) shall be the accounting standards applicable to classes of companies specified in rule 4.
(2) The Accounting standards as specified in Annexure to the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 shall be the Accounting Standards applicable to the companies other than the classes of companies specified in rule 4.
(3) A company which follows the Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS) specified in Annexure to these rules in accordance with the provisions of rule 4 shall follow such standards only.
(4) A company which follows the accounting standards specified in Annexure to the Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 shall comply with such standards only and not the Standards specified in Annexure to these rules.


9.3.4- Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015

. –
(1) The Companies and their auditors shall comply with the Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS) specified in Annexure to these rules in preparation of their financial statements and audit respectively, in the following manner, namely:-
(i) any company may comply with the Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS) for financial statements for accounting periods beginning on or after 1st April, 2015, with the comparatives for the periods ending on 31st March, 2015, or thereafter;
(ii) the following companies shall comply with the Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS) for the accounting periods beginning on or after 1st April, 2016, with the comparatives for the periods ending on 31st March, 2016, or thereafter, namely:-
(a) companies whose equity or debt securities are listed or are in the process of being listed on any stock exchange in India or outside India and having net worth of rupees five hundred crore or more;
(b) companies other than those covered by sub-clause (a) of clause (ii) of sub- rule (1) and having net worth of rupees five hundred crore or more;
(c) holding, subsidiary, joint venture or associate companies of companies covered by sub-clause (a) of clause (ii) of sub- rule (1) and sub-clause (b) of clause (ii) of sub- rule (1) as the case may be; and
(iii) the following companies shall comply with the Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS) for the accounting periods beginning on or after 1st April, 2017, with the comparatives for the periods ending on 31st March, 2017, or thereafter, namely:-
(a) companies whose equity or debt securities are listed or are in the process of being listed on any stock exchange in India or outside India and having net worth of less than rupees five hundred crore;
(b) companies other than those covered in clause (ii) of sub- rule (1) and sub clause (a) of clause (iii) of sub-rule (1), that is, unlisted companies having net worth of rupees two hundred and fifty crore or more but less than rupees five hundred crore.
(c) holding, subsidiary, joint venture or associate companies of companies covered under sub-clause (a) of clause (iii) of sub- rule (1) and sub-clause (b) of clause (iii) of sub- rule (1), as the case may be:
Provided that nothing in this sub-rule, except clause (i), shall apply to companies whose securities are listed or are in the process of being listed on SME exchange as referred to in Chapter XB or on the Institutional Trading Platform without initial public offering in accordance with the provisions of Chapter XC of the Securities and Exchange Board of India (Issue of Capital and Disclosure Requirements) Regulations, 2009.
Explanation 1. – SME Exchange shall have the same meaning as assigned to it in Chapter XB of the Securities and Exchange Board of India (Issue of Capital and Disclosure Requirements) Regulations, 2009.
Explanation 2. – “Comparatives” shall mean comparative figures for the preceding accounting period.
(2) For the purposes of calculation of net worth of companies under sub-rule (1), the following principles shall apply, namely:-
(a) the net worth shall be calculated in accordance with the stand-alone financial statements of the company as on 31st March, 2014 or the first audited financial statements for accounting period which ends after that date;
(b) for companies which are not in existence on 31st March, 2014 or an existing company falling under any of thresholds specified in sub-rule (1) for the first time after 31st March, 2014, the net worth shall be calculated on the basis of the first audited financial statements ending after that date in respect of which it meets the thresholds specified in sub-rule (1).
Explanation.- For the purposes of sub-clause (b), the companies meeting the specified thresholds given in sub-rule (1) for the first time at the end of an accounting year shall apply Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS) from the
immediate next accounting year in the manner specified in sub-rule (1).
Illustration.-
(i) The companies meeting threshold for the first time as on 31st March, 2017 shall apply Ind AS for the financial year 2017-18 onwards.
(ii) The companies meeting threshold for the first time as on 31st March, 2018 shall apply Ind AS for the financial year 2018-19 onwards and so on.
(3) Standards in Annexure to these rules once required to be complied with in accordance with these rules, shall apply to both stand-alone financial statements and consolidated financial statements.
(4) Companies to which Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS) are applicable as specified in these rules shall prepare their first set of financial statements in accordance with the Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS) effective at the end of its first Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS) reporting period.
Explanation.- For the removal of doubts, it is here by clarified that the companies preparing financial statements applying the Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS) for the accounting period beginning on 1st April, 2016 shall apply the Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS) effective for the financial year ending on 31st March, 2017.
(5) Overseas subsidiary, associate, joint venture and other similar entities of an Indian company may prepare its standalone financial statements in accordance with the requirements of the specific jurisdiction:
Provided that such Indian company shall prepare its consolidated financial statements in accordance with the Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS) either voluntarily or mandatorily if it meets the criteria as specified in sub-rule (1).
(6) Indian company which is a subsidiary, associate, joint venture and other similar entities of a foreign company shall prepare its financial statements in accordance with the Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS) either voluntarily or mandatorily if it meets the criteria as specified in sub-rule (1).
(7) Any company opting to apply the Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS) voluntarily as specified in sub rule (1) for its financial statements shall prepare its financial statements as per the Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS) consistently.
(8) Once the Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS) are applied voluntarily, it shall be irrevocable and such companies shall not be required to prepare another set of financial statements in accordance with Accounting Standards specified in Annexure to Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006.
(9) Once a company starts following the Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS) either voluntarily or mandatorily on the basis of criteria specified in sub-rule (1), it shall be required to follow the Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS) for all the subsequent financial statements even if any of the criteria specified in this rule does not subsequently apply to it.

This Rule shall apply to the holding companies that are covered under the corporate roadmap and if the company has got payment bank or small finance bank as its subsidiary then the subsidiaries are required to follow the banking sector roadmap prescribed by RBI, vide Clarification No. 10/2017 dated 13/09/2017. To view the clarification,Click Here

9.3.5- Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015

Exemptions.-
The insurance companies, banking companies and non-banking finance companies shall not be required to apply Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS) for preparation of their financial statements either voluntarily or mandatorily as specified in sub-rule (1) of rule 4.


Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 1

Presentation of Financial Statements
(This Indian Accounting Standard includes paragraphs set in bold type and plain type, which have equal authority.
Paragraphs in bold type indicate the main principles).

Objective
1 This Standard prescribes the basis for presentation of general purpose financial statements to ensure comparability both with the entity’s financial statements of previous periods and with the financial statements of other entities. It sets out overall requirements for the presentation of financial statements, guidelines for their structure and minimum requirements for their content.

Scope
2 An entity shall apply this Standard in preparing and presenting general purpose financial statements in accordance with Indian Accounting Standards (Ind ASs).

3 Other Ind ASs set out the recognition, measurement and disclosure requirements for specific transactions and other events.

4 This Standard does not apply to the structure and content of condensed interim financial statements prepared in accordance with Ind AS 34, Interim Financial Reporting. However, paragraphs 15–35 apply to such financial statements. This Standard applies equally to all entities, including those that present consolidated financial statements in accordance with Ind AS 110, Consolidated Financial Statements, and those that present separate financial statements in accordance with Ind AS 27, Separate Financial Statements.

5 This Standard uses terminology that is suitable for profit-oriented entities, including public sector business entities. If entities with not-for-profit activities in the private sector or the public sector apply this Standard, they may need to amend the descriptions used for particular line items in the financial statements and for the financial statements themselves.

6 Similarly, entities whose share capital is not equity may need to adapt the financial statement presentation of members’ interests.

Definitions
7 The following terms are used in this Standard with the meanings specified:
General purpose financial statements (referred to as ‘financial statements’) are those intended to meet the needs of users who are not in a position to require an entity to prepare reports tailored to their particular information needs.
Impracticable Applying a requirement is impracticable when the entity cannot apply it after making every reasonable effort to do so.
Indian Accounting Standards (Ind ASs) are Standards prescribed under Section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013.
Material Omissions or misstatements of items are material if they could, individually or collectively, influence the economic decisions that users make on the basis of the financial statements. Materiality depends on the size and nature of the omission or misstatement judged in the surrounding circumstances. The size or nature of the item, or a combination of both, could be the determining factor.
Assessing whether an omission or misstatement could influence economic decisions of users, and so be material, requires consideration of the characteristics of those users. The Framework for the Preparation and Presentation of Financial Statements issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India states in paragraph 25 that ‘users are assumed to have a reasonable knowledge of business and economic activities and accounting and a willingness to study the information with reasonable diligence.’ Therefore, the assessment needs to take into account how users with such attributes could reasonably be expected to be influenced in making economic decisions.
Notes contain information in addition to that presented in the balance sheet ), statement of profit and loss, statement of changes in equity and statement of cash flows. Notes provide narrative descriptions or disaggregations of items presented in those statements and information about items that do not qualify for recognition in those statements.
Other comprehensive income comprises items of income and expense (including reclassification adjustments) that are not recognised in profit or loss as required or permitted by other Ind ASs.

The components of other comprehensive income include:

(a) changes in revaluation surplus (see Ind AS 16, Property, Plant and Equipment and Ind AS 38, Intangible Assets);
(b) reameasurements of defined benefit plans (see Ind AS 19, Employee Benefits);
(c) gains and losses arising from translating the financial statements of a foreign operation (see Ind AS 21, The Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates);
(d) gains and losses from investments in equity instruments designated at fair value through other comprehensive income in accordance with paragraph 5.7.5 of Ind AS 109, Financial Instruments;
(da) gains and losseson financial assets measured at fair value through other comprehensive income in accordance with paragraph 4.1.2A of Ind AS 109.
(e) the effective portion of gains and losses on hedging instruments in a cash flow hedge and the gains and losses on hedging instruments that hedge investments in equity instruments measured at fair value through other comprehensive income in accordance with paragraph 5.7.5 of Ind AS 109 (see Chapter 6 of Ind AS 109);
(f) for particular liabilities designated as at fair value through profit or loss, the amount of the change in fair value that is attributable to changes in the liability’s credit risk (see paragraph 5.7.7 of Ind AS 109);
(g) changes in the value of the time value of options when separating the intrinsic value and time value of an option contract and designating as the hedging instrument only the changes in the intrinsic value (see Chapter 6 of Ind AS 109);
(h) changes in the value of the forward elements of forward contracts when separating the forward element and spot element of a forward contract and designating as the hedging instrument only the changes in the spot element, and changes in the value of the foreign currency basis spread of a financial instrument when excluding it from the designation of that financial instrument as the hedging instrument (see Chapter 6 of Ind AS 109).

Owners are holders of instruments classified as equity.
Profit or loss is the total of income less expenses, excluding the components of other comprehensive income.
Reclassification adjustments are amounts reclassified to profit or loss in the current period that were recognised in other comprehensive income in the current or previous periods.
Total comprehensive income is the change in equity during a period resulting from transactions and other events, other than those changes resulting from transactions with owners in their capacity as owners.
Total comprehensive income comprises all components of ‘profit or loss’ and of ‘other comprehensive income’.

8 [Refer Appendix 1]

8A The following terms are described in Ind AS 32, Financial Instruments: Presentation, and are used in this Standard with the meaning specified in Ind AS 32:

(a) puttable financial instrument classified as an equity instrument (described in paragraphs 16A and 16B of Ind AS 32)
(b) an instrument that imposes on the entity an obligation to deliver to another party a pro rata share of the net assets of the entity only on liquidation and is classified as an equity instrument (described in paragraphs 16C and 16D of Ind AS 32).

Financial statements
Purpose of financial statements
9 Financial statements are a structured representation of the financial position and financial performance of an entity. The objective of financial statements is to provide information about the financial position, financial performance and cash flows of an entity that is useful to a wide range of users in making economic decisions. Financial statements also show the results of the management’s stewardship of the resources entrusted to it. To meet this objective, financial statements provide information about an entity’s:

(a) assets;
(b) liabilities;
(c) equity;
(d) income and expenses, including gains and losses;
(e) contributions by and distributions to owners in their capacity as owners; and
(f) cash flows.

This information, along with other information in the notes, assists users of financial statements in predicting the entity’s future cash flows and, in particular, their timing and certainty.

Complete set of financial statements
10 A complete set of financial statements comprises:

(a) a balance sheet as at the end of the period ;

(b) a statement of profit and loss for the period;

(c) Statement of changes in equity for the period;

(d) a statement of cash flows for the period;

(e) notes, comprising a summary of significant accounting policies and other explanatory information; and

notes, comprising significant accounting policies and other explanatory information;

(ea) comparative information in respect of the preceding period as specified in paragraphs 38 and 38A; and

(f) a balance sheet as at the beginning of the preceding period when an entity applies an accounting policy retrospectively or makes a retrospective restatement of items in its financial statements, or when it reclassifies items in its financial statements in accordance with paragraphs 40A–40D.

10A An entity shall present a single statement of profit and loss, with profit or loss and other comprehensive income presented in two sections. The sections shall be presented together, with the profit or loss section presented first followed directly by the other comprehensive income section.

11 An entity shall present with equal prominence all of the financial statements in a complete set of financial statements.

12 [Refer Appendix 1]

13 Many entities present, outside the financial statements, a financial review by management that describes and explains the main features of the entity’s financial performance and financial position, and the principal uncertainties it faces. Such a report may include a review of:

(a) the main factors and influences determining financial performance, including changes in the environment in which the entity operates, the entity’s response to those changes and their effect, and the entity’s policy for investment to maintain and enhance financial performance, including its dividend policy;
(b) the entity’s sources of funding and its targeted ratio of liabilities to equity; and
(c) the entity’s resources not recognised in the balance sheet in accordance with Ind ASs.

14 Many entities also present, outside the financial statements, reports and statements such as environmental reports and value added statements, particularly in industries in which environmental factors are significant and when employees are regarded as an important user group. Reports and statements presented outside financial statements are outside the scope of Ind ASs.

General features
Presentation of True and Fair View and compliance with Ind ASs
15 Financial statements shall present a true and fair view of the financial position, financial performance and cash flows of an entity. Presentation of true and fair view requires the faithful representation of the effects of transactions, other events and conditions in accordance with the definitions and recognition criteria for assets, liabilities, income and expenses set out in the Framework. The application of Ind ASs, with additional disclosure when necessary, is presumed to result in financial statements that present a true and fair view.

16 An entity whose financial statements comply with Ind ASs shall make an explicit and unreserved statement of such compliance in the notes. An entity shall not describe financial statements as complying with Ind ASs unless they comply with all the requirements of Ind ASs.

17 In virtually all circumstances, presentation of a true and fair view is achieved by compliance with applicable Ind ASs. Presentation of a true and fair view also requires an entity:

(a) to select and apply accounting policies in accordance with Ind AS 8, Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors. Ind AS 8 sets out a hierarchy of authoritative guidance that management considers in the absence of an Ind AS that specifically applies to an item.
(b) to present information, including accounting policies, in a manner that provides relevant, reliable, comparable and understandable information.
(c) to provide additional disclosures when compliance with the specific requirements in Ind ASs is insufficient to enable users to understand the impact of particular transactions, other events and conditions on the entity’s financial position and financial performance.

18 An entity cannot rectify inappropriate accounting policies either by disclosure of the accounting policies used or by notes or explanatory material.

19 In the extremely rare circumstances in which management concludes that compliance with a requirement in an Ind AS would be so misleading that it would conflict with the objective of financial statements set out in the Framework, the entity shall depart from that requirement in the manner set out in paragraph 20 if the relevant regulatory framework requires, or otherwise does not prohibit, such a departure.

20 When an entity departs from a requirement of an Ind AS in accordance with paragraph 19, it shall disclose:

(a) that management has concluded that the financial statements present a true and fair view of the entity’s financial position, financial performance and cash flows;
(b) that it has complied with applicable Ind ASs, except that it has departed from a particular requirement to present a true and fair view;
(c) the title of the Ind AS from which the entity has departed, the nature of the departure, including the treatment that the Ind AS would require, the reason why that treatment would be so misleading in the circumstances that it would conflict with the objective of financial statements set out in the Framework, and the treatment adopted; and
(d) for each period presented, the financial effect of the departure on each item in the financial statements that would have been reported in complying with the requirement.

21 When an entity has departed from a requirement of an Ind AS in a prior period, and that departure affects the amounts recognised in the financial statements for the current period, it shall make the disclosures set out in paragraph 20(c) and (d).

22 Paragraph 21 applies, for example, when an entity departed in a prior period from a requirement in an Ind AS for the measurement of assets or liabilities and that departure affects the measurement of changes in assets and liabilities recognised in the current period’s financial statements.

23 In the extremely rare circumstances in which management concludes that compliance with a requirement in an Ind AS would be so misleading that it would conflict with the objective of financial statements set out in the Framework, but the relevant regulatory framework prohibits departure from the requirement, the entity shall, to the maximum extent possible, reduce the perceived misleading aspects of compliance by disclosing:

(a) the title of the Ind AS in question, the nature of the requirement, and the reason why management has concluded that complying with that requirement is so misleading in the circumstances that it conflicts with the objective of financial statements set out in the Framework; and
(b) for each period presented, the adjustments to each item in the financial statements that management has concluded would be necessary to present a true and fair view.

24 For the purpose of paragraphs 19–23, an item of information would conflict with the objective of financial statements when it does not represent faithfully the transactions, other events and conditions that it either purports to represent or could reasonably be expected to represent and, consequently, it would be likely to influence economic decisions made by users of financial statements. When assessing whether complying with
a specific requirement in an Ind AS would be so misleading that it would conflict with the objective of financial statements set out in the Framework, management considers:

(a) why the objective of financial statements is not achieved in the particular circumstances; and
(b) how the entity’s circumstances differ from those of other entities that comply with the requirement. If other entities in similar circumstances comply with the requirement, there is a rebuttable presumption that the entity’s compliance with the requirement would not be so misleading that it would conflict with the objective of financial statements set out in the Framework.

Going concern
25 When preparing financial statements, management shall make an assessment of an entity’s ability to continue as a going concern. An entity shall prepare financial statements on a going concern basis unless management either intends to liquidate the entity or to cease trading, or has no realistic alternative but to do so. When management is aware, in making its assessment, of material uncertainties related to events or conditions that may cast significant doubt upon the entity’s ability to
continue as a going concern, the entity shall disclose those uncertainties. When an entity does not prepare financial statements on a going concern basis, it shall disclose that fact, together with the basis on which it prepared the financial statements and the reason why the entity is not regarded as a going
concern.

26 In assessing whether the going concern assumption is appropriate, management takes into account all available information about the future, which is at least, but is not limited to, twelve months from the end of the reporting period. The degree of consideration depends on the facts in each case. When an entity has a history of profitable operations and ready access to financial resources, the entity may reach a conclusion that
the going concern basis of accounting is appropriate without detailed analysis. In other cases, management may need to consider a wide range of factors relating to current and expected profitability, debt repayment schedules and potential sources of replacement financing before it can satisfy itself that the going concern basis is appropriate.

Accrual basis of accounting
27 An entity shall prepare its financial statements, except for cash flow information, using the accrual basis of accounting.

28 When the accrual basis of accounting is used, an entity recognises items as assets, liabilities, equity, income and expenses (the elements of financial statements) when they satisfy the definitions and recognition criteria for those elements in the Framework.

Materiality and aggregation
29 An entity shall present separately each material class of similar items. An entity shall present separately items of a dissimilar nature or function unless they are immaterial except when required by law.

30 Financial statements result from processing large numbers of transactions or other events that are aggregated into classes according to their nature or function. The final stage in the process of aggregation and classification is the presentation of condensed and classified data, which form line items in the financial statements. If a line item is not individually material, it is aggregated with other items either in those statements or in the notes. An item that is not sufficiently material to warrant separate presentation in those
statements may warrant separate presentation in the notes.

When applying this and other Ind ASs an entity shall decide, taking into consideration all relevant facts and circumstances, how it aggregates information in the financial statements, which include the notes. An entity shall not reduce the understandability of its financial statements by obscuring material information with immaterial information or by aggregating material items that have different natures or functions.

31 An entity need not provide a specific disclosure required by an Ind AS if the information is not material except when required by law.

Some Ind ASs specify information that is required to be included in the financial statements, which include the notes. An entity need not provide a specific disclosure required by an Ind AS if the information resulting from that disclosure is not material except when required by law. This is the case even if the Ind AS contains a list of specific requirements or describes them as minimum requirements. An entity shall also consider whether to provide additional disclosures when compliance with the specific requirements in Ind AS is insufficient to enable users of financial statements to understand the impact of particular transactions, other events and conditions on the entity’s financial position and financial performance.

Offsetting
32 An entity shall not offset assets and liabilities or income and expenses, unless required or permitted by an Ind AS.

33 An entity reports separately both assets and liabilities, and income and expenses. Offsetting in the statement of profit and loss or balance sheet, except when offsetting reflects the substance of the transaction or other event, detracts from the ability of users both to understand the transactions, other events and conditions that have occurred and to assess the entity’s future cash flows. Measuring assets net of valuation allowances—for
example, obsolescence allowances on inventories and doubtful debts allowances on receivables—is not offsetting.

 Ind AS 115, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, requires an entity to measure revenue from contracts with customers at the amount of consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for transferring promised goods or services. For example, the amount of revenue recognized reflects any trade discounts and volume rebates the entity allows. An entity undertakes, in the course of its ordinary activities, other transactions that do not generate revenue but are incidental to the main revenue-generating activities. An entity presents the results of such transactions, when this presentation reflects the substance of the transaction or other event, by netting any income with related expenses arising on the same transaction. For example:

(a) an entity presents gains and losses on the disposal of non-current assets, including investments and operating assets, by deducting from the amount of consideration on disposal the carrying amount of the asset and related selling expenses; and

(b) an entity may net expenditure related to a provision that is recognised in accordance with Ind AS 37, Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets, and reimbursed under a contractual arrangement with a third party (for example, a supplier’s warranty agreement) against the related reimbursement.

34 Ind AS 115, Revenue from Contracts with Customers requires an entity to measure revenue from contracts with customers at the amount of consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for transferring promised goods or services. For example, the amount of revenue recognised reflects any trade discounts and volume rebates the entity allows. An entity undertakes, in the course of its ordinary activities,
other transactions that do not generate revenue but are incidental to the main revenue-generating activities. An entity presents the results of such transactions, when this presentation reflects the substance of the transaction or other event, by netting any income with related expenses arising on the same transaction. For example:

(a) an entity presents gains and losses on the disposal of non-current assets, including investments and operating assets, by deducting from the amount of consideration on disposal the carrying amount of the asset and related selling expenses; and

(b) an entity may net expenditure related to a provision that is recognised in accordance with Ind AS 37, Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets, and reimbursed under a contractual arrangement with a third party (for example, a supplier’s warranty agreement) against the related reimbursement.

Ind AS 18, Revenue, defines revenue and requires an entity to measure it at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable, taking into account the amount of any trade discounts and volume rebates the entity allows. An entity undertakes, in the course of its ordinary activities, other transactions that do not generate revenue but are incidental to the main revenue-generating activities. An entity presents the results of such transactions, when this presentation reflects the substance of the transaction or other event, by netting any income with related expenses arising on the same transaction.
For example:

(a) an entity presents gains and losses on the disposal of non-current assets, including investments and operating assets, by deducting from the proceeds on disposal the carrying amount of the asset and related selling expenses; and

(b) an entity may net expenditure related to a provision that is recognised in accordance with Ind AS 37, Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets, and reimbursed under a contractual arrangement with a third party (for example, a supplier’s warranty agreement) against the related reimbursement.

35 In addition, an entity presents on a net basis gains and losses arising from a group of similar transactions, for example, foreign exchange gains and losses or gains and losses arising on financial instruments held for trading. However, an entity presents such gains and losses separately if they are material.

Frequency of reporting
36 An entity shall present a complete set of financial statements (including comparative information) at least annually. When an entity changes the end of its reporting period and presents financial statements for a period longer or shorter than one year, an entity shall disclose, in addition to the period covered by the financial statements:

(a) the reason for using a longer or shorter period, and
(b) the fact that amounts presented in the financial statements are not entirely comparable.

37 [Refer Appendix 1]

Comparative information
Minimum comparative information
38 Except when Ind ASs permit or require otherwise, an entity shall present comparative information in respect of the preceding period for all amounts reported in the current period’s financial statements. An entity shall include comparative information for narrative and descriptive information if it is relevant to understanding the current period’s financial statements.

38A An entity shall present, as a minimum, two balance sheets , two statements of profit and loss, two statements of cash flows and two statements of changes in equity, and related notes.

38B In some cases, narrative information provided in the financial statements for the preceding period(s) continues to be relevant in the current period. For example, an entity discloses in the current period details of a legal dispute, the outcome of which was uncertain at the end of the preceding period and is yet to be resolved. Users may benefit from the disclosure of information that the uncertainty existed at the end of the preceding
period and from the disclosure of information about the steps that have been taken during the period to resolve the uncertainty.

Additional comparative information
38C An entity may present comparative information in addition to the minimum comparative financial statements required by Ind ASs, as long as that information is prepared in accordance with Ind ASs. This comparative information may consist of one or more statements referred to in paragraph 10, but need not comprise a complete set of financial statements. When this is the case, the entity shall present related note information for those additional statements.

38D For example, an entity may present a third statement of profit and loss (thereby presenting the current period, the preceding period and one additional comparative period). However, the entity is not required to present a third balance sheet, a third statement of cash flows or a third statement of changes in equity (ie an additional
financial statement comparative). The entity is required to present, in the notes to the financial statements, the comparative information related to that additional statement of profit and loss.

39- [Refer Appendix 1]

40

Change in accounting policy, retrospective restatement or reclassification
40A An entity shall present a third balance sheet as at the beginning of the preceding period in addition to the minimum comparative financial statements required in paragraph 38A if:

(a) it applies an accounting policy retrospectively, makes a retrospective restatement of items in its financial statements or reclassifies items in its financial statements; and
(b) the retrospective application, retrospective restatement or the reclassification has a material effect on the information in the balance sheet at the beginning of the preceding period.

40B In the circumstances described in paragraph 40A, an entity shall present three
balance sheets as at:

(a) the end of the current period;
(b) the end of the preceding period; and
(c) the beginning of the preceding period.

40C When an entity is required to present an additional balance sheet in accordance with paragraph 40A, it must disclose the information required by paragraphs 41– 44 and Ind AS 8. However, it need not present the related notes to the opening balance sheet as at the beginning of the preceding period.

40D The date of that opening balance sheet shall be as at the beginning of the preceding period regardless of whether an entity’s financial statements present comparative information for earlier periods (as permitted in
paragraph 38C).

41 If an entity changes the presentation or classification of items in its financial statements, it shall reclassify comparative amounts unless reclassification is impracticable. When an entity reclassifies comparative amounts, it shall disclose (including as at the beginning of the preceding period):

(a) the nature of the reclassification;
(b) the amount of each item or class of items that is reclassified; and
(c) the reason for the reclassification.

42 When it is impracticable to reclassify comparative amounts, an entity shall disclose:

(a) the reason for not reclassifying the amounts, and
(b) the nature of the adjustments that would have been made if the amounts had been reclassified.

43 Enhancing the inter-period comparability of information assists users in making economic decisions, especially by allowing the assessment of trends in financial information for predictive purposes. In some circumstances, it is impracticable to reclassify comparative information for a particular prior period to achieve
comparability with the current period. For example, an entity may not have collected data in the prior period(s) in a way that allows reclassification, and it may be impracticable to recreate the information.

44 Ind AS 8 sets out the adjustments to comparative information required when an entity changes an accounting policy or corrects an error.

Consistency of presentation
45 An entity shall retain the presentation and classification of items in the financial statements from one period to the next unless:

(a) it is apparent, following a significant change in the nature of the entity’s operations or a review of its financial statements, that another presentation or classification would be more appropriate having regard to the criteria for the selection and application of accounting policies in Ind AS 8; or
(b) an Ind AS requires a change in presentation.

46 For example, a significant acquisition or disposal, or a review of the presentation of the financial statements, might suggest that the financial statements need to be presented differently. An entity changes the presentation of its financial statements only if the changed presentation provides information that is reliable and more relevant to users of the financial statements and the revised structure is likely to continue, so that
comparability is not impaired. When making such changes in presentation, an entity reclassifies its comparative information in accordance with paragraphs 41 and 42.

Structure and content
Introduction
47 This Standard requires particular disclosures in the balance sheet or in the statement of profit and loss, or in the statement of changes in equity and requires disclosure of other line items either in those statements or in the notes. Ind AS 7, Statement of Cash Flows, sets out requirements for the presentation of cash flow information.

48 This Standard sometimes uses the term ‘disclosure’ in a broad sense, encompassing items presented in the financial statements. Disclosures are also required by other Ind ASs. Unless specified to the contrary elsewhere in this Standard or in another Ind AS, such disclosures may be made in the financial statements.

Identification of the financial statements
49 An entity shall clearly identify the financial statements and distinguish them from other information in the same published document.

50 Ind ASs apply only to financial statements, and not necessarily to other information presented in an annual report, a regulatory filing, or another document. Therefore, it is important that users can distinguish information that is prepared using Ind ASs from other information that may be useful to users but is not the subject of those requirements.

51 An entity shall clearly identify each financial statement and the notes. In addition, an entity shall display the following information prominently, and repeat it when necessary for the information presented to be understandable:

(a) the name of the reporting entity or other means of identification, and any change in that information from the end of the preceding reporting period;
(b) whether the financial statements are of an individual entity or a group of entities;
(c) the date of the end of the reporting period or the period covered by the set of financial statements or notes;
(d) the presentation currency, as defined in Ind AS 21; and
(e) the level of rounding used in presenting amounts in the financial statements.

52 An entity meets the requirements in paragraph 51 by presenting appropriate headings for pages, statements, notes, columns and the like. Judgement is required in determining the best way of presenting such information. For example, when an entity presents the financial statements electronically, separate pages are not always used; an entity then presents the above items to ensure that the information included in the financial statements can be understood.

53 An entity often makes financial statements more understandable by presenting information in thousands, lakhs, millions or crores of units of the presentation currency. This is acceptable as long as the entity discloses the level of rounding and does not omit material information.

Balance Sheet
Information to be presented in the balance sheet

54 As a minimum, the balance sheet shall include line items that present the following amounts :

The balance sheet shall include line items that present the following amounts:

(a) property, plant and equipment;

(b) investment property;

(c) intangible assets;

(d) financial assets [excluding amounts shown under (e), (h) and (i)];

(e) investments accounted for using the equity method;

(f) biological assets within the scope of Ind AS 41 Agriculture;

(g) inventories;

(h) trade and other receivables;

(i) cash and cash equivalents;

(j) the total of assets classified as held for sale and assets included in disposal groups classified as held for sale in accordance with Ind AS 105, Non-current Assets Held for Sale and Discontinued Operations;

(k) trade and other payables;                                                                                                                  

(l) provisions;

(m) financial liabilities (excluding amounts shown under (k) and (l));

(n) liabilities and assets for current tax, as defined in Ind AS 12, Income Taxes;

(o) deferred tax liabilities and deferred tax assets, as defined in Ind AS 12;

(p) liabilities included in disposal groups classified as held for sale in accordance with Ind AS 105;

(q) non-controlling interests, presented within equity; and

(r) issued capital and reserves attributable to owners of the parent.

55 An entity shall present additional line items, headings and subtotals in the balance sheet when such presentation is relevant to an understanding of the entity’s financial position.

An entity shall present additional line items (including by disaggregating the line items listed in paragraph 54), headings and subtotals in the balance sheet when such presentation is relevant to an understanding of the entity’s financial position.

When an entity presents subtotals in accordance with paragraph 55, those subtotals shall:

(a) be comprised of line items made up of amounts recognised and measured in accordance with Ind AS;

(b) be presented and labelled in a manner that makes the line items that constitute the subtotal clear and understandable;

(c) be consistent from period to period, in accordance with paragraph 45; and

(d) not be displayed with more prominence than the subtotals and totals required in Ind AS for the balance sheet.

56 When an entity presents current and non-current assets, and current and non-current liabilities, as separate classifications in its balance sheet, it shall not classify deferred tax assets (liabilities) as current assets (liabilities).

57 This Standard does not prescribe the order or format in which an entity presents items. Paragraph 54 simply lists items that are sufficiently different in nature or function to warrant separate presentation in the balance sheet. In addition:

(a) line items are included when the size, nature or function of an item or aggregation of similar items is such that separate presentation is relevant to an understanding of the entity’s financial position; and
(b) the descriptions used and the ordering of items or aggregation of similar items may be amended according to the nature of the entity and its transactions, to provide information that is relevant to an understanding of the entity’s financial position. For example, a financial institution may amend the above descriptions to provide information that is relevant to the operations of a financial institution.

58 An entity makes the judgement about whether to present additional items separately on the basis of an assessment of:

(a) the nature and liquidity of assets;
(b) the function of assets within the entity; and
(c) the amounts, nature and timing of liabilities.

59 The use of different measurement bases for different classes of assets suggests that their nature or function differs and, therefore, that an entity presents them as separate line items. For example, different classes of property, plant and equipment can be carried at cost or at revalued amounts in accordance with Ind AS 16.

Current/non-current distinction
60 An entity shall present current and non-current assets, and current and non-current liabilities, as separate classifications in its balance sheet in accordance with paragraphs 66–76 except when a presentation based on liquidity provides information that is reliable and more relevant. When that exception applies, an entity shall present all assets and liabilities in order of liquidity.

61 Whichever method of presentation is adopted, an entity shall disclose the amount expected to be recovered or settled after more than twelve months for each asset and liability line item that combines amounts expected to be recovered or settled:

(a) no more than twelve months after the reporting period, and
(b) more than twelve months after the reporting period.

62 When an entity supplies goods or services within a clearly identifiable operating cycle, separate classification of current and non-current assets and liabilities in the balance sheet provides useful information by distinguishing the net assets that are continuously circulating as working capital from those used in the entity’s long-term operations. It also highlights assets that are expected to be realised within the current operating cycle, and liabilities that are due for settlement within the same period.

63 For some entities, such as financial institutions, a presentation of assets and liabilities in increasing or decreasing order of liquidity provides information that is reliable and more relevant than a current/non-current presentation because the entity does not supply goods or services within a clearly identifiable operating cycle.

64 In applying paragraph 60, an entity is permitted to present some of its assets and liabilities using a current/non-current classification and others in order of liquidity when this provides information that is reliable and more relevant. The need for a mixed basis of presentation might arise when an entity has diverse operations.

65 Information about expected dates of realisation of assets and liabilities is useful in assessing the liquidity and solvency of an entity. Ind AS 107, Financial Instruments: Disclosures, requires disclosure of the maturity dates of financial assets and financial liabilities. Financial assets include trade and other receivables, and financial liabilities include trade and other payables. Information on the expected date of recovery of nonmonetary assets such as inventories and expected date of settlement for liabilities such as provisions is also useful, whether assets and liabilities are classified as current or as non-current. For example, an entity discloses the amount of inventories that are expected to be recovered more than twelve months after the reporting period.

Current assets
66 An entity shall classify an asset as current when:

(a) it expects to realise the asset, or intends to sell or consume it, in its normal operating cycle;
(b) it holds the asset primarily for the purpose of trading;
(c) it expects to realise the asset within twelve months after the reporting period; or
(d) the asset is cash or a cash equivalent (as defined in Ind AS 7) unless the asset is restricted from being exchanged or used to settle a liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period.

An entity shall classify all other assets as non-current.
67 This Standard uses the term ‘non-current’ to include tangible, intangible and financial assets of a long-term nature. It does not prohibit the use of alternative descriptions as long as the meaning is clear.

68 The operating cycle of an entity is the time between the acquisition of assets for processing and their realisation in cash or cash equivalents. When the entity’s normal operating cycle is not clearly identifiable, it is assumed to be twelve months. Current assets include assets (such as inventories and trade receivables) that are sold, consumed or realised as part of the normal operating cycle even when they are not expected to be
realised within twelve months after the reporting period. Current assets also include assets held primarily for the purpose of trading (examples include some financial assets that meet the definition of held for trading in Ind AS 109) and the current portion of non-current financial assets.

Current liabilities
69 An entity shall classify a liability as current when:

(a) it expects to settle the liability in its normal operating cycle;
(b) it holds the liability primarily for the purpose of trading;
(c) the liability is due to be settled within twelve months after the reporting period; or
(d) it does not have an unconditional right to defer settlement of the liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period (see paragraph 73). Terms of a liability that could, at the option of the counterparty, result in its settlement by the issue of equity instruments do not affect its classification.

An entity shall classify all other liabilities as non-current.
70 Some current liabilities, such as trade payables and some accruals for employee and other operating costs, are part of the working capital used in the entity’s normal operating cycle. An entity classifies such operating items as current liabilities even if they are due to be settled more than twelve months after the reporting period. The same normal operating cycle applies to the classification of an entity’s assets and liabilities. When
the entity’s normal operating cycle is not clearly identifiable, it is assumed to be twelve months.

71 Other current liabilities are not settled as part of the normal operating cycle, but are due for settlement within twelve months after the reporting period or held primarily for the purpose of trading. Examples are some financial liabilities that meet the definition of held for trading in Ind AS 109, bank overdrafts, and the current portion of non-current financial liabilities, dividends payable, income taxes and other non-trade payables.
Financial liabilities that provide financing on a long-term basis (ie are not part of the working capital used in the entity’s normal operating cycle) and are not due for settlement within twelve months after the reporting period are non-current liabilities, subject to paragraphs 74 and 75.

72 An entity classifies its financial liabilities as current when they are due to be settled within twelve months after the reporting period, even if:

(a) the original term was for a period longer than twelve months, and
(b) an agreement to refinance, or to reschedule payments, on a long-term basis is completed after the reporting period and before the financial statements are approved for issue.

73 If an entity expects, and has the discretion, to refinance or roll over an obligation for at least twelve months after the reporting period under an existing loan facility, it classifies the obligation as non-current, even if it would otherwise be due within a shorter period. However, when refinancing or rolling over the obligation is not at the discretion of the entity (for example, there is no arrangement for refinancing), the entity does not
consider the potential to refinance the obligation and classifies the obligation as current.

74 Where there is a breach of a material provision of a long-term loan arrangement on or before the end of the reporting period with the effect that the liability becomes payable on demand on the reporting date, the entity does not classify the liability as current, if the lender agreed, after the reporting period and before the approval of the financial statements for issue, not to demand payment as a consequence of the breach.

75 However, an entity classifies the liability as non-current if the lender agreed by the end of the reporting period to provide a period of grace ending at least twelve months after the reporting period, within which the entity can rectify the breach and during which the lender cannot demand immediate repayment.

76 [Refer Appendix 1]

Information to be presented either in the balance sheet or in the notes
77 An entity shall disclose, either in the balance sheet or in the notes, further subclassifications of the line items presented, classified in a manner appropriate to the entity’s operations.

78 The detail provided in subclassifications depends on the requirements of Ind ASs and on the size, nature and function of the amounts involved. An entity also uses the factors set out in paragraph 58 to decide the basis of subclassification. The disclosures vary for each item, for example:

(a) items of property, plant and equipment are disaggregated into classes in accordance with Ind AS 16;
(b) receivables are disaggregated into amounts receivable from trade customers, receivables from related parties, prepayments and other amounts;
(c) inventories are disaggregated, in accordance with Ind AS 2, Inventories, into classifications such as merchandise, production supplies, materials, work in progress and finished goods;
(d) provisions are disaggregated into provisions for employee benefits and other items; and
(e) equity capital and reserves are disaggregated into various classes, such as paid-in capital, share premium and reserves.

79 An entity shall disclose the following, either in the balance sheet or the statement of changes in equity, or in the notes:

(a) for each class of share capital:

(i) the number of shares authorised;
(ii) the number of shares issued and fully paid, and issued but not fully paid;
(iii) par value per share, or that the shares have no par value;
(iv) a reconciliation of the number of shares outstanding at the beginning and at the end of the period;
(v) the rights, preferences and restrictions attaching to that class including restrictions on the distribution of dividends and the repayment of capital;
(vi) shares in the entity held by the entity or by its subsidiaries or associates; and
(vii) shares reserved for issue under options and contracts for the sale of shares, including terms and amounts; and

(b) a description of the nature and purpose of each reserve within equity.

80 An entity whose capital is not limited by shares eg, a company limited by guarantee, shall disclose information equivalent to that required by paragraph 79(a), showing changes during the period in each category of equity interest, and the rights, preferences and restrictions attaching to each category of equity interest.

80A If an entity has reclassified

(a) a puttable financial instrument classified as an equity instrument, or
(b) an instrument that imposes on the entity an obligation to deliver to another party a pro rata share of the net assets of the entity only on liquidation and is classified as an equity instrument between financial liabilities and equity, it shall disclose the amount reclassified into and out of each category (financial liabilities or equity), and the timing and reason for that reclassification.

Statement of Profit and Loss
81 [Refer Appendix 1]

81A The statement of profit and loss shall present, in addition to the profit or loss and other comprehensive income sections:
(a) profit or loss;
(b) total other comprehensive income;
(c) comprehensive income for the period, being the total of profit or loss and other comprehensive income.

81B An entity shall present the following items, in addition to the profit or loss and other comprehensive income sections, as allocation of profit or loss and other comprehensive income for the period:

(a) profit or loss for the period attributable to:

(i) non-controlling interests, and
(ii) owners of the parent.

(b) comprehensive income for the period attributable to:

(i) non-controlling interests, and
(ii) owners of the parent.

Information to be presented in the profit or loss section of the statement of profit and loss
82 In addition to items required by other Ind ASs, the profit or loss section of the statement of profit and loss shall include line items that present the following amounts for the period:

(a) revenue, presenting separately interest revenue calculated using the effective interest method;
(aa) gains and losses arising from the derecognition of financial assets
measured at amortised cost;
(b) finance costs;
(ba) impairment losses (including reversals of impairment losses or impairment gains) determined in accordance with Section 5.5 of Ind AS 109;
(c) share of the profit or loss of associates and joint ventures accounted for using the equity method;
(ca) if a financial asset is reclassified out of the amortised cost measurement category so that it is measured at fair value through profit or loss, any gain or loss arising from a difference between the previous amortised cost of the financial asset and its fair value at the reclassification date (as defined in Ind AS 109);
(cb) if a financial asset is reclassified out of the fair value through other comprehensive income measurement category so that it is measured at fair value through profit or loss, any cumulative gain or loss previously recognised in other comprehensive income that is
reclassified to profit or loss;
(d) tax expense;
(e) [Refer Appendix 1]
(ea) a single amount for the total of discontinued operations (see Ind AS 105).
(f)-(i) [Refer Appendix 1]

Information to be presented in the other comprehensive income section

82A The other comprehensive income section shall present line items for amounts of other comprehensive income in the period, classified by nature (including share of the other comprehensive income of associates and joint ventures accounted for using the equity method) and grouped into those that, in accordance with other Ind ASs:

(a) will not be reclassified subsequently to profit or loss; and
(b) will be reclassified subsequently to profit or loss when specific conditions are met.

The other comprehensive income section shall present line items for the amounts for the period of:

(a) items of other comprehensive income (excluding amounts in paragraph (b)), classified by nature and grouped into those that, in accordance with other Ind ASs:

(i) will not be reclassified subsequently to profit or loss; and
(ii) will be reclassified subsequently to profit or loss when specific conditions are met.

(b) the share of the other comprehensive income of associates and joint ventures accounted for using the equity method, separated into the share of items that, in accordance with other Ind ASs:

(i) will not be reclassified subsequently to profit or loss; and
(ii) will be reclassified subsequently to profit or loss when specific conditions are met.

83 [Refer Appendix 1]

84 [Refer Appendix 1]

85 An entity shall present additional line items, headings and subtotals in the statement of profit and loss, when such presentation is relevant to an understanding of the entity’s financial performance.

An entity shall present additional line items (including by disaggregating the line items listed in paragraph 82), headings and subtotals in the statement of profit and loss, when such presentation is relevant to an understanding of the entity’s financial performance.

When an entity presents subtotals in accordance with paragraph 85, those subtotals shall:

(a) be comprised of line items made up of amounts recognised and measured in accordance with Ind AS;

(b) be presented and labelled in a manner that makes the line items that constitute the subtotal clear and understandable;

(c) be consistent from period to period, in accordance with paragraph 45; and

(d) not be displayed with more prominence than the subtotals and totals required in Ind AS for the statement of profit and loss.

An entity shall present the line items in the statement of profit and loss that reconcile any subtotals presented in accordance with paragraph 85 with the subtotals or totals required in Ind AS for such statement.

86 Because the effects of an entity’s various activities, transactions and other events differ in frequency, potential for gain or loss and predictability, disclosing the components of financial performance assists users in understanding the financial performance achieved and in making projections of future financial performance. An entity includes additional line items in the statement of profit and loss, and it amends the descriptions used
and the ordering of items when this is necessary to explain the elements of financial performance. An entity considers factors including materiality and the nature and function of the items of income and expense. For example, a financial institution may amend the descriptions to provide information that is relevant to the operations of a financial institution. An entity does not offset income and expense items unless the criteria in
paragraph 32 are met.

87 An entity shall not present any items of income or expense as extraordinary items, in the statement of profit and loss or in the notes.

Profit or loss for the period
88 An entity shall recognise all items of income and expense in a period in profit or loss unless an Ind AS requires or permits otherwise.

89 Some Ind ASs specify circumstances when an entity recognises particular items outside profit or loss in the current period. Ind AS 8 specifies two such circumstances: the correction of errors and the effect of changes in accounting policies. Other Ind ASs require or permit components of other comprehensive income that meet the Framework’s definition of income or expense to be excluded from profit or loss (see paragraph 7).

Other comprehensive income for the period
90 An entity shall disclose the amount of income tax relating to each item of other comprehensive income, including reclassification adjustments, either in the statement of profit and loss or in the notes.

91 An entity may present items of other comprehensive income either:

(a) net of related tax effects, or
(b) before related tax effects with one amount shown for the aggregate amount of income tax relating to those items.

If an entity elects alternative (b), it shall allocate the tax between the items that might be reclassified subsequently to the profit or loss section and those that will not be reclassified subsequently to the profit or loss section.

92 An entity shall disclose reclassification adjustments relating to components of other comprehensive income.

93 Other Ind ASs specify whether and when amounts previously recognised in other comprehensive income are reclassified to profit or loss. Such reclassifications are referred to in this Standard as reclassification adjustments. A reclassification adjustment is included with the related component of other comprehensive income in the period that the adjustment is reclassified to profit or loss. These amounts may have been recognised in other comprehensive income as unrealised gains in the current or previous periods. Those unrealised gains must be deducted from other comprehensive income in the period in which the realised gains are reclassified to profit or loss to avoid including them in total comprehensive income twice.

94 An entity may present reclassification adjustments in the statement of profit and loss or in the notes. An entity presenting reclassification adjustments in the notes presents the items of other comprehensive income after any related reclassification adjustments.

95 Reclassification adjustments arise, for example, on disposal of a foreign operation (see Ind AS 21) and when some hedged forecast cash flow affect profit or loss (see paragraph 6.5.11(d) of Ind AS109 in relation to cash flow hedges).

96 Reclassification adjustments do not arise on changes in revaluation surplus recognised in accordance with Ind AS 16 or Ind AS 38 or on reameasurements of defined benefit plans recognised in accordance with Ind AS 19. These components are recognised in other comprehensive income and are not reclassified to profit or loss in subsequent periods. Changes in revaluation surplus may be transferred to retained earnings in subsequent
periods as the asset is used or when it is derecognised (see Ind AS 16 and Ind AS 38). In accordance with Ind AS 109, reclassification adjustments do not arise if a cash flow hedge or the accounting for the time value of an option (or the forward element of a forward contract or the foreign currency basis spread of a financial instrument) result in amounts that are removed from the cash flow hedge reserve or a separate component of equity, respectively, and included directly in the initial cost or other carrying amount of an asset or a liability. These amounts are directly transferred to assets or liabilities.

Information to be presented in the statement of profit and loss or in the notes
97 When items of income or expense are material, an entity shall disclose their nature and amount separately.

98 Circumstances that would give rise to the separate disclosure of items of income and expense include:

(a) write-downs of inventories to net realisable value or of property, plant and equipment to recoverable amount, as well as reversals of such write-downs;
(b) restructurings of the activities of an entity and reversals of any provisions for the costs of restructuring;
(c) disposals of items of property, plant and equipment;
(d) disposals of investments;
(e) discontinued operations;
(f) litigation settlements; and
(g) other reversals of provisions.

99 An entity shall present an analysis of expenses recognised in profit or loss using a classification based on the nature of expense method.

100 Entities are encouraged to present the analysis in paragraph 99 in the statement of profit and loss.

101 Expenses are subclassified to highlight components of financial performance that may differ in terms of frequency, potential for gain or loss and predictability. This analysis is provided in the form as described in paragraph 102.

102 In the analysis based on the ‘nature of expense’ method, an entity aggregates expenses within profit or loss according to their nature (for example, depreciation, purchases of materials, transport costs, employee benefits and advertising costs), and does not reallocate them among functions within the entity. This method is simple to apply because no allocations of expenses to functional classifications are necessary. An example of a classification using the nature of expense method is as follows:
Revenue X
Other income X
Changes in inventories of finished goods and work
in progress X
Raw materials and consumables used X
Employee benefits expense X
Depreciation and amortisation expense X
Other expenses X
Total expenses (X)
Profit before tax X

103 [Refer Appendix 1]

104 [Refer Appendix 1]

105 [Refer Appendix 1]

Statement of changes in equity
Information to be presented in the statement of changes in equity
106 An entity shall present a statement of changes in equity as required by paragraph 10. The statement of changes in equity includes the following information:

(a) total comprehensive income for the period, showing separately the total amounts attributable to owners of the parent and to non-controlling interests;
(b) for each component of equity, the effects of retrospective application or retrospective restatement recognised in accordance with Ind AS 8;
(c) [Refer Appendix 1]
(d) for each component of equity, a reconciliation between the carrying amount at the beginning and the end of the period, separately (as a minimum) disclosing changes resulting from:

(i) profit or loss;
(ii) other comprehensive income;
(iii) transactions with owners in their capacity as owners, showing separately contributions by and distributions to owners and changes in ownership interests in subsidiaries that do not result in a loss of control; and
(iv) any item recognised directly in equity such as amount recognised directly in equity as capital reserve with paragraph 36A of Ind AS 103.

Information to be presented in the statement of changes in equity or in the notes 106A For each component of equity an entity shall present, either in the statement of changes in equity or in the notes, an analysis of other comprehensive income by item (see paragraph 106 (d) (ii)).

107 An entity shall present, either in the statement of changes in equity or in the notes, the amount of dividends recognised as distributions to owners during the period, and the related amount of dividends per share.

108 In paragraph 106, the components of equity include, for example, each class of contributed equity, the accumulated balance of each class of other comprehensive income and retained earnings.

109 Changes in an entity’s equity between the beginning and the end of the reporting period reflect the increase or decrease in its net assets during the period. Except for changes resulting from transactions with owners in their capacity as owners (such as equity contributions, reacquisitions of the entity’s own equity instruments and dividends) and transaction costs directly related to such transactions, the overall change in equity during a period represents the total amount of income and expense, including gains and losses, generated by the entity’s activities during that period.

110 Ind AS 8 requires retrospective adjustments to effect changes in accounting policies, to the extent practicable, except when the transition provisions in another Ind AS require otherwise. Ind AS 8 also requires restatements to correct errors to be made retrospectively, to the extent practicable. Retrospective adjustments and retrospective restatements are not changes in equity but they are adjustments to the opening balance of retained earnings, except when an Ind AS requires retrospective adjustment of another component of equity. Paragraph 106(b) requires disclosure in the statement of changes in equity of the total adjustment to each component of equity resulting from changes in accounting policies and, separately, from corrections of errors. These adjustments are disclosed for each prior period and the beginning of the period.

Statement of cash flows
111 Cash flow information provides users of financial statements with a basis to assess the ability of the entity to generate cash and cash equivalents and the needs of the entity to utilise those cash flows. Ind AS 7 sets out requirements for the presentation and disclosure of cash flow information.

Notes
Structure
112 The notes shall:

(a) present information about the basis of preparation of the financial statements and the specific accounting policies used in accordance with paragraphs 117–124;    (b) disclose the information required by Ind ASs that is not presented elsewhere in the financial statements; and
(c) provide information that is not presented elsewhere in the financial statements, but is relevant to an understanding of any of them.

113 An entity shall present notes in a systematic manner. An entity shall cross-reference each item in the balance sheet and in the statement of profit and loss, and in the statements of changes in equity and of cash flows to any related information in the notes.

An entity shall present notes in a systematic manner. In determining a systematic manner, the entity shall consider the effect on the understandability and comparability of its financial statements. An entity shall cross-reference each item in the balance sheet and in the statement of profit and loss, and in the statements of changes in equity and of cash flows to any related information in the notes.

114 An entity normally presents notes in the following order, to assist users to understand the financial statements and to compare them with financial statements of other entities:

(a) statement of compliance with Ind ASs (see paragraph 16);

(b) summary of significant accounting policies applied (see paragraph 117);

(c) supporting information for items presented in the balance sheet, and in the statement of profit and loss, and in the statements of changes in equity and of cash flows, in the order in which each statement and each line item is presented; and

(d) other disclosures, including:

(i) contingent liabilities (see Ind AS 37) and unrecognised contractual commitments, and

(ii) non-financial disclosures, eg the entity’s financial risk management objectives and policies (see Ind AS 107).

Examples of systematic ordering or grouping of the notes include:

(a) giving prominence to the areas of its activities that the entity considers to be most relevant to an understanding of its financial performance and financial position, such as grouping together information about particular operating activities;

(b) grouping together information about items measured similarly such as assets measured at fair value; or

(c) following the order of the line items in the statement of profit and loss and the balance
sheet, such as:

(i) statement of compliance with Ind ASs (see paragraph 16);

(ii) significant accounting policies applied (see paragraph 117);

(iii) supporting information for items presented in the balance sheet and in the statement of profit and loss, and in the statements of changes in equity and of cash flows, in the order in which each statement and each line item is presented; and

(iv) other disclosures, including:

(1) contingent liabilities (see Ind AS 37) and unrecognised contractual commitments; and

(2) non-financial disclosures, eg the entity’s financial risk management objectives
and policies (see Ind AS 107).

In some circumstances, it may be necessary or desirable to vary the order of specific items within the notes. For example, an entity may combine information on changes in fair value recognised in profit or loss with information on maturities of financial instruments, although the former disclosures relate to the statement of profit and loss and the latter relate to the balance sheet. Nevertheless, an entity retains a systematic structure for the notes as far as practicable.

116 An entity may present notes providing information about the basis of preparation of the financial statements and specific accounting policies as a separate section of the financial statements.

Disclosure of accounting policies

117 An entity shall disclose in the summary of significant accounting policies:
(a) the measurement basis (or bases) used in preparing the financial statements, and
(b) the other accounting policies used that are relevant to an understanding of the financial statements.

An entity shall disclose its significant accounting policies comprising:

(a) the measurement basis (or bases) used in preparing the financial statements; and

(b) the other accounting policies used that are relevant to an understanding of the financial statements.

118 It is important for an entity to inform users of the measurement basis or bases used in the financial statements (for example, historical cost, current cost, net realisable value, fair value or recoverable amount) because the basis on which an entity prepares the financial statements significantly affects users’ analysis. When an entity uses more than one measurement basis in the financial statements, for example when particular classes of
assets are revalued, it is sufficient to provide an indication of the categories of assets and liabilities to which each measurement basis is applied.

119 In deciding whether a particular accounting policy should be disclosed, management considers whether disclosure would assist users in understanding how transactions, other events and conditions are reflected in reported financial performance and financial position. Disclosure of particular accounting policies is especially useful to users when those policies are selected from alternatives allowed in Ind ASs. An example is disclosure of a regular way purchase or sale of financial assets using either trade date accounting or
settlement date accounting (see Ind AS 109, Financial Instruments). Some Ind ASs specifically require disclosure of particular accounting policies, including choices made by management between different policies they allow. For example, Ind AS 16 requires disclosure of the measurement bases used for classes of property, plant and equipment.

In deciding whether a particular accounting policy should be disclosed, management considers whether disclosure would assist users in understanding how transactions, other events and conditions are reflected in reported financial performance and financial position. Each entity considers the nature of its operations and the policies that the users of its financial statements would expect to be disclosed for that type of entity. Disclosure of particular accounting policies is especially useful to users when those policies are selected from alternatives allowed in Ind ASs. An example is disclosure of a regular way purchase or sale of financial assets using either trade date accounting or settlement date accounting (see Ind AS 109, Financial Instruments). Some Ind ASs specifically require disclosure of particular accounting policies, including choices made by management between different policies they allow. For example, Ind AS 16 requires disclosure of the measurement bases used for classes of property, plant and equipment.

Each entity considers the nature of its operations and the policies that the users of its financial statements would expect to be disclosed for that type of entity. For example, users would expect an entity subject to income taxes to disclose its accounting policies for income taxes, including those applicable to deferred tax liabilities and assets. When an entity has significant foreign operations or transactions in foreign currencies, users would expect disclosure of accounting policies for the recognition of foreign exchange gains and losses.

121 An accounting policy may be significant because of the nature of the entity’s operations even if amounts for current and prior periods are not material. It is also appropriate to disclose each significant accounting policy that is not specifically required by Ind ASs but the entity selects and applies in accordance with Ind AS 8.

122 An entity shall disclose, in the summary of significant accounting policies or other notes, the judgements, apart from those involving estimations (see paragraph 125), that management has made in the process of applying the entity’s accounting policies and that have the most significant effect on the amounts recognised in the financial statements.

An entity shall disclose, along with its significant accounting policies or other notes, the judgements, apart from those involving estimations (see paragraph 125), that management has made in the process of applying the entity’s accounting policies and that have the most significant effect on the amounts recognised in the financial statements.

123 In the process of applying the entity’s accounting policies, management makes various judgements, apart from those involving estimations, that can significantly affect the amounts it recognises in the financial statements. For example, management makes judgements in determining:

(a) [Refer Appendix 1]
(b) when substantially all the significant risks and rewards of ownership of financial assets and lease assets are transferred to other entities;
(c) whether, in substance, particular sales of goods are financing arrangements and therefore do not give rise to revenue. and
(d) whether the contractual terms of a financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.

124 Some of the disclosures made in accordance with paragraph 122 are required by other Ind ASs. For example, Ind AS 112, Disclosure of Interests in Other Entities, requires an entity to disclose the judgments it has made in determining whether it controls another entity. Ind AS 40, Investment Property, requires disclosure of the criteria developed by the entity to distinguish investment property from owner-occupied property and from
property held for sale in the ordinary course of business, when classification of the property is difficult.

Sources of estimation uncertainty
125 An entity shall disclose information about the assumptions it makes about the future, and other major sources of estimation uncertainty at the end of the reporting period, that have a significant risk of resulting in a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities within the next financial year. In respect of those assets and liabilities, the notes shall include details of:

(a) their nature, and
(b) their carrying amount as at the end of the reporting period.

126 Determining the carrying amounts of some assets and liabilities requires estimation of the effects of uncertain future events on those assets and liabilities at the end of the reporting period. For example, in the absence of recently observed market prices, future-oriented estimates are necessary to measure the recoverable amount of classes of property, plant and equipment, the effect of technological obsolescence on inventories, provisions subject to the future outcome of litigation in progress, and long-term employee benefit liabilities such as pension obligations. These estimates involve assumptions about such items as the risk adjustment to cash flows or discount rates, future changes in salaries and future changes in prices affecting other costs.

127 The assumptions and other sources of estimation uncertainty disclosed in accordance with paragraph 125 relate to the estimates that require management’s most difficult, subjective or complex judgements. As the number of variables and assumptions affecting the possible future resolution of the uncertainties increases, those judgements become more subjective and complex, and the potential for a consequential material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities normally increases accordingly.

128 The disclosures in paragraph 125 are not required for assets and liabilities with a significant risk that their carrying amounts might change materially within the next financial year if, at the end of the reporting period, they are measured at fair value based on a quoted price in an active market for an identical asset or liability. Such fair values might change materially within the next financial year but these changes would not arise
from assumptions or other sources of estimation uncertainty at the end of the reporting period.

129 An entity presents the disclosures in paragraph 125 in a manner that helps users of financial statements to understand the judgements that management makes about the future and about other sources of estimation uncertainty. The nature and extent of the information provided vary according to the nature of the assumption and other circumstances. Examples of the types of disclosures an entity makes are:

(a) the nature of the assumption or other estimation uncertainty;

(b) the sensitivity of carrying amounts to the methods, assumptions and estimates underlying their calculation, including the reasons for the sensitivity;

(c) the expected resolution of an uncertainty and the range of reasonably possible outcomes within the next financial year in respect of the carrying amounts of the assets and liabilities affected; and

(d) an explanation of changes made to past assumptions concerning those assets and liabilities, if the uncertainty remains unresolved.

130 This Standard does not require an entity to disclose budget information or forecasts in making the disclosures in paragraph 125.

131 Sometimes it is impracticable to disclose the extent of the possible effects of an assumption or another source of estimation uncertainty at the end of the reporting period. In such cases, the entity discloses that it is reasonably possible, on the basis of existing knowledge, that outcomes within the next financial year that are different from the assumption could require a material adjustment to the carrying amount of the asset or
liability affected. In all cases, the entity discloses the nature and carrying amount of the specific asset or liability (or class of assets or liabilities) affected by the assumption.

132 The disclosures in paragraph 122 of particular judgements that management made in the process of applying the entity’s accounting policies do not relate to the disclosures of sources of estimation uncertainty in paragraph 125.

133 Other Ind ASs require the disclosure of some of the assumptions that would otherwise be required in accordance with paragraph 125. For example, Ind AS 37 requires disclosure, in specified circumstances, of major assumptions concerning future events affecting classes of provisions. Ind AS 113, Fair Value Measurement, requires disclosure of significant assumptions (including the valuation technique(s) and inputs) the entity uses when measuring the fair values of assets and liabilities that are carried at fair value.

Capital
134 An entity shall disclose information that enables users of its financial statements to evaluate the entity’s objectives, policies and processes for managing capital.

135 To comply with paragraph 134, the entity discloses the following:

(a) qualitative information about its objectives, policies and processes for managing capital, including:

(i) a description of what it manages as capital;
(ii) when an entity is subject to externally imposed capital requirements, the nature of those requirements and how those requirements are incorporated into the management of capital; and
(iii) how it is meeting its objectives for managing capital.

(b) summary quantitative data about what it manages as capital. Some entities regard some financial liabilities (eg some forms of subordinated debt) as part of capital. Other entities regard capital as excluding some components of equity (eg components arising from cash flow hedges).
(c) any changes in (a) and (b) from the previous period.
(d) whether during the period it complied with any externally imposed capital requirements to which it is subject.
(e) when the entity has not complied with such externally imposed capital requirements, the consequences of such non-compliance.

The entity bases these disclosures on the information provided internally to key management personnel.

136 An entity may manage capital in a number of ways and be subject to a number of different capital requirements. For example, a conglomerate may include entities that undertake insurance activities and banking activities and those entities may operate in several jurisdictions. When an aggregate disclosure of capital requirements and how capital is managed would not provide useful information or distorts a financial
statement user’s understanding of an entity’s capital resources, the entity shall disclose separate information for each capital requirement to which the entity is subject.

Puttable financial instruments classified as equity                                                    

136A For puttable financial instruments classified as equity instruments, an entity shall disclose (to the extent not disclosed elsewhere):

(a) summary quantitative data about the amount classified as equity;
(b) its objectives, policies and processes for managing its obligation to repurchase or redeem the instruments when required to do so by the instrument holders, including any changes from the previous period;
(c) the expected cash outflow on redemption or repurchase of that class of financial instruments; and
(d) information about how the expected cash outflow on redemption or repurchase was determined.

Other disclosures
137 An entity shall disclose in the notes:

(a) the amount of dividends proposed or declared before the financial statements were approved for issue but not recognised as a distribution to owners during the period, and the related amount per share; and
(b) the amount of any cumulative preference dividends not recognised.

138 An entity shall disclose the following, if not disclosed elsewhere in information published with the financial statements:

(a) the domicile and legal form of the entity, its country of incorporation and the address of its registered office (or principal place of business, if different from the registered office);
(b) a description of the nature of the entity’s operations and its principal activities;
(c) the name of the parent and the ultimate parent of the group; and
(d) if it is a limited life entity, information regarding the length of its life.

139 *

139A *

139B *

139C *

139D *

139E *

139F *

139G *

139H *

139I *

139J *

139K *

139L *

139M *

139N As a consequence of issuance of Ind AS 115, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, paragraph 34 is amended. An entity shall apply those amendments when it applies Ind AS 115.

Appendix A

References to matters contained in other Indian Accounting Standards
This Appendix is an integral part of the Ind AS.
This appendix lists the different appendices which are the part of other Indian Accounting Standards and make reference to Ind AS 1.
1. Appendix A, Distributions of Non-cash Assets to Owners, contained in Ind AS 10, Events after the Reporting Period
2. Appendix A, Changes in Existing Decommissioning, Restoration and Similar Liabilities, contained in Ind AS 16, Property, Plant and Equipment
3. Appendix B, The Limit on a Defined Benefit Asset, Minimum Funding Requirements and their Interaction, contained in Ind AS 19, Employee Benefits
4. Appendix A, Intangible Assets—Web Site Costs, contained in Ind AS 38, Intangible Assets
5. Appendix D, Extinguishing Financial Liabilities with Equity Instruments contained in Ind AS 109, Financial Instruments.
6. Appendix C, Levies, contained in Ind AS 37, Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets.
7. Appendix B, Stripping Costs in the Production Phase of a Surface Mine, contained in Ind AS 16, Property, Plant and Equipment.

Appendix 1

Note: This Appendix is not a part of the Indian Accounting Standard. The purpose of this Appendix is only to bring out the major differences, if any, between Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 1 and the corresponding International Accounting Standard (IAS) 1, Presentation of Financial Statements, issued by the International Accounting Standards
Board.
Comparison with IAS 1, Presentation of Financial Statements
1. With regard to preparation of Statement of profit and loss, International Accounting Standard (IAS) 1, Presentation of Financial Statements, provides an option either to follow the single statement approach or to follow the two statement approach. Paragraph 10A of IAS 1 provides that an entity may present a single statement of profit or loss and other comprehensive income, with profit or loss and other comprehensive income presented in two sections or an entity may present the profit or loss section in a separate statement of profit or loss which shall immediately precede the statement presenting comprehensive income, which shall begin with profit or loss. Ind AS 1 allows only the single statement approach. Accordingly paragraph 10A has been modified.

2. Different terminology is used in Ind AS 1 eg, the term ‘balance sheet’ is used instead of ‘Statement of financial position’ and ‘Statement of Profit and Loss’ is used instead of ‘Statement of profit and loss and other comprehensive income’. The words ‘approval of the financial statements for issue’ have been used instead of ‘authorisation of the financial statements for issue’ in the context of financial statements considered for the
purpose of events after the reporting period. The words ‘true and fair view’ have been used instead of ‘fair presentation’.

3. Paragraph 8 of IAS 1 gives the option to individual entities to follow different terminology for the titles of financial statements. Ind AS 1 is changed to remove alternatives by giving one terminology to be used by all entities. However, paragraph number 8 has been retained in Ind AS 1 to maintain consistency with paragraph
numbers of IAS 1. Similar changes has been made in paragraph 10 also.

4. Paragraph 37 of IAS 1 permits the periodicity, for example, of 52 weeks for preparation of financial statements. As Ind AS 1 does not permit it, the same is deleted. However, paragraph number 37 has been retained in Ind AS 1 to maintain consistency with paragraph numbers of IAS 1.

5. Paragraph 99 of IAS 1 requires an entity to present an analysis of expenses recognised in profit or loss using a classification based on either their nature or their function within the equity. Ind AS 1 requires only naturewise classification of expenses. In IAS 1 the following paragraphs are with reference to function-wise classification of expense. In order to maintain consistency with paragraph numbers of IAS 1, the paragraph
numbers are retained in Ind AS 1:
(i) Paragraph 103
(ii) Paragraph 104
(iii) Paragraph 105

6. Following paragraph numbers appear as ‘Deleted’ in IAS 1. In order to maintain consistency with paragraph numbers of IAS 1, the paragraph numbers are retained in Ind AS 1.
(i) paragraph 12
(ii) paragraphs 39-40
(iii) paragraph 81
(iv) paragraph 82(e)
(v) paragraphs 82(f)-(i)
(vi) paragraphs 83-84
(vii) paragraph 106(c)
(viii) paragraph 123(a)

Following paragraph numbers appear as ‘Deleted’ in IAS 1. In order to maintain consistency with paragraph numbers of IAS 1, the paragraph numbers are retained in Ind AS 1.

(i) paragraph 12

(ii) paragraphs 39-40

(iii) paragraph 81

(iv) paragraph 82(e)

(v) paragraphs 82(f)-(i)

(vi) paragraphs 83-84

(vii) paragraph 106(c)

(viii) paragraph 123(a)

(ix) paragraph 115

(x) paragraph 120

7. Paragraph 29 and 31 dealing with materiality and aggregation has been modified to include words ‘except when required by law’.

8. Paragraph 106(d)(iv) of Ind AS 1 dealing with disclosures regarding reconciliation between the carrying amount at the beginning and the end of the period for each component of equity, has been amended to include disclosure regarding recognition of bargain purchase gain arising on business combination in line with treatment prescribed in this regard in Ind AS 103.

9. Paragraph 74 has been modified to clarify that long term loan arrangement need not be classified as current on account of breach of a material provision, for which the lender has agreed to waive before the approval of financial statements for issue. Consequential to this Paragraph 76 has been deleted.

 Paragraphs 139 to 139M related to Transition and Effective Date have not been included in Ind AS 1 as these are not relevant in Indian context. However, in order to maintain consistency with paragraph numbers of IAS 1, these paragraph numbers are retained in Ind AS 1.

Substituted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2016, GSR 365(E) dated 30.03.2016. To view the notification,Click Here
Inserted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2016, GSR 365(E) dated 30.03.2016. To view the notification,Click Here
Substituted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2016, GSR 365(E) dated 30.03.2016. To view the notification,Click Here
Substituted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2018 dated 28.03.2018 effective from 01.04.2018. To view the notification,Click Here
Substituted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2016, GSR 365(E) dated 30.03.2016. To view the notification,Click Here
Substituted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2016, GSR 365(E) dated 30.03.2016. To view the notification,Click Here
Substituted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2016, GSR 365(E) dated 30.03.2016. To view the notification,Click Here
Inserted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2016, GSR 365(E) dated 30.03.2016. To view the notification,Click Here
Substituted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2016, GSR 365(E) dated 30.03.2016. To view the notification,Click Here
Substituted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2016, GSR 365(E) dated 30.03.2016. To view the notification,Click Here
Inserted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2016, GSR 365(E) dated 30.03.2016. To view the notification,Click Here
Inserted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2016, GSR 365(E) dated 30.03.2016. To view the notification,Click Here
Substituted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2016, GSR 365(E) dated 30.03.2016. To view the notification,Click Here
Substituted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2016, GSR 365(E) dated 31.03.2016. To view the notification,Click Here
Omitted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2016, GSR 365(E) dated 30.03.2016. Refer Appendix 1 . To view the notification,Click Here
Substituted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2016, GSR 365(E) dated 30.03.2016. To view the notification,Click Here
Substituted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2016, GSR 365(E) dated 30.03.2016. To view the notification,Click Here
Omitted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2016, GSR 365(E) dated 30.03.2016. To view the notification,Click Here
Substituted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2016, GSR 365(E) dated 30.03.2016. To view the notification,Click Here
Inserted  vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2018 dated 28.03.2018 effective from 01.04.2018. To view the notification,Click Here
Substituted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2016, GSR 365(E) dated 30.03.2016. To view the notification,Click Here
Inserted  vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2018 dated 28.03.2018 effective from 01.04.2018. To view the notification,Click Here

Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 10


Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 101

Appendix EFirst-time Adoption of Indian Accounting Standards
(This Indian Accounting Standard includes paragraphs set in bold type and plain type, which have equal authority. Paragraphs in bold type indicate the main principles.)

Objective
1. The objective of this Ind AS is to ensure that an entity’s first Ind AS financial statements, and its interim financial reports for part of the period covered by those financial statements, contain high quality information that:

(a) is transparent for users and comparable over all periods presented;

(b) provides a suitable starting point for accounting in accordance with Indian Accounting Standards (Ind ASs); and

(c) can be generated at a cost that does not exceed the benefits.

Scope

2. An entity shall apply this Ind AS in:

( a ) its first Ind AS financial statements; and

(b) each interim financial report, if any, that it presents in accordance with Ind AS 34, Interim Financial Reporting, for part of the period covered by its first Ind AS financial statements.

3. An entity’s first Ind AS financial statements are the first annual financial statements in which the entity adopts Ind ASs, in accordance with Ind ASs notified under the Companies Act, 2013 and makes an explicit and unreserved statement in those financial statements of compliance with Ind ASs.

4. [Refer to Appendix 1]

4A. [Refer to Appendix 1]

4B. [Refer to Appendix 1]

5 This Ind AS does not apply to changes in accounting policies made by an entity that already applies Ind ASs. Such changes are the subject of:

(a) requirements on changes in accounting policies in Ind AS 8, Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors; and

(b) specific transitional requirements in other Ind ASs.

Recognition and measurement Opening Ind AS Balance Sheet

6. An entity shall prepare and present an opening Ind AS Balance Sheet at the date of transition to Ind ASs. This is the starting point for its accounting in accordance with Ind ASs subject to the requirements of paragraphs D13AA and D22.

Accounting policies

7. An entity shall use the same accounting policies in its opening Ind AS Balance Sheet and throughout all periods presented in its first Ind AS financial statements. Those accounting policies shall comply with each Ind AS effective at the end of its first Ind AS reporting period, except as specified in paragraphs 13–19 and Appendices B–D.

8. An entity shall not apply different versions of Ind ASs that were effective at earlier dates. An entity may apply a new Ind AS that is not yet mandatory if that Ind AS permits early application.

Example: Consistent application of latest version of Ind ASs

Background

The end of entity A’s first Ind AS reporting period is 31 March 2017. Entity A decides to present comparative information in those financial statements for one year only (see paragraph 21). Therefore, its date of transition to Ind ASs is the beginning of business on 1 April 2015 (or, equivalently, close of business on 31 March 2015). Entity A presented financial statements in accordance with its previous GAAP annually to 31 March
each year up to, and including, 31 March 2016.

Application of requirements Entity A is required to apply the Ind ASs effective for periods ending on 31 March 2017 in:

a) preparing and presenting its opening Ind AS balance sheet at 1 April 2015; and

b) preparing and presenting its balance sheet for 31 March 2017 (including comparative amounts for the year ended 31 March 2016), statement of profit and loss, statement of changes in equity and statement of cash flows for the year to 31 March 2017 (including comparative amounts for the year ended 31 March 2016) and disclosures (including comparative information for the year ended 31 March 2016).

If a new Ind AS is not yet mandatory but permits early application, entity A is permitted, but not required, to apply that Ind AS in its first Ind AS financial statements.

9. The transitional provisions in other Ind ASs apply to changes in accounting policies made by an entity that already uses Ind ASs; they do not apply to a first-time adopter’s transition to Ind ASs, except as specified in Appendices B–D.

10. Except as described in paragraphs 13–19 and Appendices B–D, an entity shall, in its opening Ind AS Balance Sheet:

(a) recognise all assets and liabilities whose recognition is required by Ind ASs;

(b) not recognise items as assets or liabilities if Ind ASs do not permit such recognition;

(c) reclassify items that it recognised in accordance with previous GAAP as one type of asset, liability or component of equity, but are a different type of asset, liability or component of equity in accordance with Ind ASs; and

(d) apply Ind ASs in measuring all recognised assets and liabilities.

11. The accounting policies that an entity uses in its opening Ind AS Balance Sheet may differ from those that it used for the same date using its previous GAAP. The resulting adjustments arise from events and transactions before the date of transition to Ind ASs. Therefore, an entity shall recognise those adjustments directly in retained earnings (or, if appropriate, another category of equity) at the date of transition to Ind ASs.

12. This Ind AS establishes two categories of exceptions to the principle that an entity’s opening Ind AS Balance Sheet shall comply with each Ind AS:

(a) paragraphs 14–17 and Appendix B prohibit retrospective application of some aspects of other Ind ASs.

(b) Appendices C–D grant exemptions from some requirements of other Ind ASs.

Exceptions to the retrospective application of other Ind ASs

13. This Ind AS prohibits retrospective application of some aspects of other Ind ASs. These exceptions are set out in paragraphs 14–17 and Appendix B.

Estimates

14. An entity’s estimates in accordance with Ind ASs at the date of transition to Ind ASs shall be consistent with estimates made for the same date in accordance with previous GAAP (after adjustments to reflect any difference in accounting policies), unless there is objective evidence that those estimates were in error.

15. An entity may receive information after the date of transition to Ind ASs about estimates that it had made under previous GAAP. In accordance with paragraph 14, an entity shall treat the receipt of that information in the same way as non-adjusting events after the reporting period in accordance with Ind AS 10, Events after the Reporting Period. For example, assume that an entity’s date of transition to Ind ASs is 1 April 2015 and
new information on 15 July 2015 requires the revision of an estimate made in accordance with previous GAAP at 31 March 2015. The entity shall not reflect that new information in its opening Ind AS Balance Sheet (unless the estimates need adjustment for any  differences in accounting policies or there is objective evidence that the estimates were in error). Instead, the entity shall reflect that new information in profit or loss (or, if appropriate, other comprehensive income) for the year ended 31 March 2016.

16. An entity may need to make estimates in accordance with Ind ASs at the date of transition to Ind ASs that were not required at that date under previous GAAP. To achieve consistency with Ind AS 10, those estimates in accordance with Ind ASs shall reflect conditions that existed at the date of transition to Ind ASs. In particular, estimates at the date of transition to Ind ASs of market prices, interest rates or foreign exchange rates shall reflect market conditions at that date.

17. Paragraphs 14–16 apply to the opening Ind AS Balance Sheet. They also apply to a comparative period presented in an entity’s first Ind AS financial statements, in which case the references to the date of transition to Ind ASs are replaced by references to the end of that comparative period.

Exemptions from other Ind ASs

18. An entity may elect to use one or more of the exemptions contained in Appendices C-D. An entity shall not apply these exemptions by analogy to other items.

19. [Refer to Appendix 1]

Presentation and disclosure

20. This Ind AS does not provide exemptions from the presentation and disclosure requirements in other Ind ASs.

Comparative information

21. An entity’s first Ind AS financial statements shall include at least three Balance Sheet, two Statements of profit and loss, two Statements of cash flows and two Statements of changes in equity and related notes, including comparative information for all statements presented.

Non-IndAS comparative information and historical summaries

22. Some entities present historical summaries of selected data for periods before the first period for which they present full comparative information in accordance with Ind ASs. This Ind AS does not require such summaries to comply with the recognition and measurement requirements of Ind ASs. Furthermore, some entities present comparative information in accordance with previous GAAP as well as the comparative
information required by Ind AS 1. In any financial statements containing historical summaries or comparative information in accordance with previous GAAP, an entity shall:

(a) label the previous GAAP information prominently as not being prepared in accordance with Ind ASs; and
(b) disclose the nature of the main adjustments that would make it comply with Ind ASs. An entity need not quantify those adjustments.

Explanation of transition to Ind ASs
23. An entity shall explain how the transition from previous GAAP to Ind ASs affected its reported Balance sheet, financial performance and cash flows.

23A. [Refer to Appendix 1]

23B. [Refer to Appendix 1]

Reconciliations

24. To comply with paragraph 23, an entity’s first Ind AS financial statements shall include:

(a) reconciliations of its equity reported in accordance with previous GAAP to its equity in accordance with Ind ASs for both of the following dates:

(i) the date of transition to Ind ASs; and
(ii) the end of the latest period presented in the entity’s most recent annual financial statements in accordance with previous GAAP.

(b) a reconciliation to its total comprehensive income in accordance with Ind ASs for the latest period in the entity’s most recent annual financial statements. The starting point for that reconciliation shall be total comprehensive income in accordance with previous GAAP for the same period or, if an entity did not report such a total, profit or loss under previous GAAP.

(c) if the entity recognised or reversed any impairment losses for the first time in preparing its opening Ind AS Balance Sheet, the disclosures that Ind AS 36, Impairment of Assets, would have required if the entity had recognised those impairment losses or reversals in the period beginning with the date of transition to Ind ASs.

25. The reconciliations required by paragraph 24(a) and (b) shall give sufficient detail to enable users to understand the material adjustments to the Balance Sheet and Statement of profit and loss. If an entity presented a Statement of cash flows under its previous GAAP, it shall also explain the material adjustments to the Statement of cash flows.

26. If an entity becomes aware of errors made under previous GAAP, the reconciliations required by paragraph 24(a) and (b) shall distinguish the correction of those errors from changes in accounting policies.

27. Ind AS 8 does not apply to the changes in accounting policies an entity makes when it adopts Ind ASs or to changes in those policies until after it presents its first Ind AS financial statements. Therefore, Ind AS 8’s requirements about changes in accounting policies do not apply in an entity’s first Ind AS financial statements.

27A. If during the period covered by its first Ind AS financial statements an entity changes its accounting policies or its use of the exemptions contained in this Ind AS, it shall explain the changes between its first Ind AS interim financial report and its first Ind AS financial statements, in accordance with paragraph 23, and it shall update the reconciliations required by paragraph 24(a) and (b).

27AA. If an entity adopts the first time exemption option provided in accordance with paragraph D7AA, the fact and the accounting policy shall be disclosed by the entity until such time that those items of Property, plant and equipment, investment properties or intangible assets, as the case may be, are significantly depreciated, impaired or derecognised from the entity’s Balance Sheet.

28. If an entity did not present financial statements for previous periods, its first Ind AS financial statements shall disclose that fact.

Designation of financial assets or financial liabilities

29. An entity is permitted to designate a previously recognised financial asset as a financial asset measured at fair value through profit or loss in accordance with paragraph D19A. The entity shall disclose the fair value of financial assets so designated at the date of designation and their classification and carrying amount in the previous financial statements.

29A. An entity is permitted to designate a previously recognised financial liability as a financial liability at fair value through profit or loss in accordance with paragraph D19. The entity shall disclose the fair value of financial liabilities so designated at the date of designation and their classification and carrying amount in the previous financial statements.

Use of fair value as deemed cost

If an entity uses fair value in its opening Ind AS Balance Sheet as deemed cost for an item of property, plant and equipment, an intangible asset or a right-of-use asset (see paragraphs D5 and D7), the entity’s first Ind AS financial statements shall disclose, for each line item in the opening Ind AS Balance Sheet:

(a) the aggregate of those fair values; and
(b) the aggregate adjustment to the carrying amounts reported under previous GAAP.

If an entity uses fair value in its opening Ind AS Balance Sheet as deemed cost for an item of property, plant and equipment or an intangible asset (see paragraphs D5 and D7), the entity’s first Ind AS financial statements shall disclose, for each line item in the opening Ind AS Balance Sheet:

(a) the aggregate of those fair values; and

(b) the aggregate adjustment to the carrying amounts reported under previous GAAP.

30. If an entity uses fair value in its opening Ind AS Balance Sheet as deemed cost for an item of property, plant and equipment, an investment property or an intangible asset (see paragraphs D5 and D7), the entity’s first Ind AS financial statements shall disclose, for each line item in the opening Ind AS Balance Sheet:

( a ) the aggregate of those fair values; and
(b) the aggregate adjustment to the carrying amounts reported under previous GAAP.

Use of deemed cost for investments in subsidiaries, joint ventures and associates

31. Similarly, if an entity uses a deemed cost in its opening Ind AS Balance Sheet for an investment in a subsidiary, joint venture or associate in its separate financial statements (see paragraph D15), the entity’s first Ind AS separate financial statements shall disclose:

(a) the aggregate deemed cost of those investments for which deemed cost is their previous GAAP  carrying amount;
(b) the aggregate deemed cost of those investments for which deemed cost is fair value; and
(c) the aggregate adjustment to the carrying amounts reported under previous GAAP.

Use of deemed cost for oil and gas assets

31A. If an entity uses the exemption in paragraph D8A(b) for oil and gas assets, it shall disclose that fact and the basis on which carrying amounts determined under previous GAAP were allocated.

Use of deemed cost for operations subject to rate regulation

31B. If an entity uses the exemption in paragraph D8B for operations subject to rate regulation, it shall disclose that fact and the basis on which carrying amounts were determined under previous GAAP.

Use of deemed cost after severe hyperinflation

31C. If an entity elects to measure assets and liabilities at fair value and to use that fair value as the deemed cost in its opening Ind AS Balance Sheet because of severe hyperinflation (see paragraphs D26–D30), the entity’s first Ind AS financial statements shall disclose an explanation of how, and why, the entity had, and then ceased to have, a functional currency that has both of the following characteristics:

(a) a reliable general price index is not available to all entities with transactions and balances in the currency.
(b) exchange ability between the currency and a relatively stable foreign currency does not exist.

Interim financial reports

32. To comply with paragraph 23, if an entity presents an interim financial report in accordance with Ind AS 34 for part of the period covered by its first Ind AS financial statements, the entity shall satisfy the following requirements in addition to the requirements of Ind AS 34:

(a) Each such interim financial report shall, if the entity presented an interim financial report for the comparable interim period of the immediately preceding financial year, include:

(i) a reconciliation of its equity in accordance with previous GAAP at the end of that comparable interim period to its equity under Ind ASs at that date; and

(ii) a reconciliation to its total comprehensive income in accordance with Ind ASs for that comparable interim period (current and year to date). The starting point for that reconciliation shall be total comprehensive income in accordance with previous GAAP for that period or, if an entity did not report such a total, profit or loss in accordance with previous GAAP.

(b) In addition to the reconciliations required by (a), an entity’s first interim financial report in accordance with Ind AS 34 for part of the period covered by its first Ind AS financial statements shall include the reconciliations described in paragraph 24(a) and (b) (supplemented by the details required by paragraphs 25 and 26) or a cross-reference to another published document that includes these reconciliations.

(c) If an entity changes its accounting policies or its use of the exemptions contained in this Ind AS, it shall explain the changes in each such interim financial report in accordance with paragraph 23 and update the reconciliations required by (a) and (b).

33. Ind AS 34 requires minimum disclosures, which are based on the assumption that users of the interim financial report also have access to the most recent annual financial statements. However, Ind AS 34 also requires an entity to disclose ‘any events or transactions that are material to an understanding of the current interim period’. Therefore, if a first-time adopter did not, in its most recent annual financial statements in
accordance with previous GAAP, disclose information material to an understanding of the current interim period, its interim financial report shall disclose that information or include a cross-reference to another published document that includes it.

34 *

35 *

36 *

37 *

38 *

39 *

39A *

39B *

39C *

39D *

39E *

39F *

39G *

39H *

39I *

39J *

39K *

39L *

39M *

39N *

39O *

39P *

39Q *

39R *

39S *

39T *

39U *

39V *

39W *

39X As a consequence of issuance of Ind AS 115, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, paragraphs D1(m),(u), D22 and heading after paragraph D33 are amended, paragraphs D34-D35 are added and earlier paragraph D36 in context of ‘Transfer of assets from customers’ is deleted. An entity shall apply those amendments when it applies Ind AS 115.

39Y *

39Z *

39AA *

Ind AS 116, Leases, amended paragraphs 30, C4, D1, D7, D8B, D9 and D9AA, deleted paragraph D9A and added paragraphs D9B–D9E. An entity shall apply those amendments when it applies Ind AS 116.

39AB *

39AC Appendix B, Foreign Currency Transactions and Advance Consideration of Ind AS 21 added paragraph D36 in context of foreign currency transactions and advance consideration and in paragraph D1, renumbered item (v) as (ua) and a new item (v) is added in its place. An entity shall apply that amendment when it applies Appendix B of Ind AS 21.

*
*
Appendix C , Uncertainty over Income Tax Treatments , to Ind AS 12 added paragraph E8. An entity shall apply that amendment when it applies Appendix C to Ind AS 12.

 

* Refer Appendix 1

Appendix A

Defined terms
This appendix is an integral part of this Ind AS.

date of transition to Ind ASs The beginning of the earliest period for which an entity presents full comparative information under Ind ASs in first Ind AS financial statements

deemed cost An amount used as a surrogate for cost or depreciated cost at a given date.
Subsequent depreciation or amortisation assumes that the entity had initially recognised the asset or liability at the given date and that its cost was equal to the deemed cost.

fair value Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer
a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. (See Ind AS 113.)

first Ind AS financial statements The first annual financial statements in which an entity adopts Indian Accounting Standards (Ind ASs), by an explicit and unreserved statement of
compliance with Ind ASs.

first Ind AS reporting period The latest reporting period covered by an entity’s first Ind AS financial statements

first-time adopter An entity that presents its first Ind AS financial statements

Indian Accounting Standards (Ind ASs) Ind ASs are Accounting Standards prescribed under Section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013.

opening Ind AS Balance Sheet An entity’s Balance Sheet at the date of transition to Ind ASs.

previous GAAP The basis of accounting that a first-time adopter used for its statutory
reporting requirement in India immediately before adopting Ind AS’s. For instance, companies required to prepare their financial statements in accordance with Section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013, shall consider those financial statements as previous GAAP financial statements.

Appendix B

Exceptions to the retrospective application of other Ind ASs

This appendix is an integral part of this Ind AS.

B1. An entity shall apply the following exceptions:

(a) derecognition of financial assets and financial liabilities (paragraphs B2 and B3);
(b) hedge accounting (paragraphs B4–B6);
(c) non-controlling interests (paragraph B7);
(d) classification and measurement of financial assets (paragraphs B8-B8C);
(e) impairment of financial assets (paragraphs B8D-B8G);
(f) embedded derivatives (paragraph B9); and
(g) government loans (paragraphs B10–B12).

Derecognition of financial assets and financial liabilities

B2. Except as permitted by paragraph B3, a first-time adopter shall apply the derecognition requirements in Ind AS 109 prospectively for transactions occurring on or after the date of transition to Ind ASs. For example, if a first-time adopter derecognised non-derivative financial assets or non-derivative financial liabilities in accordance with its previous GAAP as a result of a transaction that occurred before the date of transition to Ind ASs, it shall not recognise those assets and liabilities in accordance with Ind ASs (unless they qualify for recognition as a result of a later transaction or event).

B3. Despite paragraph B2, an entity may apply the derecognition requirements in Ind AS 109 retrospectively from a date of the entity’s choosing, provided that the information needed to apply Ind AS 109 to financial assets and financial liabilities derecognised as a result of past transactions was obtained at the time of initially accounting for those transactions.

Hedge accounting

B4. As required by Ind AS 109, at the date of transition to Ind ASs an entity shall:

(a) measure all derivatives at fair value; and
(b) eliminate all deferred losses and gains arising on derivatives that were reported in accordance with previous GAAP as if they were assets or liabilities.

B5. An entity shall not reflect in its opening Ind AS Balance Sheet a hedging relationship of a type that does not qualify for hedge accounting in accordance with Ind AS 109 (for example, many hedging relationships where the hedging instrument is a stand-alone written option or a net written option; or where the hedged item is a net position in a cash flow hedge for another risk than foreign currency risk). However, if an entity designated
a net position as a hedged item in accordance with previous GAAP, it may designate as a hedged item in accordance with Ind ASs an individual item within that net position, or a net position if that meets the requirements in paragraph 6.6.1 of Ind AS 109, provided that it does so no later than the date of transition to Ind ASs.

B6. If, before the date of transition to Ind ASs, an entity had designated a transaction as a hedge but the hedge does not meet the conditions for hedge accounting in Ind AS 109, the entity shall apply paragraphs 6.5.6 and 6.5.7 of Ind AS 109 to discontinue hedge accounting. Transactions entered into before the date of transition to Ind ASs shall not be retrospectively designated as hedges.

Non-controlling interests

B7 A first-time adopter shall apply the following requirements of Ind AS 110 prospectively from the date of transition to Ind ASs:

(a) the requirement in paragraph B94 that total comprehensive income is attributed to the owners of the parent and to the non-controlling interests even if this results in the non-controlling interests having a deficit balance;
(b) the requirements in paragraphs 23 and B96 for accounting for changes in the parent’s ownership interest in a subsidiary that do not result in a loss of control; and
(c) the requirements in paragraphs B97–B99 for accounting for a loss of control over a subsidiary, and the related requirements of paragraph 8A of Ind AS 105, Non-current Assets Held for Sale and Discontinued Operations.

However, if a first-time adopter elects to apply Ind AS 103 retrospectively to past business combinations, it shall also apply Ind AS 110 in accordance with paragraph C1 of this Ind AS.

Classification and measurement of financial assets

B8. An entity shall assess whether a financial asset meets the conditions in paragraph 4.1.2 or the conditions in paragraph 4.1.2A of Ind AS 109 on the basis of the facts and circumstances that exist at the date of transition to Ind ASs.

B8A. If it is impracticable to assess a modified time value of money element in accordance with paragraphs B4.1.9B–B4.1.9D of Ind AS 109 on the basis of the facts and circumstances that exist at the date of transition to Ind ASs, an entity shall assess the contractual cash flow characteristics of that financial asset on the basis of the facts and circumstances that existed at the date of transition to Ind ASs without taking into account the requirements related to the modification of the time value of money element in paragraphs B4.1.9B–B4.1.9D of Ind AS 109. An entity shall disclose the carrying amount at the reporting date of the financial assets whose contractual cash flow characteristics have been assessed based on the facts and circumstances that existed at the date of transition to Ind ASs without taking into account the requirements related to the modification of the time value of money element in paragraphs B4.1.9B–B4.1.9D of Ind AS 109 until those financial assets
are derecognized.

B8B. If it is impracticable to assess whether the fair value of a prepayment feature is insignificant in accordance with paragraph B4.1.12(c) of Ind AS 109 on the basis of the facts and circumstances that exist at the date of transition to Ind-ASs, an entity shall assess the contractual cash flow characteristics of that financial asset on the basis of the facts and circumstances that existed at the date of transition to Ind-ASs without taking into
account the exception for prepayment features in paragraph B4.1.12 of Ind AS 109. An entity shall disclose the carrying amount at the reporting date of the financial assets whose contractual cash flow characteristics have been assessed based on the facts and circumstances that existed at the date of transition to Ind ASs without taking into account the exception for prepayment features in paragraph B4.1.12 of Ind AS 109 until those financial assets are derecognised.

B8C. If it is impracticable (as defined in Ind AS 8) for an entity to apply retrospectively the effective interest method in Ind AS 109, the fair value of the financial asset or the financial liability at the date of transition to Ind ASs shall be the new gross carrying amount of that financial asset or the new amortised cost of that financial liability at the date of transition to Ind ASs.

Impairment of financial assets

B8D. An entity shall apply the impairment requirements in Section 5.5 of Ind AS 109 retrospectively subject to paragraphs B8E, B8F and B8G of this Ind AS.

B8E. At the date of transition to Ind ASs, an entity shall use reasonable and supportable information that is available without undue cost or effort to determine the credit risk at the date that financial instruments were initially recognised (or for loan commitments and financial guarantee contracts the date that the entity became a party to the irrevocable commitment in accordance with paragraph 5.5.6 of Ind AS 109) and compare that to
the credit risk at the date of transition to Ind ASs (also see paragraphs B8EA–B8EB of this Ind AS.

B8EA. An entity should seek to approximate the credit risk on initial recognition by considering all reasonable and supportable information that is available without undue cost or effort. An entity is not required to undertake an exhaustive search for information when determining, at the date of transition to Ind ASs, whether there have been significant increases in credit risk since initial recognition. If an entity is unable to make this determination without undue cost or effort paragraph B8G of this Ind AS applies.

B8EB. In order to determine the loss allowance on financial instruments initially recognised (or loan commitments or financial guarantee contracts to which the entity became a party to the contract) prior to the date of initial application, both on transition and until the derecognition of those items, an entity shall consider information that is relevant in determining or approximating the credit risk at initial recognition. In order to determine or approximate the initial credit risk, an entity may consider internal and external information, including portfolio information, in accordance with paragraphs B5.5.1–B5.5.6 of Ind AS 109.

B8F. When determining whether there has been a significant increase in credit risk since initial recognition, an entity may apply:
(a) the requirements in paragraph 5.5.10 and B5.5.22–B5.5.24 of Ind AS 109; and
(b) the rebuttable presumption in paragraph 5.5.11 of Ind AS 109 for contractual payments that are more than 30 days past due if an entity will apply the impairment requirements by identifying significant increases in credit risk since initial recognition for those financial instruments on the basis of past due information.

B8G. If, at the date of transition to Ind ASs, determining whether there has been a significant increase in credit risk since the initial recognition of a financial instrument would require undue cost or effort, an entity shall recognise a loss allowance at an amount equal to lifetime expected credit losses at each reporting date until that financial instrument is derecognised (unless that financial instrument is low credit risk at a reporting date, in which case paragraph B8F(a) applies).

Embedded derivatives

B9. A first-time adopter shall assess whether an embedded derivative is required to be separated from the host  contract and accounted for as a derivative on the basis of the conditions that existed at the later of the date it first became a party to the contract and the date a reassessment is required by paragraph B4.3.11 of Ind AS 109.

Government loans

B10. A first-time adopter shall classify all government loans received as a financial liability or an equity instrument in accordance with Ind AS 32, Financial Instruments: Presentation. Except as permitted by paragraph B11, a first-time adopter shall apply the requirements in Ind AS 109, Financial Instruments, and Ind AS 20, Accounting for Government Grants and Disclosure of Government Assistance, prospectively to government loans existing at the date of transition to Ind ASs and shall not recognise the corresponding benefit of the
government loan at a below-market rate of interest as a government grant. Consequently, if a first-time adopter did not, under its previous GAAP, recognise and measure a government loan at a below-market rate of interest on a basis consistent with Ind AS requirements, it shall use its previous GAAP carrying amount of
the loan at the date of transition to Ind ASs as the carrying amount of the loan in the opening Ind AS Balance Sheet. An entity shall apply Ind AS 109 to the measurement of such loans after the date of transition to Ind ASs.

B11. Despite paragraph B10, an entity may apply the requirements in Ind AS 109 and Ind AS 20 retrospectively to any government loan originated before the date of transition to Ind ASs, provided that the information needed to do so had been obtained at the time of initially accounting for that loan.

B12. The requirements and guidance in paragraphs B10 and B11 do not preclude an entity from being able to use the exemptions described in paragraphs D19–D19C relating to the designation of previously recognised financial instruments at fair value through profit or loss.

Appendix C

Exemptions for business combinations

This appendix is an integral part of this Ind AS. An entity shall apply the following requirements to business combinations that the entity recognised before the date of transition to Ind ASs. This Appendix should only be applied to business combinations within the scope of Ind AS 103, Business Combinations.

C1. A first-time adopter may elect not to apply Ind AS 103 retrospectively to past business combinations (business combinations that occurred before the date of transition to Ind ASs). However, if a first-time adopter restates any business combination to comply with Ind AS 103, it shall restate all later business combinations and shall also apply Ind AS 110 from that same date. For example, if a first-time adopter elects to restate a business combination that occurred on 30 June 2010, it shall restate all business combinations that
occurred between 30 June 2010 and the date of transition to Ind ASs, and it shall also apply Ind AS 110 from 30 June 2010.

C2. An entity need not apply Ind AS 21, The Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates, retrospectively to fair value adjustments and goodwill arising in business combinations that occurred before the date of transition to Ind ASs. If the entity does not apply Ind AS 21 retrospectively to those fair value adjustments and goodwill, it shall treat them as assets and liabilities of the entity rather than as assets and liabilities of the acquiree. Therefore, those goodwill and fair value adjustments either are already expressed in the entity’s
functional currency or are non-monetary foreign currency items, which are reported using the exchange rate applied in accordance with previous GAAP.

C3. An entity may apply Ind AS 21 retrospectively to fair value adjustments and goodwill arising in either:

(a) all business combinations that occurred before the date of transition to Ind ASs; or

(b) all business combinations that the entity elects to restate to comply with Ind AS 103, as permitted by paragraph C1 above.

C4. If a first-time adopter does not apply Ind AS 103 retrospectively to a past business combination, this has the following consequences for that business combination:

(a) The first-time adopter shall keep the same classification (as an acquisition by the legal acquirer, a reverse acquisition by the legal acquiree, or a uniting of interests) as in its previous GAAP financial statements.

(b) The first-time adopter shall recognise all its assets and liabilities at the date of transition to Ind ASs that were acquired or assumed in a past business combination, other than:

(i) some financial assets and financial liabilities derecognised in accordance with previous GAAP (see paragraph B2); and

(ii) assets, including goodwill, and liabilities that were not recognised in the acquirer’s consolidated Balance Sheet in accordance with previous GAAP and also would not qualify for recognition in accordance with Ind ASs in the separate Balance Sheet of the acquiree (see (f)–(i) below).

The first-time adopter shall recognise any resulting change by adjusting retained earnings (or, if appropriate, another category of equity), unless the change results from the recognition of an intangible asset that was previously subsumed within goodwill (see (g)(i) below).

(c) The first-time adopter shall exclude from its opening Ind AS Balance Sheet any item recognised in accordance with previous GAAP that does not qualify for recognition as an asset or liability under Ind ASs. The first-time adopter shall account for the resulting change as follows:

(i) the first-time adopter may have classified a past business combination as an acquisition and recognised as an intangible asset an item that does not qualify for recognition as an asset in accordance with Ind AS 38, Intangible Assets. It shall reclassify that item (and, if any, the related deferred tax and non-controlling interests) as part of goodwill (unless it deducted goodwill directly from equity in accordance with previous GAAP, see (g)(i) and (i) below) or capital reserve to the extent not exceeding the balance available in that reserve.

(ii) the first-time adopter shall recognise all other resulting changes in retained earnings.

(d) Ind ASs require subsequent measurement of some assets and liabilities on a basis that is not based on original cost, such as fair value. The first-time adopter shall measure these assets and liabilities on that basis in its opening Ind AS Balance Sheet, even if they were acquired or assumed in a past business combination. It shall recognise any resulting change in the carrying amount by adjusting retained earnings (or, if appropriate, another category of equity), rather than goodwill/capital reserve.

Immediately after the business combination, the carrying amount in accordance with previous GAAP of assets acquired and liabilities assumed in that business combination shall be their deemed cost in accordance with Ind ASs at that date. If Ind ASs require a cost-based measurement of those assets and liabilities at a later date that deemed cost shall be the basis for cost-based depreciation or

(e) amortisation from the date of the business combination.

If an asset acquired, or liability assumed, in a past business combination was not recognised in accordance with previous GAAP, it does not have a deemed cost of zero in the opening Ind AS Balance Sheet. Instead, the acquirer shall recognise and measure it in its consolidated Balance Sheet on the basis that Ind ASs would require in the Balance Sheet of the acquiree. To illustrate: if the acquirer had not, in accordance with its previous GAAP, capitalised leases acquired in a past business combination in which acquiree was a lessee, it shall capitalise those leases in its consolidated financial statements, as Ind AS 116, Leases, would require the acquiree to do in its Ind AS Balance Sheet. Similarly, if the acquirer had not, in accordance with its previous GAAP, recognised a contingent liability that still exists at the date of transition to Ind ASs, the acquirer shall recognise that contingent liability at that date unless Ind AS 37, Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets, would prohibit its recognition in the financial statements of the acquiree. Conversely, if an asset or liability was subsumed in goodwill/capital reserve in accordance with previous GAAP but would have been recognised separately under Ind AS 103, that asset or liability remains in goodwill/capital reserve unless Ind ASs would require its recognition in the financial statements of the acquiree.

(f) If an asset acquired, or liability assumed, in a past business combination was not recognised in accordance with previous GAAP, it does not have a deemed cost of zero in the opening Ind AS Balance Sheet. Instead, the acquirer shall recognise and measure it in its consolidated Balance Sheet on the basis that Ind ASs would require in the Balance Sheet of the acquiree. To illustrate: if the acquirer had not, in accordance with its previous GAAP, capitalised finance leases acquired in a past business combination, it shall capitalise those leases in its consolidated financial statements, as Ind AS 17, Leases, would require the acquiree to do in its Ind AS Balance Sheet. Similarly, if the acquirer had not, in accordance with its previous GAAP, recognised a contingent liability that still exists at the date of transition to Ind ASs, the acquirer shall recognise that contingent liability at that date unless Ind AS 37, Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets, would prohibit its recognition in the financial statements of the acquiree. Conversely, if an asset or liability was
subsumed in goodwill/capital reserve in accordance with previous GAAP but would have been recognised separately under Ind AS 103, that asset or liability remains in goodwill/capital reserve unless Ind ASs would require its recognition in the financial statements of the acquiree.

(g) The carrying amount of goodwill or capital reserve in the opening Ind AS Balance Sheet shall be its carrying amount in accordance with previous GAAP at the date of transition to Ind ASs, after the following two adjustments:

(i) If required by (c)(i) above, the first-time adopter shall increase the carrying amount of goodwill or decrease the carrying amount of capital reserve when it reclassifies an item that it recognised as an intangible asset in accordance with previous GAAP. Similarly, if (f) above requires the first-time adopter to recognise an intangible asset that was subsumed in recognised goodwill or capital reserve in accordance with previous GAAP, the first-time adopter shall decrease the carrying amount of goodwill or increase the carrying amount of capital reserve accordingly (and, if applicable, adjust deferred tax and non-controlling
interests).

(ii) Regardless of whether there is any indication that the goodwill may be impaired, the first-time adopter shall apply Ind AS 36 in testing the goodwill for impairment at the date of transition to Ind ASs and in recognising any resulting impairment loss in retained earnings (or, if so required by Ind AS 36, in revaluation surplus). The impairment test shall be based on conditions at the date of transition to Ind ASs.

(h) No other adjustments shall be made to the carrying amount of goodwill / capital reserve at the date of transition to Ind ASs. For example, the first-time adopter shall not restate the carrying amount of goodwill / capital reserve:

(i) to exclude in-process research and development acquired in that business combination (unless the related intangible asset would qualify for recognition in accordance with Ind AS 38 in the Balance Sheet of the acquiree);

(ii) to adjust previous amortisation of goodwill;

(iii) to reverse adjustments to goodwill that Ind AS 103 would not permit, but were made in accordance with previous GAAP because of adjustments to assets and liabilities between the date of the business combination and the date of transition to Ind ASs.

(i) If the first-time adopter recognised goodwill in accordance with previous GAAP as a deduction from equity:

(i) it shall not recognise that goodwill in its opening Ind AS Balance Sheet. Furthermore, it shall not reclassify that goodwill to profit or loss if it disposes of the subsidiary or if the investment in the subsidiary becomes impaired.

(ii) adjustments resulting from the subsequent resolution of a contingency affecting the purchase consideration shall be recognised in retained earnings.

(j) In accordance with its previous GAAP, the first-time adopter may not have consolidated a subsidiary acquired in a past business combination (for example, because the parent did not regard it as a subsidiary in accordance with previous GAAP or did not prepare consolidated financial statements). The first-time adopter shall adjust the carrying amounts of the subsidiary’s assets and liabilities to the amounts that Ind ASs would require in the subsidiary’s Balance Sheet. The deemed cost of
goodwill equals the difference at the date of transition to Ind ASs between:

(i) the parent’s interest in those adjusted carrying amounts; and

(ii) the cost in the parent’s separate financial statements of its investment in the subsidiary.

(k) The measurement of non-controlling interests and deferred tax follows from the measurement of other assets and liabilities. Therefore, the above adjustments to recognised assets and liabilities affect non-controlling interests and deferred tax.

C5. The exemption for past business combinations also applies to past acquisitions of investments in associates, interests in joint ventures and interests in joint operations in which the activity of the joint operation constitutes a business, as defined in Ind AS 103. Furthermore, the date selected for paragraph C1 applies equally for all such acquisitions.

Appendix D

Exemptions from other Ind ASs

This appendix is an integral part of this Ind AS.

D1. An entity may elect to use one or more of the following exemptions:

(a) share-based payment transactions (paragraphs D2 and D3);

(b) insurance contracts (paragraph D4);

(c) deemed cost (paragraphs D5–D8B);

leases (paragraphs D9, D9AA and D9B-D9E);

(d) leases (paragraphs D9 and D9AA);

(e) [Refer to Appendix 1]

(f) cumulative translation differences (paragraphs D12 and D13);

(g) investments in subsidiaries, joint ventures and associates (paragraphs D14 and D15);

(h) assets and liabilities of subsidiaries, associates and joint ventures (paragraphs D16 and D17);

(i) compound financial instruments (paragraph D18);

(j) designation of previously recognised financial instruments (paragraphs D19–D19C);

(k) fair value measurement of financial assets or financial liabilities at initial recognition (paragraph D20);

(l) decommissioning liabilities included in the cost of property, plant and equipment (paragraphs D21 and D21A);

 financial assets or intangible assets accounted for in accordance with Appendix D to Ind AS 115 Service Concession Arrangements (paragraph D22);

financial assets or intangible assets accounted for in accordance with Appendix A to Ind AS 11 Service Concession Arrangements (paragraph D22);

(m) financial assets or intangible assets accounted for in accordance with Appendix C to Ind AS 115 Service Concession Arrangements(paragraph D22);

(n) borrowing costs (paragraph D23);

(o) [Refer to Appendix 1];

(p) extinguishing financial liabilities with equity instruments (paragraph D25);

(q) severe hyperinflation (paragraphs D26–D30);

(r) joint arrangements (paragraph D31-D31AL);

(s) stripping costs in the production phase of a surface mine (paragraph D32);

(t) designation of contracts to buy or sell a non-financial item (paragraph D33);

revenue (paragraphs D34-D35);

(u) revenue from contracts with customers (paragraph D34 – D35); and

(v) non-current assets held for sale and discontinued operations (paragraph D35AA).

foreign currency transactions and advance consideration (paragraph D36).

An entity shall not apply these exemptions by analogy to other items.

Share-based payment transactions

D2. A first-time adopter is encouraged, but not required, to apply Ind AS 102 Share-based payment to equity instruments that vested before date of transition to Ind ASs. However, if a first-time adopter elects to apply Ind AS 102 to such equity instruments, it may do so only if the entity has disclosed publicly the fair value of those equity instruments, determined at the measurement date, as defined in Ind AS 102. For all grants of
equity instruments to which Ind AS 102 has not been applied (eg, equity instruments vested but not settled before date of transition to Ind ASs, a first-time adopter shall nevertheless disclose the information required by paragraphs 44 and 45 of Ind AS 102. If a first-time adopter modifies the terms or conditions of a grant of equity instruments to which Ind AS 102 has not been applied, the entity is not required to apply paragraphs
26–29 of Ind AS 102 if the modification occurred before the date of transition to Ind ASs.

D3. A first-time adopter is encouraged, but not required, to apply Ind AS 102 to liabilities arising from sharebased payment transactions that were settled before the date of transition to Ind ASs.

Insurance contracts

D4. An entity shall apply Ind AS 104 Insurance Contracts for annual periods beginning on or after date of transition to Ind ASs. Earlier application is encouraged. If an entity applies this Ind AS 104 for an earlier period, it shall disclose that fact.

In applying paragraph 39(c)(iii), of Ind AS 104 an entity need not disclose information about claims development that occurred earlier than five years before the end of the first financial year in which it applies Ind AS 104. Furthermore, if it is impracticable, when an entity first applies Ind AS 104, to prepare information about claims development that occurred before the beginning of the earliest period for which an entity presents full comparative information that complies with this Ind AS, the entity shall disclose that fact.

When an insurer changes its accounting policies for insurance liabilities, it is permitted, but not required, to reclassify some or all of its financial assets as ‘at fair value through profit or loss’. This reclassification is permitted if an insurer changes accounting policies when it first applies Ind AS 104 and if it makes a subsequent policy change permitted by paragraph 22. The reclassification is a change in accounting policy and Ind AS 8 applies.

Deemed cost

D5. An entity may elect to measure an item of property, plant and equipment at the date of transition to Ind ASs at its fair value and use that fair value as its deemed cost at that date.

D6. A first-time adopter may elect to use a previous GAAP revaluation of an item of property, plant and equipment at, or before, the date of transition to Ind ASs as deemed cost at the date of the revaluation, if the revaluation was, at the date of the revaluation, broadly comparable to:
( a ) fair value; or

( b ) cost or depreciated cost in accordance with Ind ASs, adjusted to reflect, for example, changes in a general or specific price index.

The elections in paragraphs D5 and D6 are also available for:

(a) Omitted*;

right-of-use assets (Ind AS 116, Leases); and

(b) intangible assets that meet:

(i) the recognition criteria in Ind AS 38 (including reliable measurement of original cost); and

(ii) the criteria in Ind AS 38 for revaluation (including the existence of an active market).

An entity shall not use these elections for other assets or for liabilities.

D7. The elections in paragraphs D5 and D6 are also available for:

(a) investment property, accounted for in accordance with the cost model in Ind AS 40, Investment Property; and

(b) intangible assets that meet:

( i ) the recognition criteria in Ind AS 38 (including reliable measurement of original cost); and

( i i ) the criteria in Ind AS 38 for revaluation (including the existence of an active market).

An entity shall not use these elections for other assets or for liabilities.

D7AA. Where there is no change in its functional currency on the date of transition to Ind ASs, a first-time adopter to Ind ASs may elect to continue with the carrying value for all of its property, plant and equipment as recognised in the financial statements as at the date of transition to Ind ASs, measured as per the previous GAAP and use that as its deemed cost as at the date of transition after making necessary adjustments in accordance with paragraph D21 and D21A, of this Ind AS. For this purpose, if the financial statements are
consolidated financial statements, the previous GAAP amount of the subsidiary shall be that amount used in preparing and presenting consolidated financial statements. Where a subsidiary was not consolidated under previous GAAP, the amount required to be reported by the subsidiary as per previous GAAP in its individual financial statements shall be the previous GAAP amount. If an entity avails the option under this paragraph, no further adjustments to the deemed cost of the property, plant and equipment so determined in the opening balance sheet shall be made for transition adjustments that might arise from the application of other Ind ASs. This option can also be availed for intangible assets covered by Ind AS 38, Intangible Assets and investment property covered by Ind AS 40, Investment Property.

D8. A first-time adopter may have established a deemed cost in accordance with previous GAAP for some or all of its assets and liabilities by measuring them at their fair value at one particular date because of an event such as a privatization or initial public offering.

(a) If the measurement date is at or before the date of transition to Ind ASs, the entity may use such event-driven fair value measurements as deemed cost for Ind ASs at the date of that measurement.

(b) If the measurement date is after the date of transition to Ind ASs, but during the period covered by the first Ind AS financial statements, the event-driven fair value measurements may be used as deemed cost when the event occurs. An entity shall recognise the resulting adjustments directly in retained earnings (or if appropriate, another category of equity) at the measurement date. At the date of transition to Ind ASs, the entity shall either establish the deemed cost by applying the criteria in paragraphs D5–D7 or measure assets and liabilities in accordance with the other requirements in this Ind AS.

D8A. Under some GAAP’s exploration and development costs for oil and gas properties in the development or production phases are accounted for in cost centers that include all properties in a large geographical area. A first-time adopter using such accounting under previous GAAP may elect to measure oil and gas assets at the date of transition to Ind ASs on the following basis:

(a) exploration and evaluation assets at the amount determined under the entity’s previous GAAP; and

(b) assets in the development or production phases at the amount determined for the cost centre under the entity’s previous GAAP. The entity shall allocate this amount to the cost centre’s underlying assets pro rata using reserve volumes or reserve values as of that date.

The entity shall test exploration and evaluation assets and assets in the development and production phases for impairment at the date of transition to Ind ASs in accordance with Ind AS 106, Exploration for and Evaluation of Mineral Resources, or Ind AS 36 respectively and, if necessary, reduce the amount determined in accordance with (a) or (b) above. For the purposes of this paragraph, oil and gas assets comprise only those assets used in the exploration, evaluation, development or production of oil and gas.

Some entities hold items of property, plant and equipment, right-of-use assets or intangible assets that are used, or were previously used, in operations subject to rate regulation. The carrying amount of such items might include amounts that were determined under previous GAAP but do not qualify for capitalisation in accordance with Ind ASs. If this is the case, a first-time adopter may elect to use the previous GAAP carrying amount of such an item at the date of transition to Ind ASs as deemed cost. If an entity applies this exemption to an item, it need not apply it to all items. At the date of transition to Ind ASs, an entity shall test for impairment in accordance with Ind AS 36 each item for which this exemption is used. For the purposes of this paragraph, operations are subject to rate regulation if they are governed by a framework for establishing the prices that can be charged to customers for goods or services and that framework is subject to oversight and/or approval by a rate regulator (as defined in Ind AS 114, Regulatory Deferral Accounts).

D8B. Some entities hold items of property, plant and equipment or intangible assets that are used, or were previously used, in operations subject to rate regulation. The carrying amount of such items might include amounts that were determined under previous GAAP but do not qualify for capitalisation in accordance with Ind ASs. If this is the case, a first-time adopter may elect to use the previous GAAP carrying amount of such an item at the date of transition to Ind ASs as deemed cost. If an entity applies this exemption to an item, it need not apply it to all items. At the date of transition to Ind ASs, an entity shall test for impairment in accordance with Ind AS 36 each item for which this exemption is used. For the purposes of this paragraph, operations are subject to rate regulation if they are governed by a framework for establishing the prices that can be charged to customers for goods or services and that framework is subject to oversight and/or approval by a rate regulator (as defined in Ind AS 114, Regulatory Deferral Accounts).

Leases

A first-time adopter may assess whether a contract existing at the date of transition to Ind ASs contains a lease by applying paragraphs 9-11 of Ind AS 116 to those contracts on the basis of facts and circumstances existing at that date.

D9. A first-time adopter may apply paragraphs 6-9 of the Appendix C of Ind AS 17 Determining whether an Arrangement contains a Lease to determine whether an arrangement existing at the date of transition to Ind ASs contains a lease on the basis of facts and circumstances existing at the date of transition to Ind AS, except
where the effect is expected to be not material.

When a lease includes both land and building elements, a first time adopter lessor may assess the classification of each element as finance or an operating lease at the date of transition to Ind ASs on the basis of the facts and circumstances existing as at that date.

D9AA. When a lease includes both land and building elements, a first time adopter may assess the classification of each element as finance or an operating lease at the date of transition to Ind ASs on the basis of the facts and circumstances existing as at that date. If there is any land lease newly classified as finance lease then the first time adopter may recognise assets and liability at fair value on that date; and any difference between those
fair values is recognised in retained earnings.

When a first-time adopter that is a lessee recognises lease liabilities and right-of-use assets, it may apply the following approach to all of its leases (subject to the practical expedients described in paragraph D9D):-

(a) measure a lease liability at the date of transition to Ind AS. A lessee following this approach shall measure that lease liability at the present value of the remaining lease payments (see paragraph D9E), discounted using the lessee’s incremental borrowing rate (see paragraph D9E) at the date of transition to Ind AS.;

(b) measure a right-of-use asset at the date of transition to Ind AS. The lessee shall choose, on a lease-by-lease basis, to measure that right-of-use asset at either:-

(i) its carrying amount as if Ind AS 116 had been applied since the commencement date of the lease (see paragraph D9E), but discounted using the lessee’s incremental borrowing rate at the date of transition to Ind AS; or
(ii) an amount equal to the lease liability, adjusted by the amount of any prepaid or accrued lease payments relating to that lease recognised in the Balance Sheet immediately before the date of transition to Ind AS.

(c) apply Ind AS 36 to right-of-use assets at the date of transition to Ind AS.

D9C Omitted*

A first-time adopter that is a lessee may do one or more of the following at the date of transition to Ind AS, applied on a lease-by-lease basis:

(a) apply a single discount rate to a portfolio of leases with reasonably similar characteristics (for example, a similar remaining lease term for a similar class of underlying asset in a similar economic environment).

(b) elect not to apply the requirements in paragraph D9B to leases for which the lease term (see paragraph D9E) ends within 12 months of the date of transition to Ind AS. Instead, the entity shall account for (including disclosure of information about) these leases as if they were short-term leases accounted for in accordance with paragraph 6 of Ind AS 116.

(c) elect not to apply the requirements in paragraph D9B to leases for which the underlying asset is of low value (as described in paragraphs B3-B8 of Ind AS 116). Instead, the entity shall account for (including disclosure of information about) these leases in accordance with paragraph 6 of Ind AS 116.

(d) exclude initial direct costs (see paragraph D9E) from the measurement of the right-of-use asset at the date of transition to Ind AS.

(e) use hindsight, such as in determining the lease term if the contract contains options to extend or terminate the lease.

Lease payments, lessee, lessee’s incremental borrowing rate, commencement date of the lease, initial direct costs and lease term are defined terms in Ind AS 116 and are used in this Standard with the same meaning.

D10-D11. [Refer to Appendix 1]

Cumulative translation differences

D12. Ind AS 21 requires an entity:

(a) to recognise some translation differences in other comprehensive income and accumulate these in a separate component of equity; and

(b) on disposal of a foreign operation, to reclassify the cumulative translation difference for that foreign operation (including, if applicable, gains and losses on related hedges) from equity to profit or loss as part of the gain or loss on disposal.

D13. However, a first-time adopter need not comply with these requirements for cumulative translation differences that existed at the date of transition to Ind ASs. If a first-time adopter uses this exemption:

(a) the cumulative translation differences for all foreign operations are deemed to be zero at the date of transition to Ind ASs; and

(b) the gain or loss on a subsequent disposal of any foreign operation shall exclude translation differences that arose before the date of transition to Ind ASs and shall include later translation differences.

Long Term Foreign Currency Monetary Items

D13AA. A first-time adopter may continue the policy adopted for accounting for exchange differences arising from translation of long-term foreign currency monetary items recognised in the financial statements for the period ending immediately before the beginning of the first Ind AS financial reporting period as per the previous GAAP.

Investments in subsidiaries, joint ventures and associates

D14. When an entity prepares separate financial statements, Ind AS 27 requires it to account for its investments in subsidiaries, joint ventures and associates either:

(a) at cost; or

(b) in accordance with Ind AS 109.

D15. If a first-time adopter measures such an investment at cost in accordance with Ind AS 27, it shall measure that investment at one of the following amounts in its separate opening Ind AS Balance Sheet:

(a) cost determined in accordance with Ind AS 27; or

(b) deemed cost. The deemed cost of such an investment shall be its:

(i) fair value at the entity’s date of transition to Ind ASs in its separate financial statements; or

(ii) previous GAAP carrying amount at that date.

A first-time adopter may choose either (i) or (ii) above to measure its investment in each subsidiary, joint venture or associate that it elects to measure using a deemed cost.

Assets and liabilities of subsidiaries, associates and joint ventures

D16. If a subsidiary becomes a first-time adopter later than its parent, the subsidiary shall, in its financial statements, measure its assets and liabilities at either:

(a) the carrying amounts that would be included in the parent’s consolidated financial statements, based on the parent’s date of transition to Ind ASs, if no adjustments were made for consolidation procedures and for the effects of the business combination in which the parent acquired the subsidiary (this election is not available to a subsidiary of an investment entity, as defined in Ind AS 110, that is required to be measured at fair value through profit or loss); or

(b) the carrying amounts required by the rest of this Ind AS, based on the subsidiary’s date of transition to Ind ASs. These carrying amounts could differ from those described in (a):

(i) when the exemptions in this Ind AS result in measurements that depend on the date of transition to Ind ASs.

(ii) when the accounting policies used in the subsidiary’s financial statements differ from those  in the consolidated financial statements. For example, the subsidiary may use as its accounting policy the cost model in Ind AS 16 Property, Plant and Equipment, whereas the group may use the revaluation model.

A similar election is available to an associate or joint venture that becomes a first-time adopter later than an entity that has significant influence or joint control over it.

D17. However, if an entity becomes a first-time adopter later than its subsidiary (or associate or joint venture) the entity shall, in its consolidated financial statements, measure the assets and liabilities of the subsidiary (or associate or joint venture) at the same carrying amounts as in the financial statements of the subsidiary (or associate or joint venture), after adjusting for consolidation and equity accounting adjustments and for the effects of the business combination in which the entity acquired the subsidiary. Notwithstanding this requirement, a non-investment entity parent shall not apply the exception to consolidation that is used by any investment entity subsidiaries. Similarly, if a parent becomes a first-time adopter for its separate financial statements earlier or later than for its consolidated financial statements, it shall measure its assets and liabilities at the same amounts in both financial statements, except for consolidation adjustments.

Compound financial instruments

D18. Ind AS 32 Financial Instruments: Presentation requires an entity to split a compound financial instrument at inception into separate liability and equity components. If the liability component is no longer outstanding, retrospective application of Ind AS 32 involves separating two portions of equity. The first portion is in retained earnings and represents the cumulative interest accreted on the liability component. The other portion
represents the original equity component. However, in accordance with this Ind AS, a first-time adopter need not separate these two portions if the liability component is no longer outstanding at the date of transition to Ind ASs.

Designation of previously recognised financial instruments

D19. Ind AS 109 permits a financial liability (provided it meets certain criteria) to be designated as a financial  liability at fair value through profit or loss. Despite this requirement an entity is permitted to designate, at the date of transition to Ind ASs, any financial liability as at fair value through profit or loss provided the liability meets the criteria in paragraph 4.2.2 of Ind AS 109 at that date.

D19A. An entity may designate a financial asset as measured at fair value through profit or loss in accordance with  paragraph 4.1.5 of Ind AS 109 on the basis of the facts and circumstances that exist at the date of transition to Ind ASs.

D19B. An entity may designate an investment in an equity instrument as at fair value through other comprehensive income in accordance with paragraph 5.7.5 of Ind AS 109 on the basis of the facts and circumstances that exist at the date of transition to Ind ASs.

D19C. For a financial liability that is designated as a financial liability at fair value through profit or loss, an entity shall determine whether the treatment in paragraph 5.7.7 of Ind AS 109 would create an accounting mismatch in profit or loss on the basis of the facts and circumstances that exist at the date of transition to Ind ASs.

Fair value measurement of financial assets or financial liabilities at initial recognition

D20. Despite the requirements of paragraphs 7 and 9 of this Ind AS, an entity may apply the requirements in paragraph B5.1.2A (b) of Ind AS 109 prospectively to transactions entered into on or after the date of transition to Ind ASs.

Decommissioning liabilities included in the cost of property, plant and equipment

D21. Appendix ‘A’ to Ind AS 16 Changes in Existing Decommissioning, Restoration and Similar Liabilities requires specified changes in a decommissioning, restoration or similar liability to be added to or deducted from the cost of the asset to which it relates; the adjusted depreciable amount of the asset is then depreciated prospectively over its remaining useful life. A first-time adopter need not comply with these requirements for
changes in such liabilities that occurred before the date of transition to Ind ASs. If a first-time adopter uses this exemption, it shall:

(a) measure the liability as at the date of transition to Ind ASs in accordance with Ind AS 37;

(b) to the extent that the liability is within the scope of Appendix A of Ind AS 16, estimate the amount that would have been included in the cost of the related asset when the liability first arose, by discounting the liability to that date using its best estimate of the historical risk-adjusted discount rate(s) that would have applied for that liability over the intervening period; and

(c) calculate the accumulated depreciation on that amount, as at the date of transition to Ind ASs, on the basis of the current estimate of the useful life of the asset, using the depreciation policy adopted by the entity in accordance with Ind ASs.

D21A. An entity that uses the exemption in paragraph D8A(b) (for oil and gas assets in the development or production phases accounted for in cost centers that include all properties in a large geographical area under previous GAAP) shall, instead of applying paragraph D21 or Appendix A of Ind AS 16:

(a) measure decommissioning, restoration and similar liabilities as at the date of transition to Ind ASs in accordance with Ind AS 37; and

(b) recognise directly in retained earnings any difference between that amount and the carrying amount of those liabilities at the date of transition to Ind ASs determined under the entity’s previous GAAP.

A first-time adopter may apply the following provisions while applying the  Appendix A to Ind AS 11:

Financial assets or intangible assets accounted for in accordance with Appendix C, Service Concession Arrangements to Ind AS 115

D22 A first-time adopter may apply the following provisions while applying the Appendix C to Ind AS 115:

(i) Subject to paragraph (ii), changes in accounting policies are accounted for in accordance with Ind AS 8, i.e. retrospectively, except for the policy adopted for amortization of intangible assets arising from service concession arrangements related to toll roads recognised in the financial statements for the period ending immediately before the beginning of the first Ind AS financial reporting period as per the previous GAAP.

(ii) If, for any particular service arrangement, it is impracticable for an operator to apply this Appendix retrospectively at the date of transition to Ind ASs, it shall:

(a) recognise financial assets and intangible assets that existed at the date of transition to Ind ASs;

(b) use the previous carrying amounts of those financial and intangible assets (however previously classified) as their carrying amounts as at that date; and

(c) test financial and intangible assets recognised at that date for impairment, unless this is not practicable, in which case the amounts shall be tested for impairment as at the start of the current period.

(iii) There are two aspects to retrospective determination: reclassification and remeasurement. It will usually be practicable to determine retrospectively the appropriate classification of all amounts previously included in an operator’s Balance Sheet, but that retrospective remeasurement of service arrangement assets might not always be practicable. However, the fact should be disclosed.

Borrowing costs

D23. [Refer to Appendix 1]

D24. [Refer to Appendix 1]

Extinguishing financial liabilities with equity instruments

D25. A first-time adopter may apply the Appendix E of Ind AS 109 Extinguishing Financial Liabilities with Equity Instruments from the date of transition to Ind ASs.

Severe hyperinflation

D26. If an entity has a functional currency that was, or is, the currency of a hyperinflationary economy, it shall determine whether it was subject to severe hyperinflation before the date of transition to Ind ASs. This applies to entities that are adopting Ind ASs for the first time, as well as entities that have previously applied Ind ASs.

D27. The currency of a hyperinflationary economy is subject to severe hyperinflation if it has both of the following characteristics:

(a) a reliable general price index is not available to all entities with transactions and balances in the currency.

(b) exchange ability between the currency and a relatively stable foreign currency does not exist.

D28. The functional currency of an entity ceases to be subject to severe hyperinflation on the functional currency normalisation date. That is the date when the functional currency no longer has either, or both, of the characteristics in paragraph D27, or when there is a change in the entity’s functional currency to a currency that is not subject to severe hyperinflation.

D29. When an entity’s date of transition to Ind ASs is on, or after, the functional currency normalisation date, the entity may elect to measure all assets and liabilities held before the functional currency normalisation date at fair value on the date of transition to Ind ASs. The entity may use that fair value as the deemed cost of those assets and liabilities in the opening Ind AS Balance Sheet.

D30. When the functional currency normalisation date falls within a 12-month comparative period, the comparative period may be less than 12 months, provided that a complete set of financial statements (as required by paragraph 10 of Ind AS 1) is provided for that shorter period.

Joint arrangements

D31. [Refer to Appendix 1]

Joint ventures – transition from proportionate consolidation to the equity method

D31AA. When changing from proportionate consolidation to the equity method, an entity shall recognise its investment in the joint venture at transition date to Ind ASs. That initial investment shall be measured as the aggregate of the carrying amounts of the assets and liabilities that the entity had previously proportionately consolidated, including any goodwill arising from acquisition. If the goodwill previously belonged to a larger cash-generating unit, or to a group of cash-generating units, the entity shall allocate
goodwill to the joint venture on the basis of the relative carrying amounts of the joint venture and the cash generating unit or group of cash-generating units to which it belonged.

D31AB. The balance of the investment in joint venture at the date of transition to Ind ASs, determined in accordance with paragraph D31AA above is regarded as the deemed cost of the investment at initial recognition.

D31AC. A first-time adopter shall test investment in joint venture for impairment in accordance with Ind AS 36 at the date of transition to Ind ASs, regardless of whether there is any indication that the investment may be impaired. Any resulting impairment shall be recognised as an adjustment to retained earnings at the date of transition to Ind ASs. The initial recognition exception in paragraphs 15 and 24 of Ind AS 12 Income Taxes does not apply when the entity recognises an investment in a joint venture resulting from applying
the transition requirements for joint ventures that had previously been proportionately consolidated.

D31AD. If aggregating all previously proportionately consolidated assets and liabilities results in negative net assets, an entity shall assess whether it has legal or constructive obligations in relation to the negative net assets and, if so, the entity shall recognise the corresponding liability. If the entity concludes that it does not have legal or constructive obligations in relation to the negative net assets, it shall not recognise the corresponding liability but it shall adjust retained earnings at the date of transition to Ind ASs. The entity
shall disclose this fact, along with its cumulative unrecognised share of losses of its joint ventures at the date of transition to Ind ASs.

D31AE. An entity shall disclose a breakdown of the assets and liabilities that have been aggregated into the single line investment balance at the date of transition to Ind ASs. That disclosure shall be prepared in an aggregated manner for all joint ventures at the date of transition to Ind ASs.

D31AF. After initial recognition at the date of transition to Ind ASs, an entity shall account for its investment in the joint venture using the equity method in accordance with Ind AS 28.

Joint operations—transition from the equity method to accounting for assets and liabilities

D31AG. When changing from the equity method to accounting for assets and liabilities in respect of its interest in a joint operation, an entity shall, at the date of transition to Ind ASs, derecognise the investment that was previously accounted for using the equity method and any other items that formed part of the entity’s net investment in the arrangement in accordance with paragraph 38 of Ind AS 28 and recognise its share of
each of the assets and the liabilities in respect of its interest in the joint operation, including any goodwill that might have formed part of the carrying amount of the investment.

D31AH. An entity shall determine its interest in the assets and liabilities relating to the joint operation on the basis of its rights and obligations in a specified proportion in accordance with the contractual arrangement. An entity measures the initial carrying amounts of the assets and liabilities by disaggregating them from the carrying amount of the investment at the date of transition to Ind ASs on the basis of the information used by the entity in applying the equity method.

D31AI. Any difference arising from the investment previously accounted for using the equity method together with any other items that formed part of the entity’s net investment in the arrangement in accordance with paragraph 38 of Ind AS 28, and the net amount of the assets and liabilities, including any goodwill, recognised shall be:

a. offset against any goodwill relating to the investment with any remaining difference adjusted against retained earnings at the date of transition to Ind ASs, if the net amount of the assets and liabilities, including any goodwill, recognised is higher than the investment (and any other items that formed part of the entity’s net investment) derecognised.

b. adjusted against retained earnings at the date of transition to Ind ASs, if the net amount of the assets and liabilities, including any goodwill, recognised is lower than the investment (and any other items that formed part of the entity’s net investment) derecognised.

D31AJ. An entity changing from the equity method to accounting for assets and liabilities shall provide a reconciliation between the investment derecognised, and the assets and liabilities recognised, together with any remaining difference adjusted against retained earnings, at the date of transition to Ind ASs.

D31AK. The initial recognition exception in paragraphs 15 and 24 of Ind AS 12 does not apply when the entity recognises assets and liabilities relating to its interest in a joint operation.

Transition provisions in an entity’s separate financial statements

D31AL. An entity that, in accordance with paragraph 10 of Ind AS 27, was previously accounting in its separate financial statements for its interest in a joint operation as an investment at cost or in accordance with Ind AS 109 shall:

a. derecognise the investment and recognise the assets and the liabilities in respect of its interest in the joint operation at the amounts determined in accordance with paragraphs D31AG –D31AI.

b. provide a reconciliation between the investment derecognised, and the assets and liabilities recognised, together with any remaining difference adjusted in retained earnings, at the date of transition to Ind ASs.

Stripping costs in the production phase of a surface mine

D32. A first-time adopter may apply the Appendix B of Ind AS 16 Stripping Costs in the Production Phase of a Surface Mine from the date of transition to Ind ASs. As at transition date to Ind ASs, any previously recognised asset balance that resulted from stripping activity undertaken during the production phase (‘predecessor stripping asset’) shall be reclassified as a part of an existing asset to which the stripping activity related, to the extent that there remains an identifiable component of the ore body with which the predecessor stripping asset can be associated. Such balances shall be depreciated or amortised over the remaining expected useful life of the identified component of the ore body to which each predecessor stripping asset balance relates. If there is no identifiable component of the ore body to which that predecessor stripping asset relates, it shall be recognised in opening retained earnings at the transition date to Ind ASs.

Designation of contracts to buy or sell a non-financial item

D33. Ind AS 109 permits some contracts to buy or sell a non-financial item to be designated at inception as measured at fair value through profit or loss (see paragraph 2.5 of Ind AS 109). Despite this requirement an entity is permitted to designate, at the date of transition to Ind ASs, contracts that already exist on that date as measured at fair value through profit or loss but only if they meet the requirements of paragraph 2.5 of Ind AS109 at that date and the entity designates all similar contracts.

D34 A first-time adopter may apply the transition provisions in paragraph C5 of Ind AS 115. In those paragraphs references to the ‘date of initial application’ shall be interpreted as the beginning of the first Ind AS reporting period. If a first-time adopter decides to apply those transition provisions, it shall also apply paragraph C6 of Ind AS 115.

D35 A first-time adopter is not required to restate contracts that were completed before the earliest period presented. A completed contract is a contract for which the entity has transferred all of the goods or services identified in accordance with previous GAAP.

Revenue from contracts with customers

D34. A first-time adopter may use one or more of the following practical expedients when applying Ind AS 115 retrospectively:

(a) for completed contracts, an entity need not restate contracts that begin and end within the same annual reporting period;

(b) for completed contracts that have variable consideration, an entity may use the transaction price at the date the contract was completed rather than estimating variable consideration amounts in the comparative reporting periods; and

(c) for all reporting periods presented before the beginning of the first Ind AS reporting period, an entity need not disclose the amount of the transaction price allocated to the remaining performance obligations and an explanation of when the entity expects to recognise that amount as revenue.

D34AA. For any of the practical expedients in paragraph D34 that an entity uses, the entity shall apply that expedient consistently to all contracts within all reporting periods presented. In addition, the entity shall disclose all of the following information:

(a) the expedients that have been used; and

(b) to the extent reasonably possible, a qualitative assessment of the estimated effect of applying each of those expedients.

D35. A first-time adopter is not required to restate contracts that were completed before the earliest period presented. A completed contract is a contract for which the entity has transferred all of the goods or services identified in accordance with previous GAAP.

Non-current assets held for sale and discontinued operations

D35AA. Ind AS 105 requires non-current assets (or disposal groups) that meet the criteria to be classified as held for sale, non-current assets (or disposal groups) that are held for distribution to owners and operations that meet the criteria to be classified as discontinued and carried at lower of its carrying amount and fair value less cost
to sell on the initial date of such identification. A first time adopter can:

(a) measure such assets or operations at the lower of carrying value and fair value less cost to sell at the date of transition to Ind ASs in accordance with Ind AS 105; and

(b) recognise directly in retained earnings any difference between that amount and the carrying amount of those assets at the date of transition to Ind ASs determined under the entity’s previous GAAP.

D36 A first-time adopter need not apply Appendix B, Foreign Currency Transactions and Advance Consideration of Ind AS 21 to assets, expenses and income in the scope of that Appendix initially recognised before the date of transition to Ind AS Standards.

D36 An entity shall apply Appendix C of Ind AS 18 prospectively to transfers of assets from customers received on or after the transition date. Earlier application is permitted provided the valuations and other information needed to apply the Appendix to past transfers were obtained at the time those transfers occurred. An entity shall disclose the date from which the Appendix D of Ind AS 18 was applied.

Appendix E

Short-term exemptions from Ind ASs

*
*
*
*
*
*
*
Uncertainty over income tax treatments
A first – time adopter whose date of transition to Ind ASs is before the date of notification of this Appendix may elect not to reflect the application of the Appendix C, Uncertainty over Income Tax Treatments, to Ind AS 12, Income Taxes, in comparative information in its first  Ind AS financial statements. An entity that makes that election shall recognise the cumulative effect of applying Appendix C to Ind AS 12 as an adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings (or other component of equity, as appropriate) at the beginning of its first Ind AS reporting period.

*Refer to Appendix 1

Appendix 1

Note: This Appendix is not a part of the Ind AS 101, First-time Adoption of Indian Accounting Standards. The purpose of this Appendix is only to highlight major differences between Ind AS 101 and corresponding International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS) 1, First-time Adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards.

Major differences between Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 101 First-time Adoption of Indian Accounting Standards and IFRS 1

1. Paragraph 3 of Ind AS 101 specifies that an entity’s first Ind AS financial statements are the first annual financial statements in which the entity adopts Ind ASs in accordance with Ind ASs notified under the Companies Act, 2013 whereas IFRS 1 provides various examples of first IFRS financial statements.

2. Paragraph 4, 4A, 4B, 23A and 23B of IFRS 1 provide various examples of instances when an entity does not apply this IFRS. Ind AS 101 does not provide the same. In order to maintain consistency with paragraph numbers of IFRS 1, the paragraph number is retained in Ind AS 101.

3. IFRS 1 defines previous GAAP as the basis of accounting that a first-time adopter used immediately before adopting IFRS. However, Ind AS 101 defines previous GAAP as the basis of accounting that a first-time adopter used for its reporting requirement in India immediately before adopting Ind AS. The change makes it mandatory for Indian entities to consider the financial statements prepared in accordance with existing notified Indian accounting standards as was applicable to them as previous GAAP when it transitions to Ind ASs.

4. Under IFRS 1, para C4(c) requires, the first-time adopter shall exclude from its opening Ind AS Balance Sheet any item recognised in accordance with previous GAAP that does not qualify for recognition as an asset or liability under Ind ASs. The first-time adopter shall account for the resulting change in the retained earnings as at the transition date except in certain specific instances where it requires adjustment in the goodwill. In such specific instances where IFRS 1 allows adjustment in the goodwill, under Ind AS 101 it can be adjusted with the Capital reserve to the extent such adjustment amount does not exceed the balance available in Capital reserve.

5. Ind AS 101 in addition to exemptions provided under IFRS 1, also provides certain optional exemptions relating to the long-term foreign currency monetary items and service concession arrangements relating to toll roads. Accordingly, paragraphs 6 and D22 have been modified. Further a heading and paragraph D13AA have been added after paragraph D13.

6. Certain IFRS 1 exceptions to the retrospective application of other IFRS refer to transitional provisions of other IFRSs. However Ind ASs does not provide transitional provisions, accordingly transitional provisions in other IFRSs have been incorporated in the paragraphs B8A, B8B, B8D, B8E, B8EA and B8EB of Ind AS 101.

7. Certain exemptions in Appendix D of IFRS 1 refer to transitional provisions of other IFRSs. However Ind ASs do not provide transitional provisions, accordingly wherever considered an appropriate transitional provision in other IFRSs has been incorporated in the respective exemptions in Appendix D of Ind AS 101. The following paragraphs in IFRS 1 provide the transitional provisions of other IFRSs which are included in Ind AS 101:

(i) Paragraph D4 includes the transitional provisions of IFRS 4 Insurance Contracts;

(ii) Paragraph D9 includes the transitional provisions of IFRIC 4 Determining whether an Arrangement contains a Lease;

(iii) Paragraph D22 includes the transitional provisions of IFRIC 12 Service Concession Arrangements;

(iv) Paragraph D25 includes the transitional provisions of IFRIC 19 Extinguishing Financial Liabilities with Equity Instruments;

(v) Paragraph D31 includes the transitional provisions of IFRS 11 Joint Arrangements;

(vi) Paragraph D32 includes the transitional provisions of IFRIC 20 Stripping Costs in the Production Phase of a Surface Mine; and

(vii) Paragraph D34 and D35 includes the transitional provisions of IFRS 15 Revenue from contracts customer.

8. IFRS 1 provides for various optional exemptions that an entity can seek while an entity transitions to IFRS from its previous GAAP. Similar provisions have been retained under Ind AS 101. However, there are few changes that have been made, which can be broadly categorized as follows:

(a) Elimination of effective dates prior to transition date to Ind ASs. IFRS 1 provides for various dates from which a standard could have been implemented. For example,
Paragraph D2 of IFRS 1 provides that an entity is encouraged, but not required, to apply IFRS 2 Sharebased Payment to equity instruments that were granted on or before 7 November 2002 or to instruments that were granted after 7 November 2002 and vested before the later of (a) the date of transition to IFRSs and (b) 1 January 2005. However, for Ind AS 101 purposes, all these dates have been changed to coincide with the transition date elected by the entity adopting these converged standards i.e. Ind AS.

(b) Deletion of borrowing cost exemptions not relevant for India:
Paragraph D23 of IFRS 1 provides for transitional adjustment requiring companies to apply the provisions of IAS 23 prospectively after the transition date to IFRS. However, this was considered as not relevant in Indian situation as AS 16 always required an entity to capitalize borrowing costs as compared to IAS 23 where it provided an option to expense out such borrowing cost.

(c) Inclusion/modification of existing exemptions to make it relevant for India. For example,

1. Paragraph D7AA has been added to provide for transitional relief from the retrospective application of Ind AS 16: Property, Plant and Equipment. Paragraph D7AA, provides an entity option to use carrying values of all such assets as on the date of transition to Ind ASs, in accordance with revious GAAP as an acceptable starting point under Ind AS. Paragraph 27AA has been included in Ind AS 101 which requires the disclosure that if an entity adopts for first time exemption the option provided in accordance with paragraph D7AA, the fact and the accounting policy shall be disclosed by the entity until such time that those items of property, plant and equipment, investment properties or intangible assets, as the case maybe, are significantly depreciated, impaired or derecognised from the entity’s Balance Sheet.

2. Paragraph D9AA has been added to provide for transitional relief while applying Ind AS 17: Leases. D9AA provides an entity to use the transition date facts and circumstances for lease arrangements which includes both land and building elements to assess the classification of each element as finance or an operating lease at the transition date to Ind ASs. Also, if there is any land lease newly classified as finance lease then the first time adopter may recognise assets and liability at fair value on that date; any difference between those fair values is recognised in retained earnings.

3. Paragraph D35AA has been added to provide for transitional relief while applying Ind AS 105 -Non-current Assets Held for Sale and Discontinued Operations. Paragraph D35AA provides an entity to use the transitional date circumstances to measure such assets or operations at the lower of carrying value and fair value less cost to sell.

. Paragraphs E1 – E 2 of Appendix E of IFRS 1 provides ‘Short – term exemptions from IFRSs’, however Ind AS 101 does not provide the aforesaid short- term exemptions. In order to maintain consistency with paragraph numbers of IFRS 1, the same have been retained in Ind AS 101.

9. Appendix E of IFRS 1 on ‘Short-term exemptions from IFRSs’, however Ind AS 101 does not provide the above said short-term exemption. In order to maintain consistency with Appendix numbers of IFRS 1, the Appendix E is retained in Ind AS 101.

IFRS 9 Financial Instruments is effective from annual period beginning on or after January 1, 2018. As the above said standard is not yet effective consequential amendments due to this standard have not been incorporated in current version of IFRS 1. However, corresponding Ind AS 109, Financial Instruments has been issued with consequential amendments in other Ind ASs including Ind AS 101. Accordingly, its consequential amendments to Ind AS 109 have been incorporated in Ind AS 101.

10. IFRS 9 Financial Instruments and IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers are effective from annual period beginning on or after January 1, 2018 and January 1, 2017, respectively. As the above said standards are not yet effective consequential amendments due to these standards have not been incorporated in current version of IFRS 1. However, corresponding Ind AS 109 Financial Instruments and Ind AS 115 Revenue from Contracts
with Customer have been issued with consequential amendments in other IFRS including IFRS 1. Accordingly, there consequential amendments Ind AS 109 and Ind AS 115 have been incorporated in Ind AS 101.

11. Different terminology is used in Ind AS 101, e.g., the term ‘Balance Sheet’ is used instead of ‘Statement of financial position’ and ‘Statement of profit and loss’ is used instead of ‘Statement of comprehensive income’.

Following paragraph numbers appear as ‘deleted’ in IFRS 1. In order to maintain consistency with paragraph numbers of IFRS 1, the paragraph numbers are retained in Ind AS 101:

(i) Paragraph 19
(ii) Paragraph D1(e)
(iii) Paragraph D1(o)
(iv) Paragraphs D9A and D9C
(v)Paragraphs D10-11
(vi) Paragraph D24
(vii)Paragraph D31
Paragraphs E3 – E7

12. Following paragraph numbers appear as ‘deleted’ in IFRS 1. In order to maintain consistency with paragraph numbers of IFRS 1, the paragraph numbers are retained in Ind AS 101:

(i) Paragraph 19
(ii) Paragraph D1(e)
(iii) Paragraph D1(o)
(iv) Paragraph D10-11
(v) Paragraph D 24
(vi) Paragraph D 31

IAS 40, Investment Property permits both cost model and fair value model (except in some situations) for measurement of investment properties after initial recognition. Ind AS 40, Investment Property, permits only the cost model. As a consequence, paragraph 30 is amended and paragraphs D7(a) and D9C are deleted.

 IAS 40, Investment Property permits both cost model and fair value model (except in some situations) for measurement of investment properties after initial recognition. Ind AS 40, Investment Property permits only the cost model. As a consequence, paragraph 30 is amended and paragraph D7 (a) is deleted.

. Paragraphs 34 to 39W and 39Y to 39AB and 39AD of IFRS 1 have not been included in Ind AS 101 as these paragraphs relate to effective date and are not relevant in Indian context. Paragraph 39AE has not been included since it refers to amendments due to issuance of IFRS 17, Insurance Contracts , for which correspo nding Ind AS is under formulation. However, in order to maintain consistency with paragraph numbers of IFRS 1, these paragraph numbers have been retained in Ind AS 101.

 

Paragraphs 34-39W and 39Y-39AA have not been included in Ind AS 101 as these paragraphs relate to effective date and are not relevant in Indian context. However, in order to maintain consistency with paragraph numbers of IFRS 1, these paragraph numbers are retained in Ind AS 101.

Paragraphs 34 to 39W and 39Y to 39AB have not been included in Ind AS 101 as these paragraphs relate to effective date and are not relevant in Indian context. However, in order to maintain consistency with paragraph numbers of IFRS 1, these paragraph numbers have been retained in Ind AS 101.

  Paragraphs D34-D35 deal with Ind AS 115, Revenue from Contracts with Customers. As Ind AS 115 is not yet effective, therefore, these paragraphs have not been included in this standard. However, in order to maintain consistency with paragraph numbers of IFRS 1, the paragraph numbers are retained in Ind AS 101.

Substituted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2019 dated 30.03.2019. To view the Notification, Click Here.
Substituted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2016, GSR 365(E) dated 30.03.2016. To view the notification,Click Here
Inserted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2018 dated 28.03.2018 effective from 01.04.2018. To view the notification,Click Here
Substituted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2019 dated 30.03.2019. To view the Notification, Click Here.
 Inserted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Second Amendment Rules, 2019 dated 30.03.2019. To view the Notification, Click Here.
 Inserted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Second Amendment Rules, 2019 dated 30.03.2019. To view the Notification, Click Here.
 Inserted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Second Amendment Rules, 2019 dated 30.03.2019. To view the Notification, Click Here.
Substituted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2019 dated 30.03.2019. To view the Notification, Click Here.
Substituted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2019 dated 30.03.2019. To view the Notification, Click Here.
Substituted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2018 dated 28.03.2018 effective from 01.04.2018. To view the notification,Click Here
Substituted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2016, GSR 365(E) dated 30.03.2016. To view the notification,Click Here
Substituted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2018 dated 28.03.2018 effective from 01.04.2018. To view the notification,Click Here
Renumbered vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2018 dated 28.03.2018 effective from 01.04.2018. To view the notification,Click Here
Inserted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2018 dated 28.03.2018 effective from 01.04.2018. To view the notification,Click Here
Substituted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2016, GSR 365(E) dated 30.03.2016. To view the notification,Click Here
Inserted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2019 dated 30.03.2019. To view the Notification, Click Here.
Substituted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2019 dated 30.03.2019. To view the Notification, Click Here.
Substituted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2019 dated 30.03.2019. To view the Notification, Click Here.
Omitted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2019 dated 30.03.2019. To view the Notification, Click Here.
Substituted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2019 dated 30.03.2019. To view the Notification, Click Here.
Inserted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2019 dated 30.03.2019. To view the Notification, Click Here.
Inserted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2019 dated 30.03.2019. To view the Notification, Click Here.
Inserted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2019 dated 30.03.2019. To view the Notification, Click Here.
Inserted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2019 dated 30.03.2019. To view the Notification, Click Here.
Substituted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2018 dated 28.03.2018 effective from 01.04.2018. To view the notification,Click Here
Substituted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2016, GSR 365(E) dated 30.03.2016. To view the notification,Click Here
Substituted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2016, GSR 365(E) dated 31.03.2016. To view the notification,Click Here
Substituted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2018 dated 28.03.2018 effective from 01.04.2018. To view the notification,Click Here
Inserted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2018 dated 28.03.2018 effective from 01.04.2018. To view the notification,Click Here
vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2016, GSR 365(E) dated 30.03.2016. To view the notification,Click Here
Substituted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2016, GSR 365(E) dated 30.03.2016. To view the notification,Click Here
Inserted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2016, GSR 365(E) dated 30.03.2016. To view the notification,Click Here
 Inserted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Second Amendment Rules, 2019 dated 30.03.2019. To view the Notification, Click Here.
 Inserted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Second Amendment Rules, 2019 dated 30.03.2019. To view the Notification, Click Here.
 Inserted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Second Amendment Rules, 2019 dated 30.03.2019. To view the Notification, Click Here.
 Inserted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Second Amendment Rules, 2019 dated 30.03.2019. To view the Notification, Click Here.
 Inserted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Second Amendment Rules, 2019 dated 30.03.2019. To view the Notification, Click Here.
 Inserted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Second Amendment Rules, 2019 dated 30.03.2019. To view the Notification, Click Here.
 Inserted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Second Amendment Rules, 2019 dated 30.03.2019. To view the Notification, Click Here.
 Inserted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Second Amendment Rules, 2019 dated 30.03.2019. To view the Notification, Click Here.
Substituted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Second Amendment Rules, 2019 dated 30.03.2019. To view the Notification, Click Here.
Substituted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2016, GSR 365(E) dated 30.03.2016. To view the notification,Click Here
Substituted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2019 dated 30.03.2019. To view the Notification, Click Here.
 Inserted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Second Amendment Rules, 2019 dated 30.03.2019. To view the Notification, Click Here.
Substituted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2019 dated 30.03.2019. To view the Notification, Click Here.
Inserted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2016, GSR 365(E) dated 30.03.2016. To view the notification,Click Here
Substituted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Second Amendment Rules, 2019 dated 30.03.2019. To view the Notification, Click Here.
Substituted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2019 dated 30.03.2019. To view the Notification, Click Here.
Substituted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2018 dated 28.03.2018 effective from 01.04.2018. To view the notification,Click Here
Inserted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2016, GSR 365(E) dated 30.03.2016. To view the notification,Click Here

Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 102

Share-based Payment
(This Indian Accounting Standard includes paragraphs set in bold type and plain type, which have equal authority. Paragraphs in bold type indicate the main principles.).

Objective
1. The objective of this Standard is to specify the financial reporting by an entity when it undertakes a sharebased payment transaction. In particular, it requires an entity to reflect in its profit or loss and financial position the effects of share-based payment transactions, including expenses associated with transactions in which share options are granted to employees.

Scope
2. An entity shall apply this Standard in accounting for all share-based payment transactions, whether or not the entity can identify specifically some or all of the goods or services received, including:

(a) equity-settled share-based payment transactions,
(b) cash-settled share-based payment transactions, and
(c) transactions in which the entity receives or acquires goods or services and the terms of the arrangement provide either the entity or the supplier of those goods or services with a choice of whether the entity settles the transaction in cash (or other assets) or by issuing equity instruments,

except as noted in paragraphs 3A–6. In the absence of specifically identifiable goods or services, other circumstances may indicate that goods or services have been (or will be) received, in which case this Standard applies.

3. [Refer Appendix 1]

3A A share-based payment transaction may be settled by another group entity (or a shareholder of any group entity) on behalf of the entity receiving or acquiring the goods or services. Paragraph 2 also applies to an entity that,

(a) receives goods or services when another entity in the same group (or a shareholder of any group entity) has the obligation to settle the share-based payment transaction, or
(b) has an obligation to settle a share-based payment transaction when another entity in the same group receives the goods or services, unless the transaction is clearly for a purpose other than payment for goods or services supplied to the entity receiving them.

4 For the purposes of this Standard, a transaction with an employee (or other party) in his/her capacity as a holder of equity instruments of the entity is not a share-based payment transaction. For example, if an entity grants all holders of a particular class of its equity instruments the right to acquire additional equity instruments of the entity at a price that is less than the fair value of those equity instruments, and an employee receives such a right because he/she is a holder of equity instruments of that particular class, the granting or exercise of that right is not subject to the requirements of this Standard.

5 As noted in paragraph 2, this Standard applies to share-based payment transactions in which an entity acquires or receives goods or services. Goods includes inventories, consumables, property, plant and equipment, intangible assets and other non-financial assets. However, an entity shall not apply this Standard to transactions in which the entity acquires goods as part of the net assets acquired in a business combination as defined by Ind AS 103, Business Combinations, in a combination of entities or businesses under common control as described in Appendix C of Ind AS 103, or the contribution of a business on the formation of a joint venture as defined by Ind AS 111, Joint Arrangements. Hence, equity instruments issued in a business combination in exchange for control of the acquiree are not within the scope of this Standard. However, equity instruments granted to employees of the acquiree in their capacity as employees (eg in return for continued service) are within the scope of this Standard. Similarly, the cancellation, replacement or other modification of share-based payment arrangements because of a business combination or other equity restructurings hall be accounted for in accordance with this Standard. Ind AS 103 provides guidance on determining whether equity instruments issued in a business combination are part of the consideration transferred in exchange for control of the acquiree (and therefore within the scope of Ind AS 103) or are in return for continued service to be recognised in the post-combination period (and therefore within the scope of this Standard).

6 This Standard does not apply to share-based payment transactions in which the entity receives or acquires goods or services under a contract within the scope of paragraphs 8–10 of Ind AS 32, Financial Instruments:
Presentation, or paragraphs 2.4–2.7 of Ind AS 109, Financial Instruments.

6A This Standard uses the term ‘fair value’ in a way that differs in some respects from the definition of fair value in Ind AS 113, Fair Value Measurement. Therefore, when applying Ind AS 102 an entity measures fair value in accordance with this Standard, not Ind AS 113.

Recognition

7 An entity shall recognise the goods or services received or acquired in a share-based payment transaction when it obtains the goods or as the services are received. The entity shall recognise a corresponding increase in equity if the goods or services were received in an equity-settled share-based payment transaction, or a liability if the goods or services were acquired in a cash-settled share-based payment transaction.

8 When the goods or services received or acquired in a share-based payment transaction do not qualify for recognition as assets, they shall be recognised as expenses.

9 Typically, an expense arises from the consumption of goods or services. For example, services are typically consumed immediately, in which case an expense is recognised as the counterparty renders service. Goods might be consumed over a period of time or, in the case of inventories, sold at a later date, in which case an expense is recognised when the goods are consumed or sold. However, sometimes it is necessary to recognise an expense before the goods or services are consumed or sold, because they do not qualify for recognition as assets. For example, an entity might acquire goods as part of the research phase of a project to develop a new product. Although those goods have not been consumed, they might not qualify for recognition as assets under the applicable Ind AS.

Equity-settled share-based payment transactions

Overview

10 For equity-settled share-based payment transactions, the entity shall measure the goods or services received, and the corresponding increase in equity, directly, at the fair value of the goods or services received, unless that fair value cannot be estimated reliably. If the entity cannot estimate reliably the fair value of the goods or services received, the entity shall measure their value, and the corresponding increase in equity, indirectly, by reference to* the fair value of the equity instruments granted.

(*This Standard uses the phrase ‘by reference to’ rather than ‘at’, because the transaction is ultimately measured by multiplying the fair value of the equity instruments granted, measured at the date specified in paragraph 11 or 13 (whichever is applicable), by the number of equity instruments that vest, as explained in paragraph 19.)

11 To apply the requirements of paragraph 10 to transactions with employees andothers providing similar services,* the entity shall measure the fair value of theservices received by reference to the fair value of the equity instruments granted, because typically it is not possible to estimate reliably the fair value of the services received, as explained in paragraph 12. The fair value of those equity instruments shall be measured at grant date.

(*In the remainder of this Standard, all references to employees also include others providing similar services.)

12 Typically, shares, share options or other equity instruments are granted to employees as part of their remuneration package, in addition to a cash salary and other employment benefits. Usually, it is not possible to measure directly the services received for particular components of the employee’s remuneration package. It might also not be possible to measure the fair value of the total remuneration package independently, without measuring directly the fair value of the equity instruments granted. Furthermore, shares or share options are sometimes granted as part of a bonus arrangement, rather than as a part of basic remuneration, e.g. as an incentive to the employees to remain in the entity’s employment or to reward them for their efforts in improving the entity’s performance. By granting shares or share options, in addition to other remuneration, the entity is paying additional remuneration to obtain additional benefits. Estimating the fair value of those additional benefits is likely to be difficult. Because of the difficulty of measuring directly the fair value of the services received, the entity shall measure the fair value of the employee services received by reference to the fair value of the equity instruments granted.

13 To apply the requirements of paragraph 10 to transactions with parties other than employees, there shall be a rebuttable presumption that the fair value of the goods or services received can be estimated reliably. That fair value shall be measured at the date the entity obtains the goods or the counterparty renders service. In rare cases, if the entity rebuts this presumption because it cannot estimate reliably the fair value of the goods or services received, the entity shall measure the goods or services received, and the corresponding increase in equity, indirectly, by reference to the fair value of the equity instruments granted, measured at the date the entity obtains the goods or the counterparty renders service.

13A In particular, if the identifiable consideration received (if any) by the entity appears to be less than the fair value of the equity instruments granted or liability incurred, typically this situation indicates that other consideration (ie unidentifiable goods or services) has been (or will be) received by the entity. The entity shall measure the identifiable goods or services received in accordance with this Standard. The entity shall measure the unidentifiable goods or services received (or to be received) as the difference between
the fair value of the share-based payment and the fair value of any identifiable goods or services received (or to be received). The entity shall measure the unidentifiable goods or services received at the grant date. However, for cash-settled transactions, the liability shall be remeasured at the end of each reporting period until it is settled in accordance with paragraphs 30–33.

Transactions in which services are received

14 If the equity instruments granted vest immediately, the counterparty is not required to complete a specified period of service before becoming unconditionally entitled to those equity instruments. In the absence of evidence to the contrary, the entity shall presume that services rendered by the counterparty as consideration for the equity instruments have been received. In this case, on grant date the entity shall recognise the services received in full, with a corresponding increase in equity.

15 If the equity instruments granted do not vest until the counterparty completes a specified period of service, the entity shall presume that the services to be rendered by the counterparty as consideration for those equity instruments will be received in the future, during the vesting period. The entity shall account for those services as they are rendered by the counterparty during the vesting period, with a corresponding increase in equity.
For example:

(a) if an employee is granted share options conditional upon completing three years’ service, then the entity shall presume that the services to be rendered by the employee as consideration for the share options will be received in the future, over that three-year vesting period.

(b) if an employee is granted share options conditional upon the achievement of a performance condition and remaining in the entity’s employment until that performance condition is satisfied, and the length of the vesting period varies depending on when that performance condition is satisfied, the entity shall presume that the services to be rendered by the employee as consideration for the share options will be received in the future, over the expected vesting period. The entity shall estimate the length of the expected vesting period at grant date, based on the most likely outcome of the performance condition. If the performance condition is a market condition, the estimate of the length of the expected vesting period shall be consistent with the assumptions used in estimating the fair value of the options granted, and shall not be subsequently revised. If the performance condition is not a market condition, the entity shall revise its estimate of the length of the vesting period, if necessary, if subsequent information indicates that the length of the vesting period differs from previous estimates.

Transactions measured by reference to the fair value of the equity instruments granted

Determining the fair value of equity instruments granted

16 For transactions measured by reference to the fair value of the equity instruments granted, an entity shall measure the fair value of equity instruments granted at the measurement date, based on market prices if available, taking into account the terms and conditions upon which those equity instruments were granted (subject to the requirements of paragraphs 19–22).

17 If market prices are not available, the entity shall estimate the fair value of the equity instruments granted using a valuation technique to estimate what the price of those equity instruments would have been on the measurement date in an arm’s length transaction between knowledgeable, willing parties. The valuation technique shall be consistent with generally accepted valuation methodologies for pricing financial instruments, and shall incorporate all factors and assumptions that knowledgeable, willing market participants would consider in setting the price (subject to the requirements of paragraphs 19–22).

18 Appendix B contains further guidance on the measurement of the fair value of shares and share options, focusing on the specific terms and conditions that are common features of a grant of shares or share options to employees.

Treatment of vesting conditions

 A grant of equity instruments might be conditional upon satisfying specified vesting conditions. For example, a grant of shares or share options to an employee is typically conditional on the employee remaining in the entity’s employment for a specified period of time. There might be performance conditions that must be satisfied, such as the entity achieving a specified growth in profit or a specified increase in the entity’s share price. Vesting conditions, other than market conditions, shall not be taken into account when estimating the fair value of the shares or share options at the measurement date, Instead, vesting conditions, other than market conditions, shall be taken into account by adjusting the number of equity instruments included in the measurement of the transaction amount so that, ultimately, the amount recognised for goods or services received as consideration for the equity instruments granted shall be based on the number of equity instruments that eventually vest. Hence, on a cumulative basis, no amount is recognised for goods or services received if the equity instruments granted do not vest because of failure to satisfy a vesting condition, other than a market condition, for example, the counterparty fails to complete a specified service period, or a performance condition is not satisfied, subject to the requirements of paragraph 21.

19 A grant of equity instruments might be conditional upon satisfying specified vesting conditions. For example, a grant of shares or share options to an employee is typically conditional on the employee remaining in the entity’s employment for a specified period of time. There might be performance conditions that must be satisfied, such as the entity achieving a specified growth in profit or a specified increase in the entity’s share price. Vesting conditions, other than market conditions, shall not be taken into account when estimating the fair value of the shares or share options at the measurement date. Instead, vesting conditions shall be taken into account by adjusting the number of equity instruments included in the measurement of the transaction amount so that, ultimately, the amount recognised for goods or services received as consideration for the equity instruments granted shall be based on the number of equity instruments that eventually vest. Hence, on a cumulative basis, no amount is recognised for goods or services received if the equity instruments granted do not vest because of failure to satisfy a vesting condition, eg.the counter party fails to complete a specified service period, or a performance condition is not satisfied, subject to the requirements of paragraph 21.

20 To apply the requirements of paragraph 19, the entity shall recognise an amount for the goods or services received during the vesting period based on the best available estimate of the number of equity instruments expected to vest and shall revise that estimate, if necessary, if subsequent information indicates that the number of equity instruments expected to vest differs from previous estimates. On vesting date, the entity shall revise the estimate to equal the number of equity instruments that ultimately vested, subject to the requirements of paragraph 21.

21 Market conditions, such as a target share price upon which vesting (or exercisability) is conditioned, shall be taken into account when estimating the fair value of the equity instruments granted. Therefore, for grants of equity instruments with market conditions, the entity shall recognise the goods or services received from a counterparty who satisfies all other vesting conditions (eg. services received from an employee who remains in service for the specified period of service), irrespective of whether that market condition is satisfied.

Treatment of non-vesting conditions

21A Similarly, an entity shall take into account all non-vesting conditions when estimating the fair value of the equity instruments granted. Therefore, for grants of equity instruments with non-vesting conditions, the entity shall recognise the goods or services received from a counterparty that satisfies all vesting conditions that are not market conditions (eg services received from an employee who remains in service for the specified period of service), irrespective of whether those non-vesting conditions are satisfied.

Treatment of a reload feature

22 For options with a reload feature, the reload feature shall not be taken into account when estimating the fair value of options granted at the measurement date. Instead, a reload option shall be accounted for as a new option grant, if and when a reload option is subsequently granted.

After vesting date

23 Having recognised the goods or services received in accordance with paragraphs 10–22, and a corresponding increase in equity, the entity shall make no subsequent adjustment to total equity after vesting date. For example, the entity shall not subsequently reverse the amount recognised for services received from an employee if the vested equity instruments are later forfeited or, in the case of share options, the options are not exercised. However, this requirement does not preclude the entity from recognising a transfer within equity, ie a transfer from one component of equity to another. If the fair value of the equity instruments cannot be estimated reliably*

(*For example, in case of share options granted to employees, the credit given to an appropriate equity account, say, ‘share options outstanding account’ (upon receiving the services) may be transferred to another appropriate equity account, say, ‘General Reserves’ when the options are not exercised.)

24 The requirements in paragraphs 16–23 apply when the entity is required to measure a share-based payment transaction by reference to the fair value of the equity instruments granted. In rare cases, the entity may be unable to estimate reliably the fair value of the equity instruments granted at the measurement date, in accordance with the requirements in paragraphs 16–22. In these rare cases only, the entity shall instead:

(a) measure the equity instruments at their intrinsic value, initially at the date the entity obtains the goods or the counterparty renders service and subsequently at the end of each reporting period and at the date of final settlement, with any change in intrinsic value recognised in profit or loss. For a grant of share options, the share-based payment arrangement is finally settled when the options are exercised, are
forfeited (eg. upon cessation of employment) or lapse (eg. at the end of the option’s life).

(b) recognise the goods or services received based on the number of equity instruments that ultimately vest or (where applicable) are ultimately exercised. To apply this requirement to share options, for example, the entity shall recognise the goods or services received during the vesting period, if any, in accordance with paragraphs 14 and 15, except that the requirements in paragraph 15(b) concerning a market condition do not apply. The amount recognised for goods or services received during the vesting period shall be based on the number of share options expected to vest. The entity shall revise that estimate, if necessary, if subsequent information indicates that the number of share options expected to vest differs from previous estimates. On vesting date, the entity shall revise the estimate to equal the number of equity instruments that ultimately vested. After vesting date, the entity shall reverse the amount recognised for goods or services received if the share options are later forfeited, or lapse at the end of the share option’s life.

25 If an entity applies paragraph 24, it is not necessary to apply paragraphs 26–29, because any modifications to the terms and conditions on which the equity instruments were granted will be taken into account when applying the intrinsic value method set out in paragraph 24. However, if an entity settles a grant of equity instruments to which paragraph 24 has been applied:

(a) if the settlement occurs during the vesting period, the entity shall account for the settlement as an acceleration of vesting, and shall therefore recognise immediately the amount that would otherwise have been recognised for services received over the remainder of the vesting period.

(b) any payment made on settlement shall be accounted for as the repurchase of equity instruments, ie.as a deduction from equity, except to the extent that the payment exceeds the intrinsic value of the equity instruments, measured at the repurchase date. Any such excess shall be recognised as an expense.

Modifications to the terms and conditions on which equity instruments were granted, including cancellations and settlements

26 An entity might modify the terms and conditions on which the equity instruments were granted. For example, it might reduce the exercise price of options granted to employees (ie. reprice the options), which increases the fair value of those options. The requirements in paragraphs 27–29 to account for the effects of modifications are expressed in the context of share-based payment transactions with employees. However, the requirements shall also be applied to share-based payment transactions with parties other than employees that are measured by reference to the fair value of the equity instruments granted. In the latter case, any references in paragraphs 27–29 to grant date shall instead refer to the date the entity obtains the goods or the counterparty renders service.

27 The entity shall recognise, as a minimum, the services received measured at the grant date fair value of the equity instruments granted, unless those equity instruments do not vest because of failure to satisfy a vesting condition (other than a market condition) that was specified at grant date. This applies irrespective of any modifications to the terms and conditions on which the equity instruments were granted, or a cancellation or settlement of that grant of equity instruments. In addition, the entity shall recognise the effects of modifications that increase the total fair value of the share-based payment arrangement or are otherwise beneficial to the employee. Guidance on applying this requirement is given in Appendix B.

28 If a grant of equity instruments is cancelled or settled during the vesting period (other than a grant cancelled by forfeiture when the vesting conditions are not satisfied):

(a) the entity shall account for the cancellation or settlement as an acceleration of vesting, and shall therefore recognise immediately the amount that otherwise would have been recognised for services received over the remainder of the vesting period.

(b) any payment made to the employee on the cancellation or settlement of the grant shall be accounted for as the repurchase of an equity interest, ie.as a deduction from equity, except to the extent that the payment exceeds the fair value of the equity instruments granted, measured at the repurchase date. Any such excess shall be recognised as an expense. However, if the share-based payment arrangement included liability components, the entity shall remeasure the fair value of the liability at the date of cancellation or settlement. Any payment made to settle the liability component shall be accounted for as an extinguishment of the liability.

(c) if new equity instruments are granted to the employee and, on the date when those new equity instruments are granted, the entity identifies the new equity instruments granted as replacement equity instruments for the cancelled equity instruments, the entity shall account for the granting of replacement equity instruments in the same way as a modification of the original grant of equity instruments, in accordance with paragraph 27 and the guidance in Appendix B. The incremental fair value granted is the difference between the fair value of the replacement equity instruments and the net fair value of the cancelled equity instruments, at the date the replacement equity instruments are granted. The net fair
value of the cancelled equity instruments is their fair value, immediately before the cancellation, less the amount of any payment made to the employee on cancellation of the equity instruments that is accounted for as a deduction from equity in accordance with (b) above. If the entity does not identify new equity instruments granted as replacement equity instruments for the cancelled equity instruments, the entity shall account for those new equity instruments as a new grant of equity instruments.

28A If an entity or counterparty can choose whether to meet a non-vesting condition, the entity shall treat the entity’s or counterparty’s failure to meet that non-vesting condition during the vesting period as a cancellation.

29 If an entity repurchases vested equity instruments, the payment made to the employee shall be accounted for as a deduction from equity, except to the extent that the payment exceeds the fair value of the equity instruments repurchased, measured at the repurchase date. Any such excess shall be recognised as an expense.

Cash-settled share-based payment transactions

For cash-settled share-based payment transactions, the entity shall measure the goods or services acquired and the liability incurred at the fair value of the liability, subject to the requirements of paragraphs 31–33D. Until the liability is settled, the entity shall remeasure the fair value of the liability at the end of each reporting period and at the date of settlement, with any changes in fair value recognised in profit or loss for the period.

30 For cash-settled share-based payment transactions, the entity shall measure the goods or services acquired and the liability incurred at the fair value of the liability. Until the liability is settled, the entity shall remeasure the fair value of the liability at the end of each reporting period and at the date of settlement, with any changes in fair value recognised in profit or loss for the period.

For example, an entity might grant share appreciation rights to employees as part of their remuneration package, whereby the employees will become entitled to a future cash payment (rather than an equity instrument), based on the increase in the entity’s share price from a specified level over a specified period of time. Alternatively, an entity might grant to its employees a right to receive a future cash payment by granting to them a right to shares (including shares to be issued upon the exercise of share options) that are redeemable, either mandatorily (for example, upon cessation of employment) or at the employee’s option. These arrangements are examples of cash-settled share-based payment transactions. Share appreciation rights are used to illustrate some of the requirements in paragraphs 32–33D; however, the requirements in those paragraphs apply to all cash-settled share-based payment transactions.

31 For example, an entity might grant share appreciation rights to employees as part of their remuneration package, whereby the employees will become entitled to a future cash payment (rather than an equity instrument), based on the increase in the entity’s share price from a specified level over a specified period of time. Or an entity might grant to its employees a right to receive a future cash payment by granting to them a right to shares (including shares to be issued upon the exercise of share options) that are redeemable, either mandatorily (eg. upon cessation of employment) or at the employee’s option.

32 The entity shall recognise the services received, and a liability to pay for those services, as the employees render service. For example, some share appreciation rights vest immediately, and the employees are therefore not required to complete a specified period of service to become entitled to the cash payment. In the absence of evidence to the contrary, the entity shall presume that the services rendered by the employees in exchange for the share appreciation rights have been received. Thus, the entity shall recognise immediately the services received and a liability to pay for them. If the share appreciation rights do not vest until the employees have completed a specified period of service, the entity shall recognise the services received, and a liability to pay
for them, as the employees render service during that period.

The liability shall be measured, initially and at the end of each reporting period until settled, at the fair value of the share appreciation rights, by applying an option pricing model, taking into account the terms and conditions on which the share appreciation rights were granted, and the extent to which the employees have rendered service to date subject to the requirements of paragraphs 33A–33D. An entity might modify the terms and conditions on which a cash-settled share-based payment is granted. Guidance for a modification of a share-based payment transaction that changes its classification from cash-settled to equity-settled is given in paragraphs B44A–B44C in Appendix B

33 The liability shall be measured, initially and at the end of each reporting period until settled, at the fair value of the share appreciation rights, by applying an option pricing model, taking into account the terms and conditions on which the share appreciation rights were granted, and the extent to which the employees have rendered service to date.

cash-settled share-based payment transaction might be conditional upon satisfying specified vesting conditions. There might be performance conditions that must be satisfied, such as the entity achieving a specified growth in profit or a specified increase in the entity’s share price. Vesting conditions, other than market conditions, shall not be taken into account when estimating the fair value of the cash-settled sharebased payment at the measurement date. Instead, vesting conditions, other than market conditions, shall be taken into account by adjusting the number of awards included in the measurement of the liability arising from the transaction.

To apply the requirements in paragraph 33A, the entity shall recognise an amount for the goods or services received during the vesting period. That amount shall be based on the best available estimate of the number of awards that are expected to vest. The entity shall revise that estimate, if necessary, if subsequent information indicates that the number of awards that are expected to vest differs from previous estimates. On the vesting date, the entity shall revise the estimate to equal the number of awards that ultimately vested.

Market conditions, such as a target share price upon which vesting (or exercisability) is conditioned, as well as non-vesting conditions, shall be taken into account when estimating the fair value of the cashsettled share-based payment granted and when remeasuring the fair value at the end of each reporting period and at the date of settlement.

As a result of applying paragraphs 30–33C, the cumulative amount ultimately recognised for goods or services received as consideration for the cash-settled share-based payment is equal to the cash that is paid. Share-based payment transactions with a net settlement feature for withholding tax obligations

Tax laws or regulations may oblige an entity to withhold an amount for an employee’s tax obligation associated with a share-based payment and transfer that amount, normally in cash, to the tax authority on the employee’s behalf. To fulfil this obligation, the terms of the share-based payment arrangement may permit or require the entity to withhold the number of equity instruments equal to the monetary value of the employee’s tax obligation from the total number of equity instruments that otherwise would have been issued to the employee upon exercise (or vesting) of the share-based payment (i.e. the share-based payment arrangement has a ‘net settlement feature’).

As an exception to the requirements in paragraph 34, the transaction described in paragraph 33E shall be classified in its entirety as an equity-settled share-based payment transaction if it would have been so classified in the absence of the net settlement feature.

The entity applies paragraph 29 of this Standard to account for the withholding of shares to fund the payment to the tax authority in respect of the employee’s tax obligation associated with the share-based payment. Therefore, the payment made shall be accounted for as a deduction from equity for the shares withheld, except to the extent that the payment exceeds the fair value at the net settlement date of the equity instruments withheld.

The exception in paragraph 33F does not apply to:

(a) a share-based payment arrangement with a net settlement feature for which there is no obligation on the entity under tax laws or regulations to withhold an amount for an employee’s tax obligation associated with that share-based payment; or

(b) any equity instruments that the entity withholds in excess of the employee’s tax obligation associated with the share-based payment (i.e. the entity withheld an amount of shares that exceeds the monetary value of the employee’s tax obligation). Such excess shares withheld shall be accounted for as a cashsettled share-based payment when this amount is paid in cash (or other assets) to the employee

Share-based payment transactions with cash alternatives

34 For share-based payment transactions in which the terms of the arrangement provide either the entity or the counterparty with the choice of whether the entity settles the transaction in cash (or other assets) or by issuing equity instruments, the entity shall account for that transaction, or the components of that transaction, as a cash-settled share-based payment transaction if, and to the extent that, the entity has incurred a liability to settle in cash or other assets, or as an equity-settled share-based payment transaction if, and to the extent that, no such liability has been incurred. Share-based payment transactions in which the terms of the arrangement provide the counterparty with a choice of settlement

35 If an entity has granted the counterparty the right to choose whether a share-based payment transaction is settled in cash* or by issuing equity instruments, the entity has granted a compound financial instrument, which includes a debt component (ie. the counterparty’s right to demand payment in cash) and an equity component (ie. the counterparty’s right to demand settlement in equity instruments rather than in cash). For
transactions with parties other than employees, in which the fair value of the goods or services received is measured directly, the entity shall measure the equity component of the compound financial instrument as the difference between the fair value of the goods or services received and the fair value of the debt component, at the date when the goods or services are received.

(*In paragraphs 35–43, all references to cash also include other assets of the entity.)

36 For other transactions, including transactions with employees, the entity shall measure the fair value of the compound financial instrument at the measurement date, taking into account the terms and conditions on which the rights to cash or equity instruments were granted.

37 To apply paragraph 36, the entity shall first measure the fair value of the debt component, and then measure the fair value of the equity component—taking into account that the counterparty must forfeit the right to receive cash in order to receive the equity instrument. The fair value of the compound financial instrument is the sum of the fair values of the two components. However, share-based payment transactions in which the counterparty has the choice of settlement are often structured so that the fair value of one settlement alternative is the same as the other. For example, the counterparty might have the choice of receiving share options or cash-settled share appreciation rights. In such cases, the fair value of the equity component is zero,and hence the fair value of the compound financial instrument is the same as the fair value of the debt component. Conversely, if the fair values of the settlement alternatives differ, the fair value of the equity component usually will be greater than zero, in which case the fair value of the compound financial instrument will be greater than the fair value of the debt component.

38 The entity shall account separately for the goods or services received or acquired in respect of each component of the compound financial instrument. For the debt component, the entity shall recognise the goods or service acquired, and a liability to pay for those goods or services, as the counterparty supplies goods or renders service, in accordance with the requirements applying to cash-settled share-based payment transactions (paragraphs 30–33). For the equity component (if any), the entity shall recognise the goods or services received, and an increase in equity, as the counterparty supplies goods or renders service, in accordance with the requirements applying to equity-settled share-based payment transactions (paragraphs 10–29).

39 At the date of settlement, the entity shall remeasure the liability to its fair value. If the entity issues equity instruments on settlement rather than paying cash, the liability shall be transferred direct to equity, as the consideration for the equity instruments issued.

40 If the entity pays in cash on settlement rather than issuing equity instruments, that payment shall be applied to settle the liability in full. Any equity component previously recognised shall remain within equity. By electing to receive cash on settlement, the counterparty forfeited the right to receive equity instruments. However, this requirement does not preclude the entity from recognising a transfer within equity, ie a transfer from one component of equity to another.

Share-based payment transactions in which the terms of the arrangement provide the entity with a choice of settlement

41 For a share-based payment transaction in which the terms of the arrangement provide an entity with the choice of whether to settle in cash or by issuing equity instruments, the entity shall determine whether it has a present obligation to settle in cash and account for the share-based payment transaction accordingly. The entity has a present obligation to settle in cash if the choice of settlement in equity instruments has no commercial substance (eg. because the entity is legally prohibited from issuing shares), or the entity has a past practice or a stated policy of settling in cash, or generally settles in cash whenever the counterparty asks for cash settlement.

42 If the entity has a present obligation to settle in cash, it shall account for the transaction in accordance with the requirements applying to cash-settled share-based payment transactions, in paragraphs 30–33.

43 If no such obligation exists, the entity shall account for the transaction in accordance with the requirements applying to equity-settled share-based payment transactions, in paragraphs 10–29. Upon settlement:

(a) if the entity elects to settle in cash, the cash payment shall be accounted for as the repurchase of an equity interest, ie as a deduction from equity, except as noted in (c) below.

(b) if the entity elects to settle by issuing equity instruments, no further accounting is required (other than a transfer from one component of equity to another, if necessary), except as noted in (c) below.

(c) if the entity elects the settlement alternative with the higher fair value, as at the date of settlement, the entity shall recognise an additional expense for the excess value given, ie. the difference between the cash paid and the fair value of the equity instruments that would otherwise have been issued, or the difference between the fair value of the equity instruments issued and the amount of cash that would otherwise have been paid, whichever is applicable.

Share-based payment transactions among group entities

43A For share-based payment transactions among group entities, in its separate or individual financial statements, the entity receiving the goods or services shall measure the goods or services received as either an equity settled or a cash-settled share-based payment transaction by assessing:

(a) the nature of the awards granted, and

(b) its own rights and obligations.
The amount recognised by the entity receiving the goods or services may differ from the amount recognised by the consolidated group or by another group entity settling the share-based payment transaction.

43B The entity receiving the goods or services shall measure the goods or services received as an equity-settled share-based payment transaction when:

(a) the awards granted are its own equity instruments, or

(b) the entity has no obligation to settle the share-based payment transaction.

The entity shall subsequently remeasure such an equity-settled share-based payment transaction only for changes in non-market vesting conditions in accordance with paragraphs 19–21. In all other circumstances, the entity receiving the goods or services shall measure the goods or services received as a cash-settled sharebased payment transaction.

43C The entity settling a share-based payment transaction when another entity in the group receives the goods or services shall recognise the transaction as an equity-settled share-based payment transaction only if it is settled in the entity’s own equity instruments. Otherwise, the transaction shall be recognised as a cash-settled sharebased payment transaction.

43D Some group transactions involve repayment arrangements that require one group entity to pay another group entity for the provision of the share-based payments to the suppliers of goods or services. In such cases, the entity that receives the goods or services shall account for the share-based payment transaction in accordance with paragraph 43B regardless of intragroup repayment arrangements.

Disclosures

44 An entity shall disclose information that enables users of the financial statements to understand the nature and extent of share-based payment arrangements that existed during the period.

45 To give effect to the principle in paragraph 44, the entity shall disclose at least the following:

(a) a description of each type of share-based payment arrangement that existed at any time during the period, including the general terms and conditions of each arrangement, such as vesting requirements, the maximum term of options granted, and the method of settlement (eg whether in cash or equity). An entity with substantially similar types of share-based payment arrangements may aggregate this information, unless separate disclosure of each arrangement is necessary to satisfy the principle in paragraph 44.

(b) the number and weighted average exercise prices of share options for each of the following groups of options:

(i) outstanding at the beginning of the period;
(ii) granted during the period;
(iii) forfeited during the period;
(iv) exercised during the period;
(v) expired during the period;
(vi) outstanding at the end of the period; and
(vii) exercisable at the end of the period.

(c) for share options exercised during the period, the weighted average share price at the date of exercise. If options were exercised on a regular basis throughout the period, the entity may instead disclose the weighted average share price during the period.

(d) for share options outstanding at the end of the period, the range of exercise prices and weighted average remaining contractual life. If the range of exercise prices is wide, the outstanding options shall be divided into ranges that are meaningful for assessing the number and timing of additional shares that may be issued and the cash that may be received upon exercise of those options.

46 An entity shall disclose information that enables users of the financial statements to understand how the fair value of the goods or services received, or the fair value of the equity instruments granted, during the period was determined.

47 If the entity has measured the fair value of goods or services received as consideration for equity instruments of the entity indirectly, by reference to the fair value of the equity instruments granted, to give effect to the principle in paragraph 46, the entity shall disclose at least the following:

(a) for share options granted during the period, the weighted average fair value of those options at the measurement date and information on how that fair value was measured, including:

(i) the option pricing model used and the inputs to that model, including the weighted average share price, exercise price, expected volatility, option life, expected dividends, the risk-free interest rate and any other inputs to the model, including the method used and the assumptions made to incorporate the effects of expected early exercise;

(ii) how expected volatility was determined, including an explanation of the extent to which expected volatility was based on historical volatility; and

(iii) whether and how any other features of the option grant were incorporated into the measurement of fair value, such as a market condition.

(b) for other equity instruments granted during the period (ie other than share options), the number and weighted average fair value of those equity instruments at the measurement date, and information on how that fair value was measured,  including:

(i) if fair value was not measured on the basis of an observable market price, how it was determined;

(ii) whether and how expected dividends were incorporated into the measurement of fair value; and

(iii) whether and how any other features of the equity instruments granted were incorporated into the measurement of fair value.

(c) for share-based payment arrangements that were modified during the period:

(i) an explanation of those modifications;

(ii) the incremental fair value granted (as a result of those modifications); and

(iii) information on how the incremental fair value granted was measured, consistently with the requirements set out in (a) and (b) above, where applicable.

48 If the entity has measured directly the fair value of goods or services received during the period, the entity shall disclose how that fair value was determined, eg whether fair value was measured at a market price for those goods or services.

49 If the entity has rebutted the presumption in paragraph 13, it shall disclose that fact, and give an explanation of why the presumption was rebutted.

50 An entity shall disclose information that enables users of the financial statements to understand the effect of share-based payment transactions on the entity’s profit or loss for the period and on its financial position.

51 To give effect to the principle in paragraph 50, the entity shall disclose at least the following:

(a) the total expense recognised for the period arising from share-based payment transactions in which the goods or services received did not qualify for recognition as assets and hence were recognised immediately as an expense, including separate disclosure of that portion of the total expense that arises from transactions accounted for as equity-settled share-based payment transactions;

(b) for liabilities arising from share-based payment transactions:

(i) the total carrying amount at the end of the period; and

(ii) the total intrinsic value at the end of the period of liabilities for which the counterparty’s right to cash or other assets had vested by the end of the period (eg vested share appreciation rights).

If the information required to be disclosed by this Standard does not satisfy the principles in paragraphs 44, 46 and 50, the entity shall disclose such additional information as is necessary to satisfy them. For example, if an entity has classified any share-based payment transactions as equity-settled in accordance with paragraph 33F, the entity shall disclose an estimate of the amount that it expects to transfer to the tax authority to settle the employee’s tax obligation when it is necessary to inform users about the future cash flow effects associated with the share-based payment arrangement.

52 If the information required to be disclosed by this Ind AS does not satisfy the principles in paragraphs 44, 46 and 50, the entity shall disclose such additional information as is necessary to satisfy them.

[Refer Appendix 1]

An entity shall apply the amendments in paragraphs 30–31, 33–33H and B44A–B44C as set out below. Prior periods shall not be restated.

(a) The amendments in paragraphs B44A–B44C apply only to modifications that occur on or after the date that an entity first applies the amendments.

(b) The amendments in paragraphs 30–31 and 33–33D apply to share-based payment transactions that are unvested at the date that an entity first applies the amendments and to share-based payment transactions with a grant date on or after the date that an entity first applies the amendments. For unvested share-based payment transactions granted prior to the date that an entity first applies the amendments, an entity shall remeasure the liability at that date and recognise the effect of the remeasurement in opening retained earnings (or other component of equity, as appropriate) of the reporting period in which the amendments are first applied.

(c) The amendments in paragraphs 33E–33H and the amendment to paragraph 52 apply to share-based payment transactions that are unvested (or vested but unexercised), at the date that an entity first applies the amendments and to share-based payment transactions with a grant date on or after the date that an entity first applies the amendments. For unvested (or vested but unexercised) sharebased payment transactions (or components thereof) that were previously classified as cash-settled share-based payments but now are classified as equity-settled in accordance with the amendments, an entity shall reclassify the carrying value of the share-based payment liability to equity at the date that it first applies the amendments.

Notwithstanding the requirements in paragraph 59A, an entity may apply the amendments in paragraph 63D retrospectively, in accordance with Ind AS 8, Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors, if and only if it is possible without hindsight. If an entity elects retrospective application, it must do so for all of the amendments made by Amendments to Classification and Measurement of Share-based Payment Transactions under Ind AS 102.

[Refer Appendix 1]

Amendments to Classification and Measurement of Share-based Payment Transactions under Ind AS 102 amended paragraphs 19, 30–31, 33 and 52 and added paragraphs 33A–33H, 59A–59B, 63D and B44A–B44C and their related headings. An entity shall apply those amendments for annual periods beginning on or after 1 April, 2017

Appendix A

Defined terms
This appendix is an integral part of the Ind AS.

cash-settled share based payment transactionA share-based payment transaction in which the entity acquires goods or services by incurring a liability to transfer cash or other assets to the supplier of those goods or services for amounts that are based on the price (or value) of equity instruments (including shares or share options) of the entity or another group entity.
employees and others providing similar servicesIndividuals who render personal services to the entity and either (a)the individuals are regarded as employees for legal or tax purposes, (b) the individuals work for the entity under its direction in the same way as individuals who are regarded as employees for legal or tax purposes, or (c) the services rendered are similar to those rendered by employees. For example, the term encompasses all management personnel, ie those persons having authority and responsibility for planning, directing and controlling the activities of the entity, including non-executive directors.
equity instrumentA contract that evidences a residual interest in the assets of an entity after deducting all of its liabilities.* (*The Framework for the Preparation and Presentation of Financial Statements in accordance with Indian Accounting Standards issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India,defines a liability as a present obligation of the entity arising from past events, the settlement of which is expected to result in an outflow from the entity of resources embodying economic benefits (ie an outflow of cash or other assets of the entity).
equity instrument grantedThe right (conditional or unconditional) to an equity instrument of the entity conferred by the entity on another party, under a share based payment arrangement.
equity-settled share based payment transactionA share-based payment transaction in which the entity
(a) receives goods or services as consideration for its own equity instruments (including shares or share options), or
(b) receives goods or services but has no obligation to settle the transaction with the supplier.
fair valueThe amount for which an asset could be exchanged, a liability settled, or an equity instrument granted could be exchanged, between knowledgeable, willing parties in an arm’s length transaction.
grant dateThe date at which the entity and another party (including an employee) agree to a share-based payment arrangement, being when the entity and the counterparty have a shared understanding of the terms and conditions of the arrangement. At grant date the entity confers on the counterparty the right to cash, other assets, or equity instruments of the entity, provided the specified vesting conditions, if any, are met. If that agreement is subject to an approval process (for example, by shareholders), grant date is the date when that approval is obtained.
intrinsic valueThe difference between the fair value of the shares to which the counterparty has the (conditional or unconditional) right to subscribe or which it has the right to receive, and the price (if any) the counterparty is (or will be) required to pay for those shares. For example, a share option with an exercise price of Rs. 15, on a share with a fair value of Rs. 20, has an intrinsic value of Rs. 5.
market conditionA performance condition upon which the exercise price, vesting or exercisability of an equity instrument depends that is related to the market price (or value) of the entity’s equity instruments (or the equity instruments of another entity in the same group), such as:
(a) attaining a specified share price or a specified amount of intrinsic value of a share option; or
(b) achieving a specified target that is based on the market price (or value) of the entity’s equity instruments (or the equity instruments of another entity in the same group) relative to an index of market prices of equity instruments of other entities. A market condition requires the counterparty to complete a specified period of service (ie a service condition); the service requirement can be explicit or implicit.
measurement dateThe date at which the fair value of the equity instruments granted is measured for the purposes of this Ind AS. For transactions with employees and others providing similar services, the measurement date is grant date. For transactions with parties other than employees (and those providing similar services), the measurement date is the date the entity obtains the goods or the counterparty renders service.
performance conditionA vesting condition that requires:
(a) the counterparty to complete a specified period of service (ie a service condition); the service requirement can be explicit or implicit; and
(b) specified performance target(s) to be met while the counterparty is rendering the service required in
(a).
The period of achieving the performance target(s):
(a) shall not extend beyond the end of the service period; and
(b) may start before the service period on the condition that the
commencement date of the performance target is not substantially
before the commencement of the service period.
A performance target is defined by reference to:
(a) the entity’s own operations (or activities) or the operations or
activities of another entity in the same group (ie a non-market
condition); or
(b) the price (or value) of the entity’s equity instruments or the
equity instruments of another entity in the same group (including shares and share options) (ie a market condition).
A performance target might relate either to the performance of the entity as a whole or to some part of the entity (or part of the group), such as a division or an individual employee.
reload featureA feature that provides for an automatic grant of additional share options whenever the option holder exercises previously granted options using the entity’s shares, rather than cash, to satisfy the exercise price.
reload optionA new share option granted when a share is used to satisfy the exercise price of a previous share option.
service conditionA vesting condition that requires the counterparty to complete a specified period of service during which services are provided to the entity. If the counterparty, regardless of the reason, ceases to provide service during the vesting period, it has failed to satisfy the condition. A service condition
does not require a performance target to be met.
share-based payment arrangementAn agreement between the entity (or another group* entity or any shareholder of any group entity) and another party (including an employee) that entitles the other party to receive
(a) cash or other assets of the entity for amounts that are based on the price (or value) of equity instruments (including shares or share options) of the entity or another group entity, or
(b) equity instruments (including shares or share options) of the entity or another group entity, provided the specified vesting conditions, if any, are met.
(*A ‘group’ is defined in Appendix A of Ind AS 110, Consolidated Financial Statements,as ‘a parent and its subsidiaries’ from the perspective of the reporting entity’s ultimate parent.)
share-based payment transactionA transaction in which the entity
(a) receives goods or services from the supplier of those goods or services (including an employee) in a share-based payment arrangement, or
(b) incurs an obligation to settle the transaction with the supplier in a share-based payment arrangement when another group entity receives those goods or services.
share optionA contract that gives the holder the right, but not the obligation, to subscribe to the entity’s shares at a fixed or determinable price for a specified period of time.
vestTo become an entitlement. Under a share-based payment arrangement, a counterparty’s right to receive cash, other assetsor equity instruments of the entity vests when thecounterparty’s entitlement is no longer conditional on the satisfaction of any vesting conditions
vesting conditionA condition that determine whether the entity receives the services that entitle thecounterparty to receive cash, other assets or equity instruments of the entity, under a share-based payment arrangement. A vesting condition is either a service condition or a performance condition.
vesting periodThe period during which all the specified vesting conditions of a sharebased payment arrangement are to be satisfied.

Appendix B

Application guidance

This appendix is an integral part of the Ind AS.

Estimating the fair value of equity instruments granted

B1. Paragraphs B2–B41 of this appendix discuss measurement of the fair value of shares and share options granted, focusing on the specific terms and conditions that are common features of a grant of shares or share options to employees. Therefore, it is not exhaustive. Furthermore, because the valuation issues discussed below focus on shares and share options granted to employees, it is assumed that the fair value of the shares or share options is measured at grant date. However, many of the valuation issues discussed below (eg determining expected volatility) also apply in the context of estimating the fair value of shares or share options granted to parties other than employees at the date the entity obtains the goods or the counterparty renders service.

Shares

B2. For shares granted to employees, the fair value of the shares shall be measured at the market price of the entity’s shares (or an estimated market price, if the entity’s shares are not publicly traded), adjusted to take into account the terms and conditions upon which the shares were granted (except for vesting conditions that are excluded from the measurement of fair value in accordance with paragraphs 19–21).

B3. For example, if the employee is not entitled to receive dividends during the vesting period, this factor shall be taken into account when estimating the fair value of the shares granted. Similarly, if the shares are subject to restrictions on transfer after vesting date, that factor shall be taken into account, but only to the extent that the post-vesting restrictions affect the price that a knowledgeable, willing market participant would pay for that share. For example, if the shares are actively traded in a deep and liquid market, post-vesting transfer restrictions may have little, if any, effect on the price that a knowledgeable, willing market participant would pay for those shares. Restrictions on transfer or other restrictions that exist during the vesting period shall not be taken into account when estimating the grant date fair value of the shares granted, because those restrictions stem from the existence of vesting conditions, which are accounted for in accordance with paragraphs 19–21.

Share options

B4. For share options granted to employees, in many cases market prices are not available, because the options granted are subject to terms and conditions that do not apply to traded options. If traded options with similar terms and conditions do not exist, the fair value of the options granted shall be estimated by applying an option pricing model.

B5. The entity shall consider factors that knowledgeable, willing market participants would consider in selecting the option pricing model to apply. For example, many employee options have long lives, are usually exercisable during the period between vesting date and the end of the options’ life, and are often exercised early. These factors should be considered when estimating the grant date fair value of the options. For many entities, this might preclude the use of the Black-Scholes-Merton formula, which does not allow for the possibility of exercise before the end of the option’s life and may not adequately reflect the effects of expected early exercise. It also does not allow for the possibility that expected volatility and other model inputs might vary over the option’s life. However, for share options with relatively short contractual lives, or that must be exercised within a short period of time after vesting date, the factors identified above may not apply. In these instances, the Black-Scholes-Merton formula may produce a value that is substantially the same as a more flexible option pricing model.

B6. All option pricing models take into account, as a minimum, the following factors:

(a) the exercise price of the option;
(b) the life of the option;
(c) the current price of the underlying shares;
(d) the expected volatility of the share price;
(e) the dividends expected on the shares (if appropriate); and
(f) the risk-free interest rate for the life of the option.

B7. Other factors that knowledgeable, willing market participants would consider in setting the price shall also be taken into account (except for vesting conditions and reload features that are excluded from the measurement of fair value in accordance with paragraphs 19–22).

B8. For example, a share option granted to an employee typically cannot be exercised during specified periods (eg during the vesting period or during periods specified by securities regulators). This factor shall be taken into account if the option pricing model applied would otherwise assume that the option could be exercised at any time during its life. However, if an entity uses an option pricing model that values options that can be exercised only at the end of the options’ life, no adjustment is required for the inability to exercise them during the vesting period (or other periods during the options’ life), because the model assumes that the options cannot be exercised during those periods.

B9. Similarly, another factor common to employee share options is the possibility of early exercise of the option, for example, because the option is not freely transferable, or because the employee must exercise all vested options upon cessation of employment. The effects of expected early exercise shall be taken into account, as discussed in paragraphs B16–B21.

B10. Factors that a knowledgeable, willing market participant would not consider in setting the price of a share option (or other equity instrument) shall not be taken into account when estimating the fair value of share options (or other equity instruments) granted. For example, for share options granted to employees, factors that affect the value of the option from the individual employee’s perspective only are not relevant to estimating the price that would be set by a knowledgeable, willing market participant.

Inputs to option pricing models
B11. In estimating the expected volatility of and dividends on the underlying shares, the objective is to approximate the expectations that would be reflected in a current market or negotiated exchange price for the option. Similarly, when estimating the effects of early exercise of employee share options, the objective is to approximate the expectations that an outside party with access to detailed information about employees’ exercise behaviour would develop based on information available at the grant date.

B12. Often, there is likely to be a range of reasonable expectations about future volatility, dividends and exercise behaviour. If so, an expected value should be calculated, by weighting each amount within the range by its associated probability of occurrence.

B13. Expectations about the future are generally based on experience, modified if the future is reasonably expected to differ from the past. In some circumstances, identifiable factors may indicate that unadjusted historical experience is a relatively poor predictor of future experience. For example, if an entity with two distinctly different lines of business disposes of the one that was significantly less risky than the other, historical volatility may not be the best information on which to base reasonable expectations for the future.

B14. In other circumstances, historical information may not be available. For example, a newly listed entity will have little, if any, historical data on the volatility of its share price. Unlisted and newly listed entities are discussed further below.

B15. In summary, an entity should not simply base estimates of volatility, exercise behaviour and dividendson historical information without considering the extent to which the past experience is expected to be reasonably predictive of future experience.

Expected early exercise

B16. Employees often exercise share options early, for a variety of reasons. For example, employee share options are typically non-transferable. This often causes employees to exercise their share options early, because that is the only way for the employees to liquidate their position. Also, employees who cease employment are usually required to exercise any vested options within a short period of time, otherwise the share options are forfeited. This factor also causes the early exercise of employee share options. Other factors causing early exercise are risk aversion and lack of wealth diversification.

B17. The means by which the effects of expected early exercise are taken into account depends upon the type of option pricing model applied. For example, expected early exercise could be taken into account by using an estimate of the option’s expected life (which, for an employee share option, is the period of time from grant date to the date on which the option is expected to be exercised) as an input into an option pricing model (eg
the Black-Scholes-Merton formula). Alternatively, expected early exercise could be modelled in a binomial or similar option pricing model that uses contractual life as an input.

B18. Factors to consider in estimating early exercise include:

(a) the length of the vesting period, because the share option typically cannot be exercised until the end of the vesting period. Hence, determining the valuation implications of expected early exercise is based on the assumption that the options will vest. The implications of vesting conditions are discussed in paragraphs 19–21.

(b) the average length of time similar options have remained outstanding in the past.

(c) the price of the underlying shares. Experience may indicate that the employees tend to exercise options when the share price reaches a specified level above the exercise price.

(d) the employee’s level within the organisation. For example, experience might indicate that higher-level employees tend to exercise options later than lower-level employees (discussed further in paragraph B21).

(e) expected volatility of the underlying shares. On average, employees might tend to exercise options on highly volatile shares earlier than on shares with low volatility.

B19. As noted in paragraph B17, the effects of early exercise could be taken into account by using an estimate of the option’s expected life as an input into an option pricing model. When estimating the expected life of share options granted to a group of employees, the entity could base that estimate on an appropriately weighted average expected life for the entire employee group or on appropriately weighted average lives for subgroups of employees within the group, based on more detailed data about employees’ exercise behaviour (discussed further below).

B20. Separating an option grant into groups for employees with relatively homogeneous exercise behaviour is likely to be important. Option value is not a linear function of option term; value increases at a decreasing rate as the term lengthens. For example, if all other assumptions are equal, although a two-year option is worth more than a one-year option, it is not worth twice as much. That means that calculating estimated option value on the basis of a single weighted average life that includes widely differing individual lives would overstate the total fair value of the share options granted. Separating options granted into several groups, each of which has a relatively narrow range of lives included in its weighted average life, reduces that overstatement.

B21. Similar considerations apply when using a binomial or similar model. For example, the experience of an entity that grants options broadly to all levels of employees might indicate that top-level executives tend to hold their options longer than middle management employees hold theirs and that lower-level employees tend to exercise their options earlier than any other group. In addition, employees who are encouraged or required to hold a minimum amount of their employer’s equity instruments, including options, might on average exercise options later than employees not subject to that provision. In those situations, separating options by groups of recipients with relatively homogeneous exercise behaviour will result in a more accurate estimate of
the total fair value of the share options granted.

Expected volatility

B22. Expected volatility is a measure of the amount by which a price is expected to fluctuate during a period. The measure of volatility used in option pricing models is the annualised standard deviation of the continuously compounded rates of return on the share over a period of time. Volatility is typically expressed in annualised terms that are comparable regardless of the time period used in the calculation, for example, daily, weekly or monthly price observations.

B23. The rate of return (which may be positive or negative) on a share for a period measures how much a shareholder has benefited from dividends and appreciation (or depreciation) of the share price.

B24. The expected annualised volatility of a share is the range within which the continuously compounded annual rate of return is expected to fall approximately two thirds of the time. For example, to say that a share with an expected continuously compounded rate of return of 12 per cent has a volatility of 30 per cent means that the probability that the rate of return on the share for one year will be between –18 per cent (12% – 30%) and 42 per cent (12% + 30%) is approximately two-thirds. If the share price is Rs.100 at the beginning of the year and no dividends are paid, the year-end share price would be expected to be between Rs.83.53 (Rs.100 × e–0.18) and Rs.152.20 (Rs.100 × e0.42) approximately two-thirds of the time.

B25. Factors to consider in estimating expected volatility include:

(a) implied volatility from traded share options on the entity’s shares, or other traded instruments of the entity that include option features (such as convertible debt), if any.

(b) the historical volatility of the share price over the most recent period that is generally commensurate with the expected term of the option (taking into account the remaining contractual life of the option and the effects of expected early exercise).

(c) the length of time an entity’s shares have been publicly traded. A newly listed entity might have a high historical volatility, compared with similar entities that have been listed longer. Further guidance for newly listed entities is given below.

(d) the tendency of volatility to revert to its mean, ie its long-term average level, and other factors indicating that expected future volatility might differ from past volatility. For example, if an entity’s share price was extraordinarily volatile for some identifiable period of time because of a failed takeover bid or a major restructuring, that period could be disregarded in computing historical average annual volatility.

(e) appropriate and regular intervals for price observations. The price observations should be consistent from period to period. For example, an entity might use the closing price for each week or the highest price for the week, but it should not use the closing price for some weeks and the highest price for other weeks.
Also, the price observations should be expressed in the same currency as the exercise price.

Newly listed entities

B26. As noted in paragraph B25, an entity should consider historical volatility of the share price over the most recent period that is generally commensurate with the expected option term. If a newly listed entity does not have sufficient information on historical volatility, it should nevertheless compute historical volatility for the longest period for which trading activity is available. It could also consider the historical volatility of similar entities following a comparable period in their lives. For example, an entity that has been
listed for only one year and grants options with an average expected life of five years might consider the pattern and level of historical volatility of entities in the same industry for the first six years in which the shares of those entities were publicly traded.

Unlisted entities

B27. An unlisted entity will not have historical information to consider when estimating expected volatility. Some factors to consider instead are set out below.

B28. In some cases, an unlisted entity that regularly issues options or shares to employees (or other parties) might have set up an internal market for its shares. The volatility of those share prices could be considered when estimating expected volatility.

B29. Alternatively, the entity could consider the historical or implied volatility of similar listed entities, for which share price or option price information is available, to use when estimating expected volatility.
This would be appropriate if the entity has based the value of its shares on the share prices of similar listed entities.

B30. If the entity has not based its estimate of the value of its shares on the share prices of similar listed entities, and has instead used another valuation methodology to value its shares, the entity could derive an estimate of expected volatility consistent with that valuation methodology. For example, the entity might value its shares on a net asset or earnings basis. It could consider the expected volatility of those net asset values or earnings.

Expected dividends

B31. Whether expected dividends should be taken into account when measuring the fair value of shares or options granted depends on whether the counterparty is entitled to dividends or dividend equivalents.

B32. For example, if employees were granted options and are entitled to dividends on the underlying shares or dividend equivalents (which might be paid in cash or applied to reduce the exercise price) between grant date and exercise date, the options granted should be valued as if no dividends will be paid on the underlying  shares, ie the input for expected dividends should be zero.

B33. Similarly, when the grant date fair value of shares granted to employees is estimated, no adjustment is required for expected dividends if the employee is entitled to receive dividends paid during the vesting period.

B34. Conversely, if the employees are not entitled to dividends or dividend equivalents during the vesting period (or before exercise, in the case of an option), the grant date valuation of the rights to shares or options should take expected dividends into account. That is to say, when the fair value of an option grant is estimated, expected dividends should be included in the application of an option pricing model. When the fair value of a share grant is estimated, that valuation should be reduced by the present value of dividends expected to be paid during the vesting period.

B35. Option pricing models generally call for expected dividend yield. However, the models may be modified to use an expected dividend amount rather than a yield. An entity may use either its expected yield or its expected payments. If the entity uses the latter, it should consider its historical pattern of increases in dividends. For example, if an entity’s policy has generally been to increase dividends by approximately 3 per cent per year, its estimated option value should not assume a fixed dividend amount throughout the option’s life unless there is evidence that supports that assumption.

B36. Generally, the assumption about expected dividends should be based on publicly available information. An entity that does not pay dividends and has no plans to do so should assume an expected dividend yield of zero.
However, an emerging entity with no history of paying dividends might expect to begin paying dividends during the expected lives of its employee share options. Those entities could use an average of their past dividend yield (zero) and the mean dividend yield of an appropriately comparable peer group.

Risk-free interest rate
B37. Typically, the risk-free interest rate is the implied yield currently available on zero-coupon government issues of the country in whose currency the exercise price is expressed, with a remaining term equal to the expected term of the option being valued (based on the option’s remaining contractual life and taking into account the effects of expected early exercise). It may be necessary to use an appropriate substitute, if no such government issues exist or circumstances indicate that the implied yield on zero-coupon government issues is not representative of the risk-free interest rate (for example, in high inflation economies). Also, an appropriate substitute should be used if market participants would typically determine the risk-free interest rate by using that substitute, rather than the implied yield of zero-coupon government issues, when estimating the fair value of an option with a life equal to the expected term of the option being valued.

Capital structure effects
B38. Typically, third parties, not the entity, write traded share options. When these share options are exercised, the writer delivers shares to the option holder. Those shares are acquired from existing shareholders. Hence the exercise of traded share options has no dilutive effect.

B39. In contrast, if share options are written by the entity, new shares are issued when those share options are exercised (either actually issued or issued in substance, if shares previously repurchased and held in treasury are used). Given that the shares will be issued at the exercise price rather than the current market price at the date of exercise, this actual or potential dilution might reduce the share price, so that the option holder does not make as large a gain on exercise as on exercising an otherwise similar traded option that does not dilute the share price.

B40. Whether this has a significant effect on the value of the share options granted depends on various factors, such as the number of new shares that will be issued on exercise of the options compared with the number of shares already issued. Also, if the market already expects that the option grant will take place, the market may have already factored the potential dilution into the share price at the date of grant.

B41. However, the entity should consider whether the possible dilutive effect of the future exercise of the share options granted might have an impact on their estimated fair value at grant date. Option pricing models can be adapted to take into account this potential dilutive effect.

Modifications to equity-settled share-based payment arrangements

B42. Paragraph 27 requires that, irrespective of any modifications to the terms and conditions on which the equity instruments were granted, or a cancellation or settlement of that grant of equity instruments, the entity should recognise, as a minimum, the services received measured at the grant date fair value of the equity instruments granted, unless those equity instruments do not vest because of failure to satisfy a vesting  condition (other than a market condition) that was specified at grant date. In addition, the entity should recognise the effects of modifications that increase the total fair value of the share-based payment arrangement or are otherwise beneficial to the employee.

B43 To apply the requirements of paragraph 27:

(a) if the modification increases the fair value of the equity instruments granted (eg by reducing the exercise price), measured immediately before and after the modification, the entity shall include the incremental fair value granted in the measurement of the amount recognised for services received as consideration for the equity instruments granted. The incremental fair value granted is the difference between the fair value of the modified equity instrument and that of the original equity instrument, both estimated as at the date of the modification. If the modification occurs during the vesting period, the incremental fair value granted is included in the measurement of the amount recognised for services received over the period from the modification date until the date when the modified equity instruments vest, in addition to the amount based on the grant date fair value of the original equity instruments, which is recognised over the remainder of the original vesting period. If the modification occurs after vesting date, the incremental fair value granted is recognised immediately, or over the vesting period if the employee is required to complete an additional period of service before becoming unconditionally entitled to those modified equity instruments.

(b) similarly, if the modification increases the number of equity instruments granted, the entity shall include the fair value of the additional equity instruments granted, measured at the date of the modification, in  the measurement of the amount recognised for services received as consideration for the equity instruments granted, consistently with the requirements in (a) above. For example, if the modification occurs during the vesting period, the fair value of the additional equity instruments granted is included in the measurement of the amount recognised for services received over the period from the modification date until the date when the additional equity instruments vest, in addition to the amount based on the grant date  fair value of the equity instruments originally granted, which is recognised over the remainder of the original vesting period.

(c) if the entity modifies the vesting conditions in a manner that is beneficial to the employee, for example,by reducing the vesting period or by modifying or eliminating a performance condition (other than a market condition, changes to which are accounted for in accordance with (a) above), the entity shall take the modified vesting conditions into account when applying the requirements of paragraphs 19–21.

B44. Furthermore, if the entity modifies the terms or conditions of the equity instruments granted in a manner that reduces the total fair value of the share-based payment arrangement, or is not otherwise beneficial to the employee, the entity shall nevertheless continue to account for the services received as consideration for the equity instruments granted as if that modification had not occurred (other than a cancellation of some or all the equity instruments granted, which shall be accounted for in accordance with paragraph 28). For example:

(a) if the modification reduces the fair value of the equity instruments granted, measured immediately before and after the modification, the entity shall not take into account that decrease in fair value and shall continue to measure the amount recognised for services received as consideration for the equity instruments based on the grant date fair value of the equity instruments granted.

(b) if the modification reduces the number of equity instruments granted to an employee, that reduction shall be accounted for as a cancellation of that portion of the grant, in accordance with the requirements of paragraph 28.

(c) if the entity modifies the vesting conditions in a manner that is not beneficial to the employee, for example, by increasing the vesting period or by modifying or adding a performance condition (other than a market condition, changes to which are accounted for in accordance with (a) above), the entity shall not take the modified vesting conditions into account when applying the requirements of paragraphs 19–21.

If the terms and conditions of a cash-settled share-based payment transaction are modified with the result that it becomes an equity-settled share-based payment transaction, the transaction is accounted for as such from the date of the modification. Specifically: (a) The equity-settled share-based payment transaction is measured by reference to the fair value of the equity instruments granted at the modification date. The equity-settled share-based payment transaction is recognised in equity on the modification date to the extent to which goods or services have been received. (b) The liability for the cash-settled share-based payment transaction as at the modification date is derecognised on that date. (c) Any difference between the carrying amount of the liability derecognised and the amount of equity recognised on the modification date is recognised immediately in profit or loss.

If, as a result of the modification, the vesting period is extended or shortened, the application of the requirements in paragraph B44A reflect the modified vesting period. The requirements in paragraph B44A apply even if the modification occurs after the vesting period.

A cash-settled share-based payment transaction may be cancelled or settled (other than a transaction cancelled by forfeiture when the vesting conditions are not satisfied). If equity instruments are granted and, on that grant date, the entity identifies them as a replacement for the cancelled cash-settled sharebased payment, the entity shall apply paragraphs B44A and B44B.

Share-based payment transactions among group entities
B45. Paragraphs 43A–43C address the accounting for share-based payment transactions among group entities in each entity’s separate or individual financial statements. Paragraphs B46–B61 discusshow to apply the requirements in paragraphs 43A–43C. As noted in paragraph 43D, share-based payment transactions among group entities may take place for a variety of reasons depending on facts and circumstances. Therefore, this discussion is not exhaustive and assumes that when the entity receiving the goods or services has no obligation to settle the transaction, the transaction is a parent’s equity
contribution to the subsidiary, regardless of any intragroup repayment arrangements.

B46. Although the discussion below focuses on transactions with employees, it also applies to similar share-based payment transactions with suppliers of goods or services other than employees. An arrangement between a parent and its subsidiary may require the subsidiary to pay the parent for the provision of the equity instruments to the employees. The discussion below does not address how to account for such an intragroup payment arrangement.

B47. Four issues are commonly encountered in share-based payment transactions among group entities. Forconvenience, the examples below discuss the issues in terms of a parent  and its subsidiary.
Share-based payment arrangements involving an entity’s own equity instruments

B48. The first issue is whether the following transactions involving an entity’s own equity instruments should be  accounted for as equity-settled or as cash-settled in accordance with the requirements of this Standard:

(a) an entity grants to its employees rights to equity instruments of the entity (eg share options), and either chooses or is required to buy equity instruments (ie treasury shares) from another party, to satisfy its obligations to its employees; and
(b) an entity’s employees are granted rights to equity instruments of the entity (eg share options), either by the entity itself or by its shareholders, and the shareholders of the entity provide the equity instruments needed.

B49. The entity shall account for share-based payment transactions in which it receives services as consideration for its own equity instruments as equity-settled. This applies regardless of whether the entity chooses or is required to buy those equity instruments from another party to satisfy its obligations to its employees under the share-based payment arrangement. It also applies regardless of whether:

(a) the employee’s rights to the entity’s equity instruments were granted by the entity itself or by its shareholder(s); or

(b) the share-based payment arrangement was settled by the entity itself or by its shareholder(s).

B50. If the shareholder has an obligation to settle the transaction with its investee’s employees, it provides equity instruments of its investee rather than its own. Therefore, if its investee is in the same group as the shareholder, in accordance with paragraph 43C, the shareholder shall measure its obligation in accordance with the requirements applicable to cash-settled share-based payment transactions in the shareholder’s separate financial statements and those applicable to equity-settled share-based payment transactions in the shareholder’s consolidated financial statements.

Share-based payment arrangements involving equity instruments of the parent

B51. The second issue concerns share-based payment transactions between two or more entities within the same group involving an equity instrument of another group entity. For example, employees of a subsidiary are granted rights to equity instruments of its parent as consideration for the services provided to the subsidiary.

B52. Therefore, the second issue concerns the following share-based payment arrangements:

(a) a parent grants rights to its equity instruments directly to the employees of its subsidiary: the parent (not the subsidiary) has the obligation to provide the employees of the subsidiary with the equity instruments;and

(b) a subsidiary grants rights to equity instruments of its parent to its employees: the subsidiary has the obligation to provide its employees with the equity instruments.
A parent grants rights to its equity instruments to the employees of its subsidiary [paragraph B52(a)]

B53. The subsidiary does not have an obligation to provide its parent’s equity instruments to the subsidiary’s employees. Therefore, in accordance with paragraph 43B, the subsidiary shall measure the services received from its employees in accordance with the requirements applicable to equity-settled share-based payment transactions, and recognise a corresponding increase in equity as a contribution from the parent.

B54. The parent has an obligation to settle the transaction with the subsidiary’s employees by providing the parent’s own equity instruments. Therefore, in accordance with paragraph 43C, the parent shall measure its obligation in accordance with the requirements applicable to equity-settled share-based payment transactions.
A subsidiary grants rights to equity instruments of its parent to its employees [paragraph B52(b)]

B55. Because the subsidiary does not meet either of the conditions in paragraph 43B, it shall account for the transaction with its employees as cash-settled. This requirement applies irrespective of how the subsidiary obtains the equity instruments to satisfy its obligations to its employees.
Share-based payment arrangements involving cash-settled payments to employees

B56. The third issue is how an entity that receives goods or services from its suppliers (including employees) should account for share-based arrangements that are cash-settled when the entity itself does not have any obligation to make the required payments to its suppliers. For example, consider the following arrangements in which the parent (not the entity itself) has an obligation to make the required cash payments to the employees of the entity:

(a) the employees of the entity will receive cash payments that are linked to the price of its equity instruments.
(b) the employees of the entity will receive cash payments that are linked to the price of its parent’s equity  instruments.

B57. The subsidiary does not have an obligation to settle the transaction with its employees. Therefore, the subsidiary shall account for the transaction with its employees as equity-settled, and recognise a corresponding increase in equity as a contribution from its parent. The subsidiary shall remeasure the cost of the transaction subsequently for any changes resulting from non-market vesting conditions not being met in accordance with
paragraphs 19–21. This differs from the measurement of the transaction as cash-settled in the consolidated financial statements of the group.

B58. Because the parent has an obligation to settle the transaction with the employees, and the consideration is cash, the parent (and the consolidated group) shall measure its obligation in accordance with the requirements applicable to cash-settled share-based payment transactions in paragraph 43C.

Transfer of employees between group entities

B59. The fourth issue relates to group share-based payment arrangements that involve employees of more than one group entity. For example, a parent might grant rights to its equity instruments to the employees of its subsidiaries, conditional upon the completion of continuing service with the group for a specified period. An employee of one subsidiary might transfer employment to another subsidiary during the specified vesting period without the employee’s rights to equity instruments of the parent under the original share-based payment arrangement being affected. If the subsidiaries have no obligation to settle the share-based payment  transaction with their employees, they account for it as an equity-settled transaction. Each subsidiary shall measure the services received from the employee by reference to the fair value of the equity instruments at the date the rights to those equity instruments were originally granted by the parent as defined in Appendix A, and the proportion of the vesting period the employee served with each subsidiary.

B60. If the subsidiary has an obligation to settle the transaction with its employees in its parent’s equity instruments, it accounts for the transaction as cash-settled. Each subsidiary shall measure the services received on the basis of grant date fair value of the equity instruments for the proportion of the vesting period the employee served with each subsidiary. In addition, each subsidiary shall recognise any change in the fair value of the equity instruments during the employee’s service period with each subsidiary.

B61. Such an employee, after transferring between group entities, may fail to satisfy a vesting condition other thana market condition as defined in Appendix A, eg the employee leaves the group before completing the service period. In this case, because the vesting condition is service to the group, each subsidiary shall adjust the amount previously recognised in respect of the services received from the employee in accordance with the
principles in paragraph 19. Hence, if the rights to the equity instruments granted by the parent do not vest because of an employee’s failure to meet a vesting condition other than a market condition, no amount is recognised on a cumulative basis for the services received from that employee in the financial statements of any group entity.

Appendix 1

Note:This Appendix is not a part of the Indian Accounting Standard. The purpose of this Appendix is only to bring out the major differences, if any, between Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 102 and the corresponding International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS) 2, Share-based Payment, issued by the International Accounting Standards Board.
Comparison with IFRS 2, Share-based Payment
1. The transitional provisions given in IFRS 2 and portions related thereto have not been given in Ind AS 102, since all transitional provisions related to Indian ASs, wherever considered appropriate, have been included in Ind AS 101, First-time Adoption of Indian Accounting Standards corresponding to IFRS 1, First-time Adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards.

2. Cross-reference to paragraphs B1-B4 of IFRS 3 contained in paragraph 5 of IFRS 2 has been modified as cross-reference to Appendix C of Ind AS 103 in paragraph 5 of Ind AS 102. This is consequential to the insertion of Appendix C in Ind AS 103 to deal with business combination of entities under common control.

3. Different terminology is used in the Standard. eg, the term ‘balance sheet’ is used instead of ‘Statement of  financial position’.

4. Paragraph number 3 appears as ‘Deleted’ in IFRS 2. In order to maintain consistency with paragraph numbers of IFRS 2, the paragraph number is retained in Ind AS 102.

Paragraphs 53-59 and 60-63C in IFRS 2 have not been included in Ind AS 102 as these paragraphs relate to Transitional Provisions and Effective date, respectively. However, in order to maintain consistency with paragraph numbers of IFRS 2, the paragraph numbers are retained in Ind AS 102.

Substituted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2017 dated 17th March 2017, effective from 01/04/2017.To view the notification,Click Here
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Inserted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2017 dated 17th March 2017, effective from 01/04/2017.To view the notification,Click Here
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Inserted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2017 dated 17th March 2017, effective from 01/04/2017.To view the notification,Click Here
Inserted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2017 dated 17th March 2017, effective from 01/04/2017.To view the notification,Click Here
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Inserted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2017 dated 17th March 2017, effective from 01/04/2017.To view the notification,Click Here
Inserted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2017 dated 17th March 2017, effective from 01/04/2017.To view the notification,Click Here
Inserted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2017 dated 17th March 2017, effective from 01/04/2017.To view the notification,Click Here
Substituted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2017 dated 17th March 2017, effective from 01/04/2017.To view the notification,Click Here
Inserted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2017 dated 17th March 2017, effective from 01/04/2017.To view the notification,Click Here
Inserted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2017 dated 17th March 2017, effective from 01/04/2017.To view the notification,Click Here
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Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 103

Business Combinations
(This Indian Accounting Standard includes paragraphs set out in bold type and plain type which have equal authority. Paragraphs in bold type indicate the main principles.)

Objective
1 The objective of this Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) is to improve the relevance, reliability and comparability of the information that a reporting entity provides in its financial statements about a business combination and its effects. To accomplish that, this Ind AS establishes principles and requirements for how the acquirer:

(a) recognises and measures in its financial statements the identifiable assets acquired, the liabilities assumed and any non-controlling interest in the acquiree;
(b) recognises and measures the goodwill acquired in the business combination or a gain from a bargain purchase1; and
(c) determines what information to disclose to enable users of the financial statements to evaluate the nature and financial effects of the business combination.

Scope

2 This Ind AS applies to a transaction or other event that meets the definition of a business combination. This Ind AS does not apply to:

(a) the accounting for the formation of a joint arrangement in the financial statements of the joint arrangement itself.
(b) the acquisition of an asset or a group of assets that does not constitute a business. In such cases the acquirer shall identify and recognise the individual identifiable assets acquired (including those assets that meet the definition of, and recognition criteria for, intangible assets in Ind AS 38, Intangible Assets) and liabilities assumed. The cost of the group shall be allocated to the individual identifiable assets and liabilities on the basis of their relative fair values at the date of purchase. Such a transaction or event does not give rise to goodwill.
(c) [Refer Appendix 1]

2A The requirements of this Standard do not apply to the acquisition by an investment entity, as defined in Ind AS 110, Consolidated Financial Statements, of an investment in a subsidiary that is required to be measured at fair value through profit or loss.

2B Appendix C deals with accounting for combination of entities or businesses under common control.

Identifying a business combination
3 An entity shall determine whether a transaction or other event is a business combination by applying the definition in this Ind AS, which requires that the assets acquired and liabilities assumed constitute a business. If the assets acquired are not a business, the reporting entity shall account for the transaction or other event as an asset acquisition. Paragraphs B5–B12 provide guidance on identifying a business combination and the definition of a business.

The acquisition method
4 An entity shall account for each business combination by applying the acquisition method.

5 Applying the acquisition method requires:

(a) identifying the acquirer;
(b) determining the acquisition date;
(c) recognising and measuring the identifiable assets acquired, the liabilities assumed and any noncontrolling interest in the acquiree; and
(d) recognising and measuring goodwill or a gain from a bargain purchase.

Identifying the acquirer
6 For each business combination, one of the combining entities shall be identified as the acquirer.

7 The guidance in Ind AS 110 shall be used to identify the acquirer—the entity that obtains control of another entity, ie the acquiree. If a business combination has occurred but applying the guidance in Ind AS 110 does not clearly indicate which of the combining entities is the acquirer, the factors in paragraphs B14–B18 shall be considered in making that determination.

Determining the acquisition date
8 The acquirer shall identify the acquisition date, which is the date on which it obtains control of the acquiree.

9 The date on which the acquirer obtains control of the acquiree is generally the date on which the acquirer legally transfers the consideration, acquires the assets and assumes the liabilities of the acquiree—the closing date. However, the acquirer might obtain control on a date that is either earlier or later than the closing date. For example, the acquisition date precedes the closing date if a written agreement provides that the acquirer obtains control of the acquiree on a date before the closing date. An acquirer shall consider all pertinent facts and circumstances in identifying the acquisition date.

Recognising and measuring the identifiable assets acquired, the liabilities assumed and any noncontrolling interest in the acquiree

Recognition principle
10 As of the acquisition date, the acquirer shall recognise, separately from goodwill, the identifiable assets acquired, the liabilities assumed and any non-controlling interest in the acquiree. Recognition of identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed is subject to the conditions specified in paragraphs 11 and 12.

Recognition conditions
11 To qualify for recognition as part of applying the acquisition method, the identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed must meet the definitions of assets and liabilities in the Framework for the Preparation and Presentation of Financial Statements in accordance with Indian Accounting Standards issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India at the acquisition date. For example, costs the acquirer expects but is not obliged to incur in the future to effect its plan to exit an activity of an acquiree or to terminate the employment of or relocate an acquiree’s employees are not liabilities at the  cquisition date. Therefore, the acquirer does not recognise those costs as part of applying the acquisition method. Instead, the acquirer recognises those costs in its post-combination financial statements in accordance with other Ind AS.

12 In addition, to qualify for recognition as part of applying the acquisition method, the identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed must be part of what the acquirer and the acquiree (or its former owners) exchanged in the business combination transaction rather than the result of separate transactions. The acquirer shall apply the guidance in paragraphs 51–53 to determine which assets acquired or liabilities assumed are part of the exchange for the acquiree and which, if any, are the result of separate transactions to be accounted for in accordance with their nature and the applicable Ind AS.

13 The acquirer’s application of the recognition principle and conditions may result in recognising some assets and liabilities that the acquiree had not previously recognised as assets and liabilities in its financial statements. For example, the acquirer recognises the acquired identifiable intangible assets, such as a brand name, a patent or a customer relationship, that the acquiree did not recognise as assets in its financial statements because it developed them internally and charged the related costs to expense.

Paragraphs B31–B40 provide guidance on recognising intangible assets. Paragraphs 22–28B specify the types of identifiable assets and liabilities that include items for which this Ind AS provides limited exceptions to the recognition principle and conditions.

14 Paragraphs B28–B40 provide guidance on recognising operating leases and intangible assets. Paragraphs 22– 28 specify the types of identifiable assets and liabilities that include items for which this Ind AS provides limited exceptions to the recognition principle and conditions.

Classifying or designating identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed in a business combination

15 At the acquisition date, the acquirer shall classify or designate the identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed as necessary to apply other Ind ASs subsequently. The acquirer shall make those classifications or designations on the basis of the contractual terms, economic conditions, its operating or accounting policies and other pertinent conditions as they exist at the acquisition date.

16 In some situations, Ind ASs provide for different accounting depending on how an entity classifies or designates a particular asset or liability. Examples of classifications or designations that the acquirer shall make on the basis of the pertinent conditions as they exist at the acquisition date include but are not limited to:

(a) classification of particular financial assets and liabilities as measured at fair value through profit or loss or at amortised cost, or as a financial asset measured at fair value through other comprehensive income in accordance with Ind AS 109, Financial Instruments;
(b) designation of a derivative instrument as a hedging instrument in accordance with Ind AS 109; and
(c) assessment of whether an embedded derivative should be separated from a host contract in accordance with Ind AS 109 (which is a matter of ‘classification’ as this Ind AS uses that term).

17 This Ind AS provides two exceptions to the principle in paragraph 15:

classification of a lease contract in which acquiree is the lessor as either an operating lease or a finance lease in accordance with Ind AS 116, Leases; and

(a) classification of a lease contract as either an operating lease or a finance lease in accordance with Ind AS 17, Leases; and

(b) classification of a contract as an insurance contract in accordance with Ind AS 104, Insurance Contracts.

The acquirer shall classify those contracts on the basis of the contractual terms and other factors at the inception of the contract (or, if the terms of the contract have been modified in a manner that would change its classification, at the date of that modification, which might be the acquisition date).

Measurement principle
18 The acquirer shall measure the identifiable assets acquired and the liabilities assumed at their acquisition-date fair values.

19 For each business combination, the acquirer shall measure at the acquisition date components of noncontrolling interest in the acquiree that are present ownership interests and entitle their holders to a proportionate share of the entity’s net assets in the event of liquidation at either:

(a) fair value; or
(b) The present ownership instruments’ proportionate share in the recognised amounts of the acquiree’s identifiable net assets

All other components of non-controlling interests shall be measured at their acquisition-date fair values, unless another measurement basis is required by Ind AS.

20 Paragraphs 24–31 specify the types of identifiable assets and liabilities that include items for which this Ind AS provides limited exceptions to the measurement principle.

Exceptions to the recognition or measurement principles
21 This Ind AS provides limited exceptions to its recognition and measurement principles. Paragraphs 22–31 specify both the particular items for which exceptions are provided and the nature of those exceptions. The acquirer shall account for those items by applying the requirements in paragraphs 22–31, which will result in some items being:

(a) recognised either by applying recognition conditions in addition to those in paragraphs 11 and 12 or by applying the requirements of other Ind ASs, with results that differ from applying the recognition principle and conditions.
(b) measured at an amount other than their acquisition-date fair values.

Exception to the recognition principle
Contingent liabilities
22 Ind AS 37, Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets, defines a contingent liability as:

(a) a possible obligation that arises from past events and whose existence will be confirmed only by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events not wholly within the control of the entity; or
(b) a present obligation that arises from past events but is not recognised because:

(i) it is not probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation; or
(ii) the amount of the obligation cannot be measured with sufficient reliability.

23 The requirements in Ind AS 37 do not apply in determining which contingent liabilities to recognise as of the acquisition date. Instead, the acquirer shall recognise as of the acquisition date a contingent liability assumed in a business combination if it is a present obligation that arises from past events and its fair value can be measured reliably. Therefore, contrary to Ind AS 37, the acquirer recognises a contingent liability assumed in a business combination at the acquisition date even if it is not probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation. Paragraph 56 provides guidance on the subsequent accounting for contingent liabilities.

Exceptions to both the recognition and measurement principles

Income taxes

24 The acquirer shall recognise and measure a deferred tax asset or liability arising from the assets acquired and liabilities assumed in a business combination in accordance with Ind AS 12, Income Taxes.

25 The acquirer shall account for the potential tax effects of temporary differences and carryforwards of an acquiree that exist at the acquisition date or arise as a result of the acquisition in accordance with Ind AS 12.

Employee benefits
26 The acquirer shall recognise and measure a liability (or asset, if any) related to the acquiree’s employee benefit arrangements in accordance with Ind AS 19, Employee Benefits.

Indemnification assets
27 The seller in a business combination may contractually indemnify the acquirer for the outcome of a contingency or uncertainty related to all or part of a specific asset or liability. For example, the seller may indemnify the acquirer against losses above a specified amount on a liability arising from a particular contingency; in other words, the seller will guarantee that the acquirer’s liability will not exceed a specified amount. As a result, the acquirer obtains an indemnification asset. The acquirer shall recognise an indemnification asset at the same time that it recognises the indemnified item measured on the same basis as the indemnified item, subject to the need for a valuation allowance for uncollectible amounts. Therefore, if the indemnification relates to an asset or a liability that is recognised at the acquisition date and measured at its acquisition-date fair value, the acquirer shall recognise the indemnification asset at the acquisition date measured at its acquisition-date fair value. For an indemnification asset measured at fair value, the effects of uncertainty about future cash flows because of collectibility considerations are included in the fair value measure and a separate valuation allowance is not necessary (paragraph B41 provides related application guidance).

28 In some circumstances, the indemnification may relate to an asset or a liability that is an exception to the recognition or measurement principles. For example, an indemnification may relate to a contingent liability that is not recognised at the acquisition date because its fair value is not reliably measurable at that date. Alternatively, an indemnification may relate to an asset or a liability, for example, one that results from an employee benefit, that is measured on a basis other than acquisition-date fair value. In those circumstances, the indemnification asset shall be recognised and measured using assumptions consistent with those used to measure the indemnified item, subject to management’s assessment of the collectibility of the indemnification asset and any contractual limitations on the indemnified amount. Paragraph 57 provides guidance on the subsequent accounting for an indemnification asset.

28A The acquirer shall recognise right-of-use assets and lease liabilities for leases identified in accordance with Ind AS 116 in which the acquiree is the lessee. The acquirer is not required to recognise right-of-use assets and lease liabilities for:

(a) leases for which the lease term (as defined in Ind AS 116) ends within 12 months of the acquisition date; or
(b) leases for which the underlying asset is of low value (as described in paragraphs B3–B8 of Ind AS 116).

The acquirer shall measure the lease liability at the present value of the remaining lease payments (as defined in Ind AS 116) as if the acquired lease were a new lease at the acquisition date. The acquirer shall measure the right-of-use asset at the same amount as the lease liability, adjusted to reflect favourable or unfavourable terms of the lease when compared with market terms.

Exceptions to the measurement principle
Reacquired rights
29 The acquirer shall measure the value of a reacquired right recognised as an intangible asset on the basis of the remaining contractual term of the related contract regardless of whether market participants would consider potential contractual renewals when measuring its fair value. Paragraphs B35 and B36 provide related application guidance.

Share-based payment transactions
30 The acquirer shall measure a liability or an equity instrument related to share-based payment transactions of the acquiree or the replacement of an acquiree’s share-based payment transactions with share-based payment transactions of the acquirer in accordance with the method in Ind AS 102, Share-based Payment, at the acquisition date. (This Ind AS refers to the result of that method as the ‘market-based measure’ of the share-based payment transaction.)

Assets held for sale
31 The acquirer shall measure an acquired non-current asset (or disposal group) that is classified as held for sale at the acquisition date in accordance with Ind AS 105, Non-current Assets Held for Sale and Discontinued Operations, at fair value less costs to sell in accordance with paragraphs 15–18 of that Ind AS.

Recognising and measuring goodwill or a gain from a bargain purchase
32 The acquirer shall recognise goodwill as of the acquisition date measured as the excess of (a) over (b) below:

(a) the aggregate of:

(i) the consideration transferred measured in accordance with this Ind AS, which generally requires acquisition-date fair value (see paragraph 37);
(ii) the amount of any non-controlling interest in the acquiree measured in accordance with this Ind AS; and
(iii) in a business combination achieved in stages (see paragraphs 41 and 42), the acquisition-date fair value of the acquirer’s previously held equity interest in the acquiree.

(b) the net of the acquisition-date amounts of the identifiable assets acquired and the liabilities assumed measured in accordance with this Ind AS.

33 In a business combination in which the acquirer and the acquiree (or its former owners) exchange only equity interests, the acquisition-date fair value of the acquiree’s equity interests may be more reliably measurable than the acquisition-date fair value of the acquirer’s equity interests. If so, the acquirer shall determine the amount of goodwill by using the acquisition-date fair value of the acquiree’s equity interests instead of the acquisition-date fair value of the equity interests transferred. To determine the amount of goodwill in a business combination in which no consideration is transferred, the acquirer shall use the acquisition-date fair value of the acquirer’s interest in the acquiree in place of the acquisition-date fair value of the consideration transferred (paragraph 32(a)(i)). Paragraphs B46–B49 provide related application guidance.

Bargain purchases
34 In extremely rare circumstances, an acquirer will make a bargain purchase in a business combination in which the amount in paragraph 32(b) exceeds the aggregate of the amounts specified in paragraph 32(a). If that excess remains after applying the requirements in paragraph 36, the acquirer shall recognise the resulting gain in other comprehensive income on the acquisition date and accumulate the same in equity as capital reserve. The gain shall be attributed to the acquirer.

35 A bargain purchase might happen, for example, in a business combination that is a forced sale in which the seller is acting under compulsion. However, the recognition or measurement exceptions for particular items discussed in paragraphs 22–31 may also result in recognising a gain (or change the amount of a recognised gain) on a bargain purchase.

36 Before recognising a gain on a bargain purchase, the acquirer shall determine whether there exists clear evidence of the underlying reasons for classifying the business combination as a bargain purchase. If such evidence exists, the acquirer shall reassess whether it has correctly identified all of the assets acquired and all of the liabilities assumed and shall recognise any additional assets or liabilities that are identified in that review. The acquirer shall then review the procedures used to measure the amounts this Ind AS requires to be recognised at the acquisition date for all of the following:

(a) the identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed;
(b) the non-controlling interest in the acquiree, if any;
(c) for a business combination achieved in stages, the acquirer’s previously held equity interest in the acquiree; and
(d) the consideration transferred.

The objective of the review is to ensure that the measurements appropriately reflect consideration of all available information as of the acquisition date.

36A If there does not exist clear evidence of the underlying reasons for classifying the business combination as a bargain purchase, the acquirer shall apply the requirements of reassessment and review described in paragraph 36. The excess, if any, as determined in accordance with paragraph 32 after applying the said requirements of paragraph 36, shall be recognised directly in equity as capital reserve.

Consideration transferred
37 The consideration transferred in a business combination shall be measured at fair value, which shall be calculated as the sum of the acquisition-date fair values of the assets transferred by the acquirer, the liabilities incurred by the acquirer to former owners of the acquiree and the equity interests issued by the acquirer. (However, any portion of the acquirer’s share-based payment awards exchanged for awards held by the acquiree’s employees that is included in consideration transferred in the business combination shall be measured in accordance with paragraph 30 rather than at fair value.) Examples of potential forms of consideration include cash, other assets, a business or a subsidiary of the acquirer, contingent consideration, ordinary or preference equity instruments, options, warrants and member interests of mutual entities.

38 The consideration transferred may include assets or liabilities of the acquirer that have carrying amounts that differ from their fair values at the acquisition date (for example, non-monetary assets or a business of the acquirer). If so, the acquirer shall remeasure the transferred assets or liabilities to their fair values as of the acquisition date and recognise the resulting gains or losses, if any, in profit or loss. However, sometimes the transferred assets or liabilities remain within the combined entity after the business combination (for example, because the assets or liabilities were transferred to the acquiree rather than to its former owners), and the acquirer therefore retains control of them. In that situation, the acquirer shall measure those assets and liabilities at their carrying amounts immediately before the acquisition date and shall not recognise a gain or loss in profit or loss on assets or liabilities it controls both before and after the business combination.

Contingent consideration
39 The consideration the acquirer transfers in exchange for the acquiree includes any asset or liability resulting from a contingent consideration arrangement (see paragraph 37). The acquirer shall recognise the acquisitiondate fair value of contingent consideration as part of the consideration transferred in exchange for the acquiree.

40 The acquirer shall classify an obligation to pay contingent consideration that meets the definition of a financial instrument as a financial liability or as equity on the basis of the definitions of an equity instrument and a financial liability in paragraph 11 of Ind AS 32, Financial Instruments: Presentation. The acquirer shall classify as an asset a right to the return of previously transferred consideration if specified conditions are met. Paragraph 58 provides guidance on the subsequent accounting for contingent consideration.

Additional guidance for applying the acquisition method to particular types of business combinations
A business combination achieved in stages
41 An acquirer sometimes obtains control of an acquiree in which it held an equity interest immediately before the acquisition date. For example, on 31 December 20X1, Entity A holds a 35 per cent non-controlling equity interest in Entity B. On that date, Entity A purchases an additional 40 per cent interest in Entity B, which gives it control of Entity B. This Ind AS refers to such a transaction as a business combination achieved in stages, sometimes also referred to as a step acquisition.

42 In a business combination achieved in stages, the acquirer shall remeasure its previously held equity interest in the acquiree at its acquisition-date fair value and recognise the resulting gain or loss, if any, in profit or loss or other comprehensive income, as appropriate. In prior reporting periods, the acquirer may have recognised changes in the value of its equity interest in the acquiree in other comprehensive income. If so, the amount that was recognised in other comprehensive income shall be recognised on the same basis as would be required if the acquirer had disposed directly of the previously held equity interest.

When a party to a joint arrangement (as defined in Ind AS 111, Joint Arrangements) obtains control of a business that is a joint operation (as defined in Ind AS 111), and had rights to the assets and obligations for the liabilities relating to that joint operation immediately before the acquisition date, the transaction is a business combination achieved in stages. The acquirer shall therefore apply the requirements for a business combination achieved in stages, including remeasuring its previously held interest in the  joint operation in the manner described in paragraph 42. In doing so, the acquirer shall remeasure its entire previously held interest in the joint operation.

 

A business combination achieved without the transfer of consideration
43 An acquirer sometimes obtains control of an acquire without transferring consideration. The acquisition method of accounting for a business combination applies to those combinations. Such circumstances include:

(a) The acquiree repurchases a sufficient number of its own shares for an existing investor (the acquirer) to obtain control.
(b) Minority veto rights lapse that previously kept the acquirer from controlling an acquiree in which the acquirer held the majority voting rights.
(c) The acquirer and acquiree agree to combine their businesses by contract alone. The acquirer transfers no consideration in exchange for control of an acquiree and holds no equity interests in the acquiree, either on the acquisition date or previously. Examples of business combinations achieved by contract alone include bringing two businesses together in a stapling arrangement or forming a dual listed corporation.

44 In a business combination achieved by contract alone, the acquirer shall attribute to the owners of the acquiree the amount of the acquiree’s net assets recognised in accordance with this Ind AS. In other words, the equity interests in the acquiree held by parties other than the acquirer are a non-controlling interest in the acquirer’s post-combination financial statements even if the result is that all of the equity interests in the acquiree are attributed to the non-controlling interest.

Measurement period
45 If the initial accounting for a business combination is incomplete by the end of the reporting period in which the combination occurs, the acquirer shall report in its financial statements provisional amounts for the items for which the accounting is incomplete. During the measurement period, the acquirer shall retrospectively adjust the provisional amounts recognised at the acquisition date to reflect new information obtained about facts and circumstances that existed as of the acquisition date and, if known, would have affected the measurement of the amounts recognised as of that date. During the measurement period, the acquirer shall also recognise additional assets or liabilities if new information is obtained about facts and circumstances that existed as of the acquisition date and, if known, would have resulted in the recognition of those assets and liabilities as of that date. The measurement period ends as soon as the acquirer receives the information it was seeking about facts and circumstances that existed as of the acquisition date or learns that more information is not obtainable. However, the measurement period shall not exceed one year from the acquisition date.

46 The measurement period is the period after the acquisition date during which the acquirer may adjust the provisional amounts recognised for a business combination. The measurement period provides the acquirer with a reasonable time to obtain the information necessary to identify and measure the following as of the acquisition date in accordance with the requirements of this Ind AS:

(a) the identifiable assets acquired, liabilities assumed and any non-controlling interest in the acquiree;
(b) the consideration transferred for the acquiree (or the other amount used in measuring goodwill);
(c) in a business combination achieved in stages, the equity interest in the acquiree previously held by the acquirer; and
(d) the resulting goodwill or gain on a bargain purchase.

47 The acquirer shall consider all pertinent factors in determining whether information obtained after the acquisition date should result in an adjustment to the provisional amounts recognised or whether that information results from events that occurred after the acquisition date. Pertinent factors include the date when additional information is obtained and whether the acquirer can identify a reason for a change to provisional amounts. Information that is obtained shortly after the acquisition date is more likely to reflect circumstances that existed at the acquisition date than is information obtained several months later. For example, unless an intervening event that changed its fair value can be identified, the sale of an asset to a third party shortly after the acquisition date for an amount that differs significantly from its provisional fair value measured at that date is likely to indicate an error in the provisional amount.

48 The acquirer recognises an increase (decrease) in the provisional amount recognised for an identifiable asset (liability) by means of a decrease (increase) in goodwill. However, new information obtained during the measurement period may sometimes result in an adjustment to the provisional amount of more than one asset or liability. For example, the acquirer might have assumed a liability to pay damages related to an accident in one of the acquiree’s facilities, part or all of which are covered by the acquiree’s liability insurance policy. If the acquirer obtains new information during the measurement period about the acquisition-date fair value of that liability, the adjustment to goodwill resulting from a change to the provisional amount recognised for the liability would be offset (in whole or in part) by a corresponding adjustment to goodwill resulting from a change to the provisional amount recognised for the claim receivable from the insurer. If the adjustment results in reduction of goodwill and if the amount of adjustment exceeds the amount previously recognized as goodwill that excess shall be accounted for in accordance with paragraph 34 or paragraph 36A as applicable.

49 During the measurement period, the acquirer shall recognise adjustments to the provisional amounts as if the accounting for the business combination had been completed at the acquisition date. Thus, the acquirer shall revise comparative information for prior periods presented in financial statements as needed, including making any change in depreciation, amortisation or other income effects recognised in completing the initial accounting.

50 After the measurement period ends, the acquirer shall revise the accounting for a business combination only to correct an error in accordance with Ind AS 8, Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors.

Determining what is part of the business combination transaction
51 The acquirer and the acquiree may have a pre-existing relationship or other arrangement before negotiations for the business combination began, or they may enter into an arrangement during the negotiations that is separate from the business combination. In either situation, the acquirer shall identify any amounts that are not part of what the acquirer and the acquiree (or its former owners) exchanged in the business combination, ie amounts that are not part of the exchange for the acquiree. The acquirer shall recognise as part of applying the acquisition method only the consideration transferred for the acquiree and the assets acquired and liabilities assumed in the exchange for the acquiree. Separate transactions shall be accounted for in accordance with the relevant Ind AS.

52 A transaction entered into by or on behalf of the acquirer or primarily for the benefit of the acquirer or the combined entity, rather than primarily for the benefit of the acquiree (or its former owners) before the combination, is likely to be a separate transaction. The following are examples of separate transactions that are not to be included in applying the acquisition method:

(a) a transaction that in effect settles pre-existing relationships between the acquirer and acquiree;
(b) a transaction that remunerates employees or former owners of the acquiree for future services; and
(c) a transaction that reimburses the acquiree or its former owners for paying the acquirer’s acquisitionrelated costs.

Paragraphs B50-B62 provide related application guidance

Acquisition-related costs
53 Acquisition-related costs are costs the acquirer incurs to effect a business combination. Those costs include finder’s fees; advisory, legal, accounting, valuation and other professional or consulting fees; general administrative costs, including the costs of maintaining an internal acquisitions department; and costs of registering and issuing debt and equity securities. The acquirer shall account for acquisition-related costs as expenses in the periods in which the costs are incurred and the services are received, with one exception. The costs to issue debt or equity securities shall be recognised in accordance with Ind AS 32 and Ind AS 109.

Subsequent measurement and accounting
54 In general, an acquirer shall subsequently measure and account for assets acquired, liabilities assumed or incurred and equity instruments issued in a business combination in accordance with other applicable Ind ASs for those items, depending on their nature. However, this Ind AS provides guidance on subsequently measuring and accounting for the following assets acquired, liabilities assumed or incurred and equity instruments issued in a business combination:

(a) reacquired rights;
(b) contingent liabilities recognised as of the acquisition date;
(c) indemnification assets; and
(d) contingent consideration.

Paragraph B63 provides related application guidance.
Reacquired rights
55 A reacquired right recognised as an intangible asset shall be amortised over the remaining contractual period of the contract in which the right was granted. An acquirer that subsequently sells a reacquired right to a third party shall include the carrying amount of the intangible asset in determining the gain or loss on the sale.

Contingent liabilities

After initial recognition and until the liability is settled, cancelled or expires, the acquirer shall measure a contingent liability recognised in a business combination at the higher of :

(a) the amount that would be recognised in accordance with Ind AS 37; and
(b) the amount initially recognised less, if appropriate, the cumulative amount of income recognised in accordance with the principles of Ind AS 115, Revenue from Contracts with Customers.

This requirement does not apply to contracts accounted for in accordance with Ind AS 109.

 After initial recognition and until the liability is settled, cancelled or expires, the acquirer shall measure a contingent liability recognised in a business combination at the higher of:

(a) the amount that would be recognised in accordance with Ind AS 37; and

(b) the amount initially recognised less, if appropriate, cumulative amortisation recognised in accordance with Ind AS 18, Revenue.

This requirement does not apply to contracts accounted for in accordance with Ind AS 109.
56 After initial recognition and until the liability is settled, cancelled or expires, the acquirer shall measure a contingent liability recognised in a business combination at the higher of:

(a) the amount that would be recognised in accordance with Ind AS 37; and
(b) the amount initially recognised less, if appropriate, the cumulative amount of income recognised in accordance with the principles of Ind AS 115, Revenue from Contracts with Customers.

This requirement does not apply to contracts accounted for in accordance with Ind AS 109.

Indemnification assets

57 At the end of each subsequent reporting period, the acquirer shall measure an indemnification asset that was recognised at the acquisition date on the same basis as the indemnified liability or asset, subject to any contractual limitations on its amount and, for an indemnification asset that is not subsequently measured at its fair value, management’s assessment of the collectibility of the indemnification asset. The acquirer shall derecognise the indemnification asset only when it collects the asset, sells it or otherwise loses the right to it.

Contingent consideration

58 Some changes in the fair value of contingent consideration that the acquirer recognises after the acquisition date may be the result of additional information that the acquirer obtained after that date about facts and circumstances that existed at the acquisition date. Such changes are measurement period adjustments in accordance with paragraphs 45–49. However, changes resulting from events after the acquisition date, such as meeting an earnings target, reaching a specified share price or reaching a milestone on a research and development project, are not measurement period adjustments. The acquirer shall account for changes in the fair value of contingent consideration that are not measurement period adjustments as follows:

(a) Contingent consideration classified as equity shall not be remeasured and its subsequent settlement shall be accounted for within equity.
(b) Other contingent consideration that:

(i) is within the scope of Ind AS 109 shall be measured at fair value at each reporting date and changes in fair value shall be recognised in profit or loss in accordance with Ind AS 109.
(ii) is not within the scope of Ind AS 109 shall be measured at fair value at each reporting date and changes in fair value shall be recognised in profit or loss .

Disclosures
59 The acquirer shall disclose information that enables users of its financial statements to evaluate the nature and financial effect of a business combination that occurs either:

(a) during the current reporting period; or
(b) after the end of the reporting period but before the financial statements are approved for issue.

60 To meet the objective in paragraph 59, the acquirer shall disclose the information specified in paragraphs B64—B66.

61 The acquirer shall disclose information that enables users of its financial statements to evaluate the financial effects of adjustments recognised in the current reporting period that relate to business combinations that occurred in the period or previous reporting periods.

62 To meet the objective in paragraph 61, the acquirer shall disclose the information specified in paragraph B67.

63 If the specific disclosures required by this and other Ind ASs do not meet the objectives set out in paragraphs 59 and 61, the acquirer shall disclose whatever additional information is necessary to meet those objectives.

64 *

64A *

64B *

64C *

64D *

64E *

64F *

64G *

64H *

64I *

64J *

64K As a consequence of issuance of Ind AS 115, paragraph 56 has been amended. An entity shall follow the amendment when it applies Ind AS 115.

Omitted *

Ind AS 116 amended paragraphs 14, 17, B32 and B42, deleted paragraphs B28–B30 and their related heading and added paragraphs 28A–28B and their related heading. An entity shall apply those amendments when it applies Ind AS 116.

*
Annual Improvements to Ind AS (2018) added paragraph 42A. An entity shall apply those amendments to business combinations for which the acquisition date is on or after the beginning of the first annual reporting period beginning on or after 1 April, 2019

 

* Refer Appendix 1

Appendix A

Defined terms
This appendix is an integral part of the Ind AS.

acquiree The business or businesses that the acquirer obtains control of in a business combination.

acquirer The entity that obtains control of the acquiree.

acquisition date The date on which the acquirer obtains control of the acquiree.

business An integrated set of activities and assets that is capable of being conducted and managed for the purpose of providing a return in the form of dividends, lower costs or other economic benefits directly to investors or other owners, members or participants.

business combination A transaction or other event in which an acquirer obtains control of one or more businesses. Transactions sometimes referred to as ‘true mergers’ or ‘mergers of equals’ are also business combinations as that term is used in this Ind AS.

contingent consideration Usually, an obligation of the acquirer to transfer additional assets or equity interests to the former owners of an acquiree as part of the exchange for control of the acquiree if specified future events occur or conditions are met. However, contingent consideration also may give the acquirer the right to the return of previously transferred consideration if specified conditions are met.

equity interests For the purposes of this Ind AS, equity interests is used broadly to mean ownership interests of investor-owned entities and owner, member or participant interests of mutual entities.

fair value Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. (See Ind AS 113.)

goodwill An asset representing the future economic benefits arising from other assets acquired in a business combination that are not individually identified and separately recognised.

identifiable An asset is identifiable if it either:

(a) is separable, ie capable of being separated or divided from the entity and sold, transferred, licensed, rented or exchanged, either individually or together with a related contract, identifiable asset or liability, regardless of whether the entity intends to do so; or
(b) arises from contractual or other legal rights, regardless of whether those rights are transferable or separable from the entity or from other rights and obligations.

intangible asset An identifiable non-monetary asset without physical substance.

mutual entity An entity, other than an investor-owned entity, that provides dividends, lower costs or other economic benefits directly to its owners, members or participants. For example, a mutual insurance company, a credit union and a co-operative entity are all mutual entities.

non-controlling interest The equity in a subsidiary not attributable, directly or indirectly, to a parent.

owners For the purposes of this Ind AS, owners is used broadly to include holders of equity interests of investor-owned entities and owners or members of, or participants in, mutual entities.

Appendix B

Application guidance
This appendix is an integral part of the Ind AS.
B1-B4 [Refer Appendix 1]

Identifying a business combination (application of paragraph 3)
B5 This Ind AS defines a business combination as a transaction or other event in which an acquirer obtains control of one or more businesses. An acquirer might obtain control of an acquiree in a variety of ways, for example:

(a) by transferring cash, cash equivalents or other assets (including net assets that constitute a business);
(b) by incurring liabilities;
(c) by issuing equity interests;
(d) by providing more than one type of consideration; or
(e) without transferring consideration, including by contract alone (see paragraph 43).

B6 A business combination may be structured in a variety of ways for legal, taxation or other reasons, which include but are not limited to:

(a) one or more businesses become subsidiaries of an acquirer or the net assets of one or more businesses are legally merged into the acquirer;
(b) one combining entity transfers its net assets, or its owners transfer their equity interests, to another combining entity or its owners;
(c) all of the combining entities transfer their net assets, or the owners of those entities transfer their equity interests, to a newly formed entity (sometimes referred to as a roll-up or put-together transaction); or
(d) a group of former owners of one of the combining entities obtains control of the combined entity.

Definition of a business (application of paragraph 3)
B7 A business consists of inputs and processes applied to those inputs that have the ability to create outputs. Although businesses usually have outputs, outputs are not required for an integrated set to qualify as a business. The three elements of a business are defined as follows:

(a) Input: Any economic resource that creates, or has the ability to create, outputs when one or more processes are applied to it. Examples include non-current assets (including intangible assets or rights to use non-current assets), intellectual property, the ability to obtain access to necessary materials or rights and employees.
(b) Process: Any system, standard, protocol, convention or rule that when applied to an input or inputs, creates or has the ability to create outputs. Examples include strategic management processes, operational processes and resource management processes. These processes typically are documented, but an organised workforce having the necessary skills and experience following rules and conventions may provide the necessary processes that are capable of being applied to inputs to create outputs. (Accounting, billing, payroll and other administrative systems typically are not processes used to create outputs.)
(c) Output: The result of inputs and processes applied to those inputs that provide or have the ability to provide a return in the form of dividends, lower costs or other economic benefits directly to investors or other owners, members or participants.

B8 To be capable of being conducted and managed for the purposes defined, an integrated set of activities and assets requires two essential elements—inputs and processes applied to those inputs, which together are or will be used to create outputs. However, a business need not include all of the inputs or processes that the seller used in operating that business if market participants are capable of acquiring the business and continuing to produce outputs, for example, by integrating the business with their own inputs and processes.

B9 The nature of the elements of a business varies by industry and by the structure of an entity’s operations (activities), including the entity’s stage of development. Established businesses often have many different types of inputs, processes and outputs, whereas new businesses often have few inputs and processes and sometimes only a single output (product). Nearly all businesses also have liabilities, but a business need not have liabilities.

B10 An integrated set of activities and assets in the development stage might not have outputs. If not, the acquire should consider other factors to determine whether the set is a business. Those factors include, but are not limited to, whether the set:

(a) has begun planned principal activities;
(b) has employees, intellectual property and other inputs and processes that could be applied to those inputs;
(c) is pursuing a plan to produce outputs; and
(d) will be able to obtain access to customers that will purchase the outputs.

Not all of those factors need to be present for a particular integrated set of activities and assets in the development stage to qualify as a business.

B11 Determining whether a particular set of assets and activities is a business should be based on whether the integrated set is capable of being conducted and managed as a business by a market participant. Thus, in evaluating whether a particular set is a business, it is not relevant whether a seller operated the set as a business or whether the acquirer intends to operate the set as a business.

B12 In the absence of evidence to the contrary, a particular set of assets and activities in which goodwill is present shall be presumed to be a business. However, a business need not have goodwill.

Identifying the acquirer (application of paragraphs 6 and 7)
B13 The guidance in Ind AS 110, Consolidated Financial Statements, shall be used to identify the acquirer—the entity that obtains control of the acquiree. If a business combination has occurred but applying the guidance in Ind AS 110 does not clearly indicate which of the combining entities is the acquirer, the factors in paragraphs B14–B18 shall be considered in making that determination.

B14 In a business combination effected primarily by transferring cash or other assets or by incurring liabilities, the acquirer is usually the entity that transfers the cash or other assets or incurs the liabilities.

B15 In a business combination effected primarily by exchanging equity interests, the acquirer is usually the entity that issues its equity interests. However, in some business combinations, commonly called ‘reverse acquisitions’, the issuing entity is the acquiree. Paragraphs B19–B27 provide guidance on accounting for reverse acquisitions. Other pertinent facts and circumstances shall also be considered in identifying the acquirer in a business combination effected by exchanging equity interests, including:

(a) the relative voting rights in the combined entity after the business combination—The acquirer is usually the combining entity whose owners as a group retain or receive the largest portion of the voting rights in the combined entity. In determining which group of owners retains or receives the largest portion of the voting rights, an entity shall consider the existence of any unusual or special voting arrangements and options, warrants or convertible securities.
(b) the existence of a large minority voting interest in the combined entity if no other owner or organised group of owners has a significant voting interest—The acquirer is usually the combining entity whose single owner or organised group of owners holds the largest minority voting interest in the combined entity.
(c) the composition of the governing body of the combined entity—The acquirer is usually the combining entity whose owners have the ability to elect or appoint or to remove a majority of the members of the governing body of the combined entity.
(d) the composition of the senior management of the combined entity—The acquirer is usually the combining entity whose (former) management dominates the management of the combined entity.
(e) the terms of the exchange of equity interests—The acquirer is usually the combining entity that pays a premium over the pre-combination fair value of the equity interests of the other combining entity or entities.

B16 The acquirer is usually the combining entity whose relative size (measured in, for example, assets, revenues or profit) is significantly greater than that of the other combining entity or entities.

B17 In a business combination involving more than two entities, determining the acquirer shall include a consideration of, among other things, which of the combining entities initiated the combination, as well as the relative size of the combining entities.

B18 A new entity formed to effect a business combination is not necessarily the acquirer. If a new entity is formed to issue equity interests to effect a business combination, one of the combining entities that existed before the business combination shall be identified as the acquirer by applying the guidance in paragraphs B13–B17. In contrast, a new entity that transfers cash or other assets or incurs liabilities as consideration may be the acquirer.

Reverse acquisitions
B19 A reverse acquisition occurs when the entity that issues securities (the legal acquirer) is identified as the acquiree for accounting purposes on the basis of the guidance in paragraphs B13–B18. The entity whose equity interests are acquired (the legal acquiree) must be the acquirer for accounting purposes for the transaction to be considered a reverse acquisition. For example, reverse acquisitions sometimes occur when a private operating entity wants to become a public entity but does not want to register its equity shares. To accomplish that, the private entity will arrange for a public entity to acquire its equity interests in exchange for the equity interests of the public entity. In this example, the public entity is the legal acquirer because it issued its equity interests, and the private entity is the legal acquiree because its equity interests were acquired. However, application of the guidance in paragraphs B13–B18 results in identifying:

(a) the public entity as the acquiree for accounting purposes (the accounting acquiree); and
(b) the private entity as the acquirer for accounting purposes (the accounting acquirer).

The accounting acquiree must meet the definition of a business for the transaction to be accounted for as a reverse acquisition, and all of the recognition and measurement principles in this Ind AS, including the requirement to recognise goodwill, apply.

Measuring the consideration transferred
B20 In a reverse acquisition, the accounting acquirer usually issues no consideration for the acquiree. Instead, the accounting acquiree usually issues its equity shares to the owners of the accounting acquirer. Accordingly, the acquisition-date fair value of the consideration transferred by the accounting acquirer for its interest in the accounting acquiree is based on the number of equity interests the legal subsidiary would have had to issue to give the owners of the legal parent the same percentage equity interest in the combined entity that results from the reverse acquisition. The fair value of the number of equity interests calculated in that way can be used as the fair value of consideration transferred in exchange for the acquiree.

Preparation and presentation of consolidated financial statements
B21 Consolidated financial statements prepared following a reverse acquisition are issued under the name of the legal parent (accounting acquiree) but described in the notes as a continuation of the financial statements of the legal subsidiary (accounting acquirer), with one adjustment, which is to adjust retroactively the accounting acquirer’s legal capital to reflect the legal capital of the accounting acquiree. That adjustment is required to reflect the capital of the legal parent (the accounting acquiree). Comparative information presented in those consolidated financial statements also is retroactively adjusted to reflect the legal capital of the legal parent (accounting acquiree).

B22 Because the consolidated financial statements represent the continuation of the financial statements of the legal subsidiary except for its capital structure, the consolidated financial statements reflect:

(a) the assets and liabilities of the legal subsidiary (the accounting acquirer) recognised and measured at their pre-combination carrying amounts.
(b) the assets and liabilities of the legal parent (the accounting acquiree) recognised and measured in accordance with this Ind AS.
(c) the retained earnings and other equity balances of the legal subsidiary (accounting acquirer) before the business combination.
(d) the amount recognised as issued equity interests in the consolidated financial statements determined by adding the issued equity interest of the legal subsidiary (the accounting acquirer) outstanding immediately before the business combination to the fair value of the legal parent (accounting acquiree). However, the equity structure (ie the number and type of equity interests issued) reflects the equity structure of the legal parent (the accounting acquiree), including the equity interests the legal parent issued to effect the combination. Accordingly, the equity structure of the legal subsidiary (the accounting acquirer) is restated using the exchange ratio established in the acquisition agreement to reflect the number of shares of the legal parent (the accounting acquiree) issued in the reverse acquisition.
(e) the non-controlling interest’s proportionate share of the legal subsidiary’s (accounting acquirer’s) precombination carrying amounts of retained earnings and other equity interests as discussed in paragraphs B23 and B24.

Non-controlling interest
B23 In a reverse acquisition, some of the owners of the legal acquiree (the accounting acquirer) might not exchange their equity interests for equity interests of the legal parent (the accounting acquiree). Those owners are treated as a non-controlling interest in the consolidated financial statements after the reverse acquisition. That is because the owners of the legal acquiree that do not exchange their equity interests for equity interests of the legal acquirer have an interest in only the results and net assets of the legal acquiree – not in the results and net assets of the combined entity. Conversely, even though the legal acquirer is the acquiree for accounting purposes, the owners of the legal acquirer have an interest in the results and net assets of the combined entity.

B24 The assets and liabilities of the legal acquiree are measured and recognised in the consolidated financial statements at their pre-combination carrying amounts (see paragraph B22(a)). Therefore, in a reverse acquisition the non-controlling interest reflects the non-controlling shareholders’ proportionate interest in the pre-combination carrying amounts of the legal acquiree’s net assets even if the non-controlling interests in other acquisitions are measured at their fair value at the acquisition date.

Earnings per share
B25 As noted in paragraph B22(d), the equity structure in the consolidated financial statements following a reverse acquisition reflects the equity structure of the legal acquirer (the accounting acquiree), including the equity interests issued by the legal acquirer to effect the business combination.

B26 In calculating the weighted average number of ordinary shares2 outstanding (the denominator of the earnings per share calculation) during the period in which the reverse acquisition occurs:

(a) the number of ordinary shares outstanding from the beginning of that period to the acquisition date shall be computed on the basis of the weighted average number of ordinary shares of the legal acquiree (accounting acquirer) outstanding during the period multiplied by the exchange ratio established in the merger agreement; and
(b) the number of ordinary shares outstanding from the acquisition date to the end of that period shall be the actual number of ordinary shares of the legal acquirer (the accounting acquiree) outstanding during that period.

B27 The basic earnings per share for each comparative period before the acquisition date presented in the consolidated financial statements following a reverse acquisition shall be calculated by dividing:

(a) the profit or loss of the legal acquiree attributable to ordinary shareholders in each of those periods by
(b) the legal acquiree’s historical weighted average number of ordinary shares outstanding multiplied by the exchange ratio established in the acquisition agreement.

Recognising particular assets acquired and liabilities assumed (application of paragraphs 10–13)

 B28 The acquirer shall recognise no assets or liabilities related to an operating lease in which the acquiree is the lessee except as required by paragraphs B29 and B30.

B29 The acquirer shall determine whether the terms of each operating lease in which the acquiree is the lessee are favourable or unfavourable. The acquirer shall recognise an intangible asset if the terms of an operating lease are favourable relative to market terms and a liability if the terms are unfavourable relative to market terms. Paragraph B42 provides guidance on measuring the acquisition-date fair value of assets subject to operating leases in which the acquiree is the lessor.

B30 An identifiable intangible asset may be associated with an operating lease, which may be evidenced by market participants’ willingness to pay a price for the lease even if it is at market terms. For example, a lease of gates at an airport or of retail space in a prime shopping area might provide entry into a market or other future economic benefits that qualify as identifiable intangible assets, for example, as a customer relationship. In that situation, the acquirer shall recognise the associated identifiable intangible asset(s) in accordance with paragraph B31.

Intangible assets
B31 The acquirer shall recognise, separately from goodwill, the identifiable intangible assets acquired in a business combination. An intangible asset is identifiable if it meets either the separability criterion or the contractual-legal criterion.

B32 An intangible asset that meets the contractual-legal criterion is identifiable even if the asset is not transferable or separable from the acquiree or from other rights and obligations. For example:


(b) an acquiree owns and operates a nuclear power plant. The licence to operate that power plant is an intangible asset that meets the contractual-legal criterion for recognition separately from goodwill, even if the acquirer cannot sell or transfer it separately from the acquired power plant. An acquirer may recognise the fair value of the operating licence and the fair value of the power plant as a single asset for financial reporting purposes if the useful lives of those assets are similar.
(c) an acquiree owns a technology patent. It has licensed that patent to others for their exclusive use outside the domestic market, receiving a specified percentage of future foreign revenue in exchange. Both the technology patent and the related licence agreement meet the contractual-legal criterion for recognition separately from goodwill even if selling or exchanging the patent and the related licence agreement separately from one another would not be practical.

B33 The separability criterion means that an acquired intangible asset is capable of being separated or divided from the acquiree and sold, transferred, licensed, rented or exchanged, either individually or together with a related contract, identifiable asset or liability. An intangible asset that the acquirer would be able to sell, license or otherwise exchange for something else of value meets the separability criterion even if the acquirer does not intend to sell, license or otherwise exchange it. An acquired intangible asset meets the separability criterion if there is evidence of exchange transactions for that type of asset or an asset of a similar type, even if those transactions are infrequent and regardless of whether the acquirer is involved in them. For example, customer and subscriber lists are frequently licensed and thus meet the separability criterion. Even if an acquiree believes its customer lists have characteristics different from other customer lists, the fact that customer lists are frequently licensed generally means that the acquired customer list meets the separability criterion. However, a customer list acquired in a business combination would not meet the separability criterion if the terms of confidentiality or other agreements prohibit an entity from selling, leasing or otherwise exchanging information about its customers.

B34 An intangible asset that is not individually separable from the acquiree or combined entity meets the separability criterion if it is separable in combination with a related contract, identifiable asset or liability. For example:

(a) market participants exchange deposit liabilities and related depositor relationship intangible assets in observable exchange transactions. Therefore, the acquirer should recognise the depositor relationship intangible asset separately from goodwill.
(b) an acquiree owns a registered trademark and documented but unpatented technical expertise used to manufacture the trademarked product. To transfer ownership of a trademark, the owner is also required to transfer everything else necessary for the new owner to produce a product or service indistinguishable from that produced by the former owner. Because the unpatented technical expertise must be separated from the acquiree or combined entity and sold if the related trademark is sold, it meets the separability criterion.

Reacquired rights
B35 As part of a business combination, an acquirer may reacquire a right that it had previously granted to the acquiree to use one or more of the acquirer’s recognised or unrecognised assets. Examples of such rights include a right to use the acquirer’s trade name under a franchise agreement or a right to use the acquirer’s technology under a technology licensing agreement. A reacquired right is an identifiable intangible asset that the acquirer recognises separately from goodwill. Paragraph 29 provides guidance on measuring a reacquired right and paragraph 55 provides guidance on the subsequent accounting for a reacquired right.

B36 If the terms of the contract giving rise to a reacquired right are favourable or unfavourable relative to the terms of current market transactions for the same or similar items, the acquirer shall recognise a settlement gain or loss. Paragraph B52 provides guidance for measuring that settlement gain or loss.

Assembled workforce and other items that are not identifiable
B37 The acquirer subsumes into goodwill the value of an acquired intangible asset that is not identifiable as of the acquisition date. For example, an acquirer may attribute value to the existence of an assembled workforce, which is an existing collection of employees that permits the acquirer to continue to operate an acquired business from the acquisition date. An assembled workforce does not represent the intellectual capital of the skilled workforce—the (often specialised) knowledge and experience that employees of an acquiree bring to their jobs. Because the assembled workforce is not an identifiable asset to be recognised separately from goodwill, any value attributed to it is subsumed into goodwill.

B38 The acquirer also subsumes into goodwill any value attributed to items that do not qualify as assets at the acquisition date. For example, the acquirer might attribute value to potential contracts the acquiree is negotiating with prospective new customers at the acquisition date. Because those potential contracts are not themselves assets at the acquisition date, the acquirer does not recognise them separately from goodwill. The acquirer should not subsequently reclassify the value of those contracts from goodwill for events that occur after the acquisition date. However, the acquirer should assess the facts and circumstances surrounding events occurring shortly after the acquisition to determine whether a separately recognisable intangible asset existed at the acquisition date.

B39 After initial recognition, an acquirer accounts for intangible assets acquired in a business combination in accordance with the provisions of Ind AS 38, Intangible Assets. However, as described in paragraph 3 of Ind AS 38, the accounting for some acquired intangible assets after initial recognition is prescribed by other Ind ASs.

B40 The identifiability criteria determine whether an intangible asset is recognised separately from goodwill. However, the criteria neither provide guidance for measuring the fair value of an intangible asset nor restrict the assumptions used in measuring the fair value of an intangible asset. For example, the acquirer would take into account the assumptions that market participants would use when pricing the intangible asset, such as expectations of future contract renewals, in measuring fair value. It is not necessary for the renewals themselves to meet the identifiability criteria. (However, see paragraph 29, which establishes an exception to the fair value measurement principle for reacquired rights recognised in a business combination.) Paragraphs 36 and 37 of Ind AS 38 provide guidance for determining whether intangible assets should be combined into a
single unit of account with other intangible or tangible assets.

Measuring the fair value of particular identifiable assets and a non-controlling interest in an acquiree (application of paragraphs 18 and 19)
Assets with uncertain cash flows (valuation allowances)
B41 The acquirer shall not recognise a separate valuation allowance as of the acquisition date for assets acquired in a business combination that are measured at their acquisition-date fair values because the effects of uncertainty about future cash flows are included in the fair value measure. For example, because this Ind AS requires the acquirer to measure acquired receivables, including loans, at their acquisition-date fair values in accounting for a business combination, the acquirer does not recognise a separate valuation allowance for the contractual cash flows that are deemed to be uncollectible at that date or a loss allowance for expected credit losses.

Assets subject to operating leases in which the acquiree is the lessor

In measuring the acquisition-date fair value of an asset such as a building or a patent that is subject to an operating lease in which the acquiree is the lessor, the acquirer shall take into account the terms of the lease. The acquirer does not recognise a separate asset or liability if the terms of an operating lease are either favourable or unfavourable when compared with market terms.

B42 In measuring the acquisition-date fair value of an asset such as a building or a patent that is subject to an operating lease in which the acquiree is the lessor, the acquirer shall take into account the terms of the lease. In other words, the acquirer does not recognise a separate asset or liability if the terms of an operating lease are either favourable or unfavourable when compared with market terms as paragraph B29 requires for leases
in which the acquiree is the lessee.

Assets that the acquirer intends not to use or to use in a way that is different from the way other market participants would use them
B43 To protect its competitive position, or for other reasons, the acquirer may intend not to use an acquired nonfinancial asset actively, or it may not intend to use the asset according to its highest and best use. For example, that might be the case for an acquired research and development intangible asset that the acquirer plans to use defensively by preventing others from using it. Nevertheless, the acquirer shall measure the fair value of the non-financial asset assuming its highest and best use by market participants in accordance with the appropriate valuation premise, both initially and when measuring fair value less costs of disposal for subsequent impairment testing .

Non-controlling interest in an acquiree
B44 This Ind AS allows the acquirer to measure a non-controlling interest in the acquiree at its fair value at the acquisition date. Sometimes an acquirer will be able to measure the acquisition-date fair value of a noncontrolling interest on the basis of a quoted price in an active market for the equity shares (ie those not held by the acquirer). In other situations, however, a quoted price in an active market for the equity shares will not be available. In those situations, the acquirer would measure the fair value of the non-controlling interest
using other valuation techniques.

B45 The fair values of the acquirer’s interest in the acquiree and the non-controlling interest on a per-share basis might differ. The main difference is likely to be the inclusion of a control premium in the per-share fair value of the acquirer’s interest in the acquiree or, conversely, the inclusion of a discount for lack of control (also referred to as a non-controlling interest discount) in the per-share fair value of the non-controlling interest if market participants would take into account such a premium or discount when pricing the non-controlling interest.

Measuring goodwill or a gain from a bargain purchase
Measuring the acquisition-date fair value of the acquirer’s interest in the acquiree using valuation techniques (application of paragraph 33)
B46 In a business combination achieved without the transfer of consideration, the acquirer must substitute the acquisition-date fair value of its interest in the acquiree for the acquisition-date fair value of the consideration transferred to measure goodwill or a gain on a bargain purchase (see paragraphs 32–34 and 36A).

Special considerations in applying the acquisition method to combinations of mutual entities (application of paragraph 33)

B47 When two mutual entities combine, the fair value of the equity or member interests in the acquiree (or the fair value of the acquiree) may be more reliably measurable than the fair value of the member interests transferred by the acquirer. In that situation, paragraph 33 requires the acquirer to determine the amount of goodwill by using the acquisition-date fair value of the acquiree’s equity interests instead of the acquisition-date fair value of the acquirer’s equity interests transferred as consideration. In addition, the acquirer in a combination of mutual entities shall recognise the acquiree’s net assets as a direct addition to capital or equity in its balance sheet, not as an addition to retained earnings, which is consistent with the way in which other types of entities apply the acquisition method.

B48 Although they are similar in many ways to other businesses, mutual entities have distinct characteristics that arise primarily because their members are both customers and owners. Members of mutual entities generally expect to receive benefits for their membership, often in the form of reduced fees charged for goods and services or patronage dividends. The portion of patronage dividends allocated to each member is often based on the amount of business the member did with the mutual entity during the year.

B49 A fair value measurement of a mutual entity should include the assumptions that market participants would make about future member benefits as well as any other relevant assumptions market participants would make about the mutual entity. For example, a present value technique may be used to measure the fair value of a mutual entity. The cash flows used as inputs to the model should be based on the expected cash flows of the mutual entity, which are likely to reflect reductions for member benefits, such as reduced fees charged for goods and services.

Determining what is part of the business combination transaction (application of paragraphs 51 and 52)
B50 The acquirer should consider the following factors, which are neither mutually exclusive nor individually conclusive, to determine whether a transaction is part of the exchange for the acquiree or whether the transaction is separate from the business combination:

(a) the reasons for the transaction—Understanding the reasons why the parties to the combination (the acquirer and the acquiree and their owners, directors and managers—and their agents) entered into a particular transaction or arrangement may provide insight into whether it is part of the consideration transferred and the assets acquired or liabilities assumed. For example, if a transaction is arranged primarily for the benefit of the acquirer or the combined entity rather than primarily for the benefit of the acquiree or its former owners before the combination, that portion of the transaction price paid (and any related assets or liabilities) is less likely to be part of the exchange for the acquiree. Accordingly,
the acquirer would account for that portion separately from the business combination.
(b) who initiated the transaction—Understanding who initiated the transaction may also provide insight into whether it is part of the exchange for the acquiree. For example, a transaction or other event that is initiated by the acquirer may be entered into for the purpose of providing future economic benefits to the acquirer or combined entity with little or no benefit received by the acquiree or its former owners before the combination. On the other hand, a transaction or arrangement initiated by the acquiree or its former owners is less likely to be for the benefit of the acquirer or the combined entity and more likely to be part of the business combination transaction.
(d) the timing of the transaction—The timing of the transaction may also provide insight into whether it is part of the exchange for the acquiree. For example, a transaction between the acquirer and the acquiree that takes place during the negotiations of the terms of a business combination may have been entered into in contemplation of the business combination to provide future economic benefits to the acquirer or the combined entity. If so, the acquiree or its former owners before the business combination are likely to receive little or no benefit from the transaction except for benefits they receive as part of the combined entity.

Effective settlement of a pre-existing relationship between the acquirer and acquiree in a business
combination (application of paragraph 52(a))
B51 The acquirer and acquiree may have a relationship that existed before they contemplated the business combination, referred to here as a ‘pre-existing relationship’. A pre-existing relationship between the acquirer and acquiree may be contractual (for example, vendor and customer or licensor and licensee) or noncontractual (for example, plaintiff and defendant).

B52 If the business combination in effect settles a pre-existing relationship, the acquirer recognises a gain or loss, measured as follows:

(a) for a pre-existing non-contractual relationship (such as a lawsuit), fair value.

(b) for a pre-existing contractual relationship, the lesser of (i) and (ii):

(i) the amount by which the contract is favourable or unfavourable from the perspective of the acquirer when compared with terms for current market transactions for the same or similar items. (An unfavourable contract is a contract that is unfavourable in terms of current market terms. It is not necessarily an onerous contract in which the unavoidable costs of meeting the obligations under the contract exceed the economic benefits expected to be received under it.)
(ii) the amount of any stated settlement provisions in the contract available to the counterparty to whom the contract is unfavourable.

If (ii) is less than (i), the difference is included as part of the business combination accounting.
The amount of gain or loss recognised may depend in part on whether the acquirer had previously recognised a related asset or liability, and the reported gain or loss therefore may differ from the amount calculated by applying the above requirements.

B53 A pre-existing relationship may be a contract that the acquirer recognises as a reacquired right. If the contract includes terms that are favourable or unfavourable when compared with pricing for current market transactions for the same or similar items, the acquirer recognises, separately from the business combination, a gain or loss for the effective settlement of the contract, measured in accordance with paragraph B52.

Arrangements for contingent payments to employees or selling shareholders (application of paragraph 52(b))
B54 Whether arrangements for contingent payments to employees or selling shareholders are contingent consideration in the business combination or are separate transactions depends on the nature of the arrangements. Understanding the reasons why the acquisition agreement includes a provision for contingent payments, who initiated the arrangement and when the parties entered into the arrangement may be helpful in
assessing the nature of the arrangement.

B55 If it is not clear whether an arrangement for payments to employees or selling shareholders is part of the exchange for the acquiree or is a transaction separate from the business combination, the acquirer should consider the following indicators:

(a) Continuing employment—The terms of continuing employment by the selling shareholders who become key employees may be an indicator of the substance of a contingent consideration arrangement. The relevant terms of continuing employment may be included in an employment agreement, acquisition agreement or some other document. A contingent consideration arrangement in which the payments are automatically forfeited if employment terminates is remuneration for postcombination services. Arrangements in which the contingent payments are not affected by employment termination may indicate that the contingent payments are additional consideration rather than remuneration.
(b) Duration of continuing employment—If the period of required employment coincides with or is longer than the contingent payment period, that fact may indicate that the contingent payments are, in substance, remuneration.
(c) Level of remuneration—Situations in which employee remuneration other than the contingent payments is at a reasonable level in comparison with that of other key employees in the combined entity may indicate that the contingent payments are additional consideration rather than remuneration.
(d) Incremental payments to employees—If selling shareholders who do not become employees receive lower contingent payments on a per-share basis than the selling shareholders who become employees of the combined entity, that fact may indicate that the incremental amount of contingent payments to the selling shareholders who become employees is remuneration.
(e) Number of shares owned—The relative number of shares owned by the selling shareholders who remain as key employees may be an indicator of the substance of the contingent consideration arrangement. For example, if the selling shareholders who owned substantially all of the shares in the acquiree continue as key employees, that fact may indicate that the arrangement is, in substance, a profit-sharing arrangement intended to provide remuneration for post-combination services. Alternatively, if selling shareholders who continue as key employees owned only a small number of shares of the acquiree and all selling shareholders receive the same amount of contingent consideration on a per-share basis, that fact may indicate that the contingent payments are additional consideration. The pre-acquisition ownership interests held by parties related to selling shareholders who continue as key employees, such as family members, should also be considered.
(f) Linkage to the valuation—If the initial consideration transferred at the acquisition date is based on the low end of a range established in the valuation of the acquiree and the contingent formula relates to that valuation approach, that fact may suggest that the contingent payments are additional consideration. Alternatively, if the contingent payment formula is consistent with prior profit-sharing arrangements, that fact may suggest that the substance of the arrangement is to provide remuneration.
(g) Formula for determining consideration—The formula used to determine the contingent payment may be helpful in assessing the substance of the arrangement. For example, if a contingent payment is determined on the basis of a multiple of earnings, that might suggest that the obligation is contingent consideration in the business combination and that the formula is intended to establish or verify the fair value of the acquiree. In contrast, a contingent payment that is a specified percentage of earnings might suggest that the obligation to employees is a profit-sharing arrangement to remunerate employees for services rendered.
(h) Other agreements and issues—The terms of other arrangements with selling shareholders (such as agreements not to compete, executory contracts, consulting contracts and property lease agreements) and the income tax treatment of contingent payments may indicate that contingent payments are attributable to something other than consideration for the acquiree. For example, in connection with the acquisition, the acquirer might enter into a property lease arrangement with a significant selling
shareholder. If the lease payments specified in the lease contract are significantly below market, some or all of the contingent payments to the lessor (the selling shareholder) required by a separate arrangement for contingent payments might be, in substance, payments for the use of the leased property that the acquirer should recognise separately in its post-combination financial statements. In contrast, if the lease contract specifies lease payments that are consistent with market terms for the leased property, the arrangement for contingent payments to the selling shareholder may be contingent consideration in the business combination.

Acquirer share-based payment awards exchanged for awards held by the acquiree’s employees (application of paragraph 52(b))
B56 An acquirer may exchange its share-based payment awards3 (replacement awards) for awards held by employees of the acquiree. Exchanges of share options or other share-based payment awards in conjunction with a business combination are accounted for as modifications of share-based payment awards in accordance with Ind AS 102, Share-based Payment. If the acquirer replaces the acquiree awards, either all or a portion of the market-based measure of the acquirer’s replacement awards shall be included in measuring the
consideration transferred in the business combination. Paragraphs B57-B62 provide guidance on how to allocate the market-based measure.
However, in situations in which acquiree awards would expire as a consequence of a business combination and if the acquirer replaces those awards when it is not obliged to do so, all of the market-based measure of the replacement awards shall be recognised as remuneration cost in the post-combination financial statements in accordance with Ind AS 102. That is to say, none of the market-based measure of those awards shall be included in measuring the consideration transferred in the business combination. The acquirer is obliged to replace the acquiree awards if the acquiree or its employees have the ability to enforce replacement. For example, for the purposes of applying this guidance, the acquirer is obliged to replace the acquiree’s awards if replacement is required by:

(a) the terms of the acquisition agreement;
(b) the terms of the acquiree’s awards; or
(c) applicable laws or regulations.

B57 To determine the portion of a replacement award that is part of the consideration transferred for the acquiree and the portion that is remuneration for post-combination service, the acquirer shall measure both the replacement awards granted by the acquirer and the acquiree awards as of the acquisition date in accordance with Ind AS 102. The portion of the market-based measure of the replacement award that is part of the consideration transferred in exchange for the acquiree equals the portion of the acquiree award that is attributable to pre-combination service.

B58 The portion of the replacement award attributable to pre-combination service is the market-based measure of the acquiree award multiplied by the ratio of the portion of the vesting period completed to the greater of the total vesting period or the original vesting period of the acquiree award. The vesting period is the period during which all the specified vesting conditions are to be satisfied. Vesting conditions are defined in Ind AS
102.

B59 The portion of a non-vested replacement award attributable to post-combination service, and therefore recognised as remuneration cost in the post-combination financial statements, equals the total market-based measure of the replacement award less the amount attributed to pre-combination service. Therefore, the acquirer attributes any excess of the market-based measure of the replacement award over the market-based measure of the acquiree award to post-combination service and recognises that excess as remuneration cost in the post-combination financial statements. The acquirer shall attribute a portion of a replacement award to post-combination service if it requires post-combination service, regardless of whether employees had rendered all of the service required for their acquiree awards to vest before the acquisition date.

B60 The portion of a non-vested replacement award attributable to pre-combination service, as well as the portion attributable to post-combination service, shall reflect the best available estimate of the number of replacement awards expected to vest. For example, if the market-based measure of the portion of a replacement award attributed to pre-combination service is Rs 100 and the acquirer expects that only 95 per cent of the award will vest, the amount included in consideration transferred in the business combination is Rs 95. Changes in the estimated number of replacement awards expected to vest are reflected in remuneration cost for the periods in which the changes or forfeitures occur not as adjustments to the consideration transferred in the business combination. Similarly, the effects of other events, such as modifications or the ultimate outcome of awards with performance conditions, that occur after the acquisition date are accounted for in accordance with Ind AS 102 in determining remuneration cost for the period in which an event occurs.

B61 The same requirements for determining the portions of a replacement award attributable to pre-combination and post-combination service apply regardless of whether a replacement award is classified as a liability or as an equity instrument in accordance with the provisions of Ind AS 102. All changes in the market-based measure of awards classified as liabilities after the acquisition date and the related income tax effects are recognised in the acquirer’s post-combination financial statements in the period(s) in which the changes occur.

B62 The income tax effects of replacement awards of share-based payments shall be recognised in accordance with the provisions of Ind AS 12, Income Taxes.

Equity-settled share-based payment transactions of the acquiree
B62A The acquiree may have outstanding share-based payment transactions that the acquirer does not exchange for its share-based payment transactions. If vested, those acquiree share-based payment transactions are part of the non-controlling interest in the acquiree and are measured at their market-based measure. If unvested, they are measured at their market-based measure as if the acquisition date were the grant date in accordance with paragraphs 19 and 30.

B62B The market-based measure of unvested share-based payment transactions is allocated to the non-controlling interest on the basis of the ratio of the portion of the vesting period completed to the greater of the total vesting period and the original vesting period of the share-based payment transaction. The balance is allocated to post-combination service.

Other Ind ASs that provide guidance on subsequent measurement and accounting (application of paragraph 54)
B63 Examples of other Ind ASs that provide guidance on subsequently measuring and accounting for assets acquired and liabilities assumed or incurred in a business combination include:

(a) Ind AS 38 prescribes the accounting for identifiable intangible assets acquired in a business combination. The acquirer measures goodwill at the amount recognised at the acquisition date less any accumulated impairment losses. Ind AS 36, Impairment of Assets, prescribes the accounting for impairment losses.
(b) Ind AS 104, Insurance Contracts, provides guidance on the subsequent accounting for an insurance contract acquired in a business combination.
(c) Ind AS 12 prescribes the subsequent accounting for deferred tax assets (including unrecognised deferred tax assets) and liabilities acquired in a business combination.     (d) Ind AS 102 provides guidance on subsequent measurement and accounting for the portion of replacement share-based payment awards issued by an acquirer that is attributable to employees’ future services.
(e) Ind AS110 provides guidance on accounting for changes in a parent’s ownership interest in a subsidiary after control is obtained.

Disclosures (application of paragraphs 59 and 61)
B64 To meet the objective in paragraph 59, the acquirer shall disclose the following information for each business combination that occurs during the reporting period:

(a) the name and a description of the acquiree.
(b) the acquisition date.
(c) the percentage of voting equity interests acquired.
(d) the primary reasons for the business combination and a description of how the acquirer obtained control of the acquiree.
(e) a qualitative description of the factors that make up the goodwill recognised, such as expected synergies from combining operations of the acquiree and the acquirer, intangible assets that do not qualify for separate recognition or other factors.
(f) the acquisition-date fair value of the total consideration transferred and the acquisition-date fair value of each major class of consideration, such as:

(i) cash;
(ii) other tangible or intangible assets, including a business or subsidiary of the acquirer;
(iii) liabilities incurred, for example, a liability for contingent consideration; and
(iv) equity interests of the acquirer, including the number of instruments or interests issued or issuable and the method of measuring the fair value of those instruments or interests.

(g) for contingent consideration arrangements and indemnification assets:

(i) the amount recognised as of the acquisition date;
(ii) a description of the arrangement and the basis for determining the amount of the payment; and
(iii) an estimate of the range of outcomes (undiscounted) or, if a range cannot be estimated, that fact and the reasons why a range cannot be estimated. If the maximum amount of the payment is unlimited, the acquirer shall disclose that fact.

(h) for acquired receivables:

(i) the fair value of the receivables;
(ii) the gross contractual amounts receivable; and
(iii) the best estimate at the acquisition date of the contractual cash flows not expected to be collected.

The disclosures shall be provided by major class of receivable, such as loans, direct finance leases and any other class of receivables.
(i) the amounts recognised as of the acquisition date for each major class of assets acquired and liabilities assumed.
(j) for each contingent liability recognised in accordance with paragraph 23, the information required in paragraph 85 of Ind AS 37, Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets. If a contingent liability is not recognised because its fair value cannot be measured reliably, the acquirer shall disclose:

(i) the information required by paragraph 86 of Ind AS 37; and
(ii) the reasons why the liability cannot be measured reliably.

(k) the total amount of goodwill that is expected to be deductible for tax purposes.
(l) for transactions that are recognised separately from the acquisition of assets and assumption of liabilities in the business combination in accordance with paragraph 51:

(i) a description of each transaction;
(ii) how the acquirer accounted for each transaction;                                                                                                                                                                                        (iii) the amounts recognised for each transaction and the line item in the financial statements in which each amount is recognised; and
(iv) if the transaction is the effective settlement of a pre-existing relationship, the method used to determine the settlement amount.

(m) the disclosure of separately recognised transactions required by (l) shall include the amount of acquisition-related costs and, separately, the amount of those costs recognised as an expense and the line item or items in the statement of profit and loss in which those expenses are recognised. The amount of any issue costs not recognised as an expense and how they were recognised shall also be disclosed.
(n) in a bargain purchase (see paragraphs 34–36A):

(i) the amount of any gain recognised in other comprehensive income in accordance with paragraph 34;
(ii) the amount of any gain directly recognised in equity in accordance with paragraph 36A;and
(iii) a description of the reasons why the transaction resulted in a gain in case of (i) above.

(o) for each business combination in which the acquirer holds less than 100 per cent of the equity interests in the acquiree at the acquisition date:

(i) the amount of the non-controlling interest in the acquiree recognised at the acquisition date and the measurement basis for that amount; and
(ii) for each non-controlling interest in an acquiree measured at fair value, the valuation technique(s) and significant inputs used to measure that value.

(p) in a business combination achieved in stages:

(i) the acquisition-date fair value of the equity interest in the acquiree held by the acquirer immediately before the acquisition date; and
(ii) the amount of any gain or loss recognised as a result of remeasuring to fair value the equity interest in the acquiree held by the acquirer before the business combination (see paragraph 42) and the line item in the statement of profit and loss in which that gain or loss is recognised.

(q) the following information:

(i) the amounts of revenue and profit or loss of the acquiree since the acquisition date included in the consolidated statement of profit and loss for the reporting period; and
(ii) the revenue and profit or loss of the combined entity for the current reporting period as though the acquisition date for all business combinations that occurred during the year had been as of the beginning of the annual reporting period.

If disclosure of any of the information required by this subparagraph is impracticable, the acquirer shall disclose that fact and explain why the disclosure is impracticable. This Ind AS uses the term ‘impracticable’ with the same meaning as in Ind AS 8, Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors.

B65 For individually immaterial business combinations occurring during the reporting period that are material collectively, the acquirer shall disclose in aggregate the information required by paragraph B64(e)–(q).

B66 If the acquisition date of a business combination is after the end of the reporting period but before the financial statements are approved for issue, the acquirer shall disclose the information required by paragraph B64 unless the initial accounting for the business combination is incomplete at the time the financial statements are approved for issue. In that situation, the acquirer shall describe which disclosures could not be made and the reasons why they cannot be made.

B67 To meet the objective in paragraph 61, the acquirer shall disclose the following information for each material business combination or in the aggregate for individually immaterial business combinations that are material collectively:

(a) if the initial accounting for a business combination is incomplete (see paragraph 45) for particular assets, liabilities, non-controlling interests or items of consideration and the amounts recognised in the financial statements for the business combination thus have been determined only provisionally:

(i) the reasons why the initial accounting for the business combination is incomplete;

(ii) the assets, liabilities, equity interests or items of consideration for which the initial accounting is incomplete; and

(iii) the nature and amount of any measurement period adjustments recognised during the reporting period in accordance with paragraph 49.

(b) for each reporting period after the acquisition date until the entity collects, sells or otherwise loses the right to a contingent consideration asset, or until the entity settles a contingent consideration liability or the liability is cancelled or expires:

(i) any changes in the recognised amounts, including any differences arising upon settlement;
(ii) any changes in the range of outcomes (undiscounted) and the reasons for those changes; and
(iii) the valuation techniques and key model inputs used to measure contingent consideration.

(c) for contingent liabilities recognised in a business combination, the acquirer shall disclose the information required by paragraphs 84 and 85 of Ind AS 37 for each class of provision.
(d) a reconciliation of the carrying amount of goodwill at the beginning and end of the reporting period showing separately:

(i) the gross amount and accumulated impairment losses at the beginning of the reporting period.
(ii) additional goodwill recognised during the reporting period, except goodwill included in a disposal group that, on acquisition, meets the criteria to be classified as held for sale in accordance with Ind AS 105, Non-current Assets Held for Sale and Discontinued Operations.
(iii) adjustments resulting from the subsequent recognition of deferred tax assets during the reporting period in accordance with paragraph 67.
(iv) goodwill included in a disposal group classified as held for sale in accordance with Ind AS 105 and goodwill derecognised during the reporting period without having previously been included in a disposal group classified as held for sale.
(v) impairment losses recognised during the reporting period in accordance with Ind AS 36. (Ind AS 36 requires disclosure of information about the recoverable amount and impairment of goodwill in addition to this requirement.)
(vi) net exchange rate differences arising during the reporting period in accordance with Ind AS 21, The Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates.
(vii) any other changes in the carrying amount during the reporting period.
(viii) the gross amount and accumulated impairment losses at the end of the reporting period.

(e) the amount and an explanation of any gain or loss recognised in the current reporting period that both:

(i) relates to the identifiable assets acquired or liabilities assumed in a business combination that was effected in the current or previous reporting period; and
(ii) is of such a size, nature or incidence that disclosure is relevant to understanding the combined entity’s financial statements.

Appendix C

This appendix is an integral part of the Ind AS.

Business combinations of entities under common control
Scope
1 This appendix deals with accounting for business combinations of entities or businesses under common control.

Definitions
2 The following terms are used in this Appendix with the meaning specified:

Transferor means an entity or business which is combined into another entity as a result of a business combination.

Transferee means an entity in which the transferor entity is combined.

Reserve means the portion of earnings, receipts or other surplus of an entity (whether capital or revenue) appropriated by the management for a general or a specific purpose other than provision for depreciation.

Common control business combination means a business combination involving entities or businesses in which all the combining entities or businesses are ultimately controlled by the same party or parties both before and after the business combination, and that control is not transitory.

Common control business combinations
3 Common control business combinations will include transactions, such as transfer of subsidiaries or businesses, between entities within a group.

4 The extent of non-controlling interests in each of the combining entities before and after the business combination is not relevant to determining whether the combination involves entities under common control. This is because a partially-owned subsidiary is nevertheless under the control of the parent entity.

5 The fact that one of the combining entities is a subsidiary that has been excluded from the consolidated financial statements of the group in accordance with Ind AS 27 is not relevant to determining whether a combination involves entities under common control.

6 An entity can be controlled by an individual, or by a group of individuals acting together under a contractual arrangement, and that individual or group of individuals may not be subject to the financial reporting requirements of Ind ASs. Therefore, it is not necessary for combining entities to be included as part of the same consolidated financial statements for a business combination to be regarded as one having entities under common control.

7 A group of individuals are regarded as controlling an entity when, as a result of contractual arrangements, they collectively have the power to govern its financial and operating policies so as to obtain benefits from its activities, and that ultimate collective power is not transitory.

Method of accounting for common control business combinations
8 Business combinations involving entities or businesses under common control shall be accounted for using the pooling of interests method.

9 The pooling of interest method is considered to involve the following:

(i) The assets and liabilities of the combining entities are reflected at their carrying amounts.
(ii) No adjustments are made to reflect fair values, or recognise any new assets or liabilities. The only adjustments that are made are to harmonise accounting policies.
(iii) The financial information in the financial statements in respect of prior periods should be restated as if the business combination had occurred from the beginning of the preceding period in the financial statements, irrespective of the actual date of the combination. However, if business combination had occurred after that date, the prior period information shall be restated only from that date.

10 The consideration for the business combination may consist of securities, cash or other assets. Securities shall be recorded at nominal value. In determining the value of the consideration, assets other than cash shall be considered at their fair values.

11 The balance of the retained earnings appearing in the financial statements of the transferor is aggregated with the corresponding balance appearing in the financial statements of the transferee. Alternatively, it is transferred to General Reserve, if any.

12 The identity of the reserves shall be preserved and shall appear in the financial statements of the transferee in the same form in which they appeared in the financial statements of the transferor. Thus, for example, the General Reserve of the transferor entity becomes the General Reserve of the transferee, the Capital Reserve of the transferor becomes the Capital Reserve of the transferee and the Revaluation Reserve of the transferor becomes the Revaluation Reserve of the transferee. As a result of preserving the identity, reserves which are available for distribution as dividend before the business combination would also be available for distribution as dividend after the business combination. The difference, if any, between the amount recorded as share capital issued plus any additional consideration in the form of cash or other assets and the amount of share capital of the transferor shall be transferred to capital reserve and should be presented separately from other capital reserves with disclosure of its nature and purpose in the notes.

Disclosure
13 The following disclosures shall be made in the first financial statements following the business combination:

(a) names and general nature of business of the combining entities;

(b) the date on which the transferor obtains control of the transferee;

(c) description and number of shares issued, together with the percentage of each entity’s equity shares exchanged to effect the business combination; and

(d) the amount of any difference between the consideration and the value of net identifiable assets acquired, and the treatment thereof.

Business combination after the balance sheet date
14 When a business combination is effected after the balance sheet but before the approval of the financial statements for issue by either party to the business combination, disclosure is made in accordance with Ind AS 10 Events after the Reporting Period, but the business combination is not incorporated in the financial statements. In certain circumstances, the business combination may also provide additional information affecting the financial statements themselves, for instance, by allowing the going concern assumption to be maintained.

Appendix D

References to matters contained in other Indian Accounting Standards
This Appendix is an integral part of the Ind AS.
This appendix lists the appendices which are part of other Indian Accounting Standards and makes reference to Ind AS 103, Business Combinations.

1. Appendix A, Distributions of Non-cash Assets to Owners, contained in Ind AS 10, Events After the Reporting Period

Appendix 1

Note: This Appendix is not a part of the Indian Accounting Standard. The purpose of this Appendix is only to bring out the major differences, if any, between Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 103 and the corresponding International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS) 3, Business Combinations, issued by the International Accounting Standards
Board.

Comparison with IFRS 3, Business Combinations
1 IFRS 3 excludes from its scope business combinations of entities under common control. Ind AS 103 (Appendix C) gives the guidance in this regard. Consequently, paragraph 2 has been modified and paragraph 2B has been added in Ind AS 103. Further, paragraphs B1-B4 of IFRS 3 have been deleted in Ind AS 103. In order to maintain consistency with paragraph numbers of IFRS 3, the paragraph numbers are retained in Ind AS 103.

2 The transitional provisions given in IFRS 3 have not been given in Ind AS 103, since all transitional provisions related to Ind ASs, wherever considered appropriate have been included in Ind AS101, First-time Adoption of Indian Accounting Standards, corresponding to IFRS 1, First-time Adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards, will deal with the same.

3 IFRS 3 requires bargain purchase gain arising on business combination to be recoganised in profit or loss. Ind AS 103 requires the same to be recognised in other comprehensive income and accumulated in equity as capital reserve, unless there is no clear evidence for the underlying reason for classification of the business combination as a bargain purchase, in which case, it shall be recognised directly in equity as capital reserve. This has some consequential changes such as change in wording of paragraphs 34, 36 and 48, additional
disclosure in paragraph B64(n) and addition of new paragraph 36A. Cross-reference to the new paragraph 36A has been added in paragraphs B46, B64(n).

4 Different terminology is used, as used in existing laws eg, the term ‘balance sheet’ is used instead of ‘Statement of financial position’, ‘Statement of profit and loss’ is used instead of ‘Statement of comprehensive income’. The words ‘approved the financial statements for issue’ have been used instead of ‘authorised the financial statements for issue’ in the context of financial statements considered for the purpose of events after the reporting period.

Paragraphs 64-64J and 64L of IFRS 3 related to effective date have not been included in Ind AS 103 as these are not relevant in Indian context. Paragraph 64N has not been included since it refers to amendments due to issuance of IFRS 17, Insurance Contracts for which corresponding Ind AS is under formulation. However, in order to maintain consistency with paragr aph numbers of IFRS 3, these paragraph numbers are retained in Ind A S 103.

Paragraphs 64-64J and 64L related to effective date have not been included in Ind AS 103 as these are not relevant in Indian context. However, in order to maintain consistency with paragraph numbers of IFRS 3, these paragraph numbers are retained in Ind AS 103.

Paragraphs 64 to 64J related to effective date have not been included in Ind AS 103 as these are not relevant in Indian context. However, in order to maintain consistency with paragraph numbers of IFRS 3, these paragraph numbers are retained in Ind AS 103.

The following paragraph numbers appear as ‘Deleted’ in IFRS 3. In order to maintain consistency with paragraph numbers of Ind AS 103, the paragraph numbers are retained in Ind AS 103:

(a) Paragraph B28- B30
(b) Paragraph B32(a)

Substituted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2019 dated 30.03.2019. To view the Notification, Click Here.
Substituted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2019 dated 30.03.2019. To view the Notification, Click Here.
Inserted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2019 dated 30.03.2019. To view the Notification, Click Here.
 Inserted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2019 dated 30.03.2019. To view the Notification, Click Here.
Inserted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Second Amendment Rules, 2019 dated 30.03.2019. To view the Notification, Click Here.
Substituted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2018 dated 28.03.2018 effective from 01.04.2018. To view the notification,Click Here
Substituted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2016, GSR 365(E) dated 30.03.2016. To view the notification,Click Here
Inserted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting
Standards) Amendment Rules, 2018 dated 28.03.2018 effective from 01.04.2018. To view the notification,Click Here
Substituted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2019 dated 30.03.2019. To view the Notification, Click Here.
Substituted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2019 dated 30.03.2019. To view the Notification, Click Here.
 Inserted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Second Amendment Rules, 2019 dated 30.03.2019. To view the Notification, Click Here.
 Inserted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Second Amendment Rules, 2019 dated 30.03.2019. To view the Notification, Click Here.
Omitted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2019 dated 30.03.2019. To view the Notification, Click Here.
Omitted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2019 dated 30.03.2019. To view the Notification, Click Here.
Substituted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2019 dated 30.03.2019. To view the Notification, Click Here.
Substituted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Second Amendment Rules, 2019 dated 30.03.2019. To view the Notification, Click Here.
Substituted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2019 dated 30.03.2019. To view the Notification, Click Here.
 Inserted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2018 dated 28.03.2018 effective from 01.04.2018. To view the notification,Click Here
Inserted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2019 dated 30.03.2019. To view the Notification, Click Here.

Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 104

Insurance Contracts
(This Indian Accounting Standard includes paragraphs set in bold type and plain type, which have equal authority. Paragraphs in bold type indicate the main principles.)

Objective
1. The objective of this Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) is to specify the financial reporting for insurance contracts by any entity that issues such contracts (described in this Ind AS as an insurer). In particular, this Ind AS requires:

(a) limited improvements to accounting by insurers for insurance contracts.
(b) disclosure that identifies and explains the amounts in an insurer’s financial statements arising from insurance contracts and helps users of those financial statements understand the amount, timing and uncertainty of future cash flows from insurance contracts.

Scope
2. An entity shall apply this Ind AS to:

(a) insurance contracts (including reinsurance contracts) that it issues and reinsurance contracts that it holds.
(b) financial instruments that it issues with a discretionary participation feature (see paragraph 35). Ind AS 107, Financial Instruments: Disclosures, requires disclosure about financial instruments, including financial instruments that contain such features.

3. This Ind AS does not address other aspects of accounting by insurers, such as accounting for financial assets held by insurers and financial liabilities issued by insurers (see Ind AS 32, Financial Instruments: Presentation, Ind AS 107 and Ind AS 109, Financial Instruments).

4. An entity shall not apply this Ind AS to:

product warranties issued directly by a manufacturer, dealer or retailer (see Ind AS 115 ,Revenue from Contracts with Customers and Ind AS 37, Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets).

 product warranties issued directly by a manufacturer, dealer or retailer (see Ind AS 18, Revenue, and Ind AS 37, Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets)

(a) product warranties issued directly by a manufacturer, dealer or retailer (see Ind AS 115, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, and Ind AS 37, Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets).

(b) employers’ assets and liabilities under employee benefit plans (see Ind AS 19, Employee Benefits, and Ind AS 102, Share-based Payment) and retirement benefit obligations reported by defined benefit retirement plans.

contractual rights or contractual obligations that are contingent on the future use of, or right to use, a non-financial item (for example, some licence fees, royalties, variable lease payments and similar items), as well as a lessee’s residual value guarantee embedded in a lease (see Ind AS 116, Leases, Ind AS 115, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, and Ind AS 38, Intangible Assets).

contractual rights or contractual obligations that are contingent on the future use of, or right to use, a non-financial item (for example, some licence fees, royalties, contingent lease payments and similar items), as well as a lessee’s residual value guarantee embedded in a finance lease (see Ind AS 17, Leases, Ind AS 115, Revenue from Contracts with Customers and Ind AS 38, Intangible Assets).

 contractual rights or contractual obligations that are contingent on the future use of, or right to use, a non-financial item (for example, some licence fees, royalties, contingent lease payments and similar items), as well as a lessee’s residual value guarantee embedded in a finance lease (see Ind AS 17, Leases, Ind AS 18, Revenue, and Ind AS 38, Intangible Assets).

(c) contractual rights or contractual obligations that are contingent on the future use of, or right to use, a non-financial item (for example, some licence fees, royalties, contingent lease payments and similar items), as well as a lessee’s residual value guarantee embedded in a finance lease (see Ind AS 17, Leases, Ind AS 115, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, and Ind AS 38, Intangible Assets).

(d) financial guarantee contracts unless the issuer has previously asserted explicitly that it regards such contracts as insurance contracts and has used accounting applicable to insurance contracts, in which case the issuer may elect to apply either Ind AS 32, Ind AS 107 and Ind AS 109 or this Ind AS to such financial guarantee contracts. The issuer may make that election contract by contract, but the
election for each contract is irrevocable.
(e) contingent consideration payable or receivable in a business combination (see Ind AS 103, Business Combinations).
(f) direct insurance contracts that the entity holds (ie direct insurance contracts in which the entity is the policyholder). However, a cedant shall apply this Standard to reinsurance contracts that it holds.

5. For ease of reference, this Ind AS describes any entity that issues an insurance contract as an insurer, whether or not the issuer is regarded as an insurer for legal or supervisory purposes.

6. A reinsurance contract is a type of insurance contract. Accordingly, all references in this Ind AS to insurance contracts also apply to reinsurance contracts.

Embedded derivatives
7. Ind AS 109 requires an entity to separate some embedded derivatives from their host contract, measure them at fair value and include changes in their fair value in profit or loss. Ind AS 109 applies to derivatives embedded in an insurance contract unless the embedded derivative is itself an insurance contract.

8. As an exception to the requirements in Ind AS 109, an insurer need not separate, and measure at fair value, a policyholder’s option to surrender an insurance contract for a fixed amount (or for an amount based on a fixed amount and an interest rate), even if the exercise price differs from the carrying amount of the host insurance liability. However, the requirements in Ind AS 109 do apply to a put option or cash surrender option embedded in an insurance contract if the surrender value varies in response to the change in a financial variable (such as an equity or commodity price or index), or a non-financial variable that is not specific to a party to the contract. Furthermore, those requirements also apply if the holder’s ability to exercise a put option or cash surrender option is triggered by a change in such a variable (for example, a put option that can be exercised if a stock market index reaches a specified level).

9. Paragraph 8 applies equally to options to surrender a financial instrument containing a discretionary participation feature.

Unbundling of deposit components
10. Some insurance contracts contain both an insurance component and a deposit component. In some cases, an insurer is required or permitted to unbundle those components:

(a) unbundling is required if both the following conditions are met:

(i) the insurer can measure the deposit component (including any embedded surrender options) separately (ie without considering the insurance component).
(ii) the insurer’s accounting policies do not otherwise require it to recognise all obligations and rights arising from the deposit component.

(b) unbundling is permitted, but not required, if the insurer can measure the deposit component separately as in (a)(i) but its accounting policies require it to recognise all obligations and rights arising from the deposit component, regardless of the basis used to measure those rights and obligations.
(c) unbundling is prohibited if an insurer cannot measure the deposit component separately as in (a)(i).

11. The following is an example of a case when an insurer’s accounting policies do not require it to recognise all obligations arising from a deposit component. A cedant receives compensation for losses from a reinsurer, but the contract obliges the cedant to repay the compensation in future years. That obligation arises from a deposit component. If the cedant’s accounting policies would otherwise permit it to recognise the compensation as income without recognising the resulting obligation, unbundling is required.

12. To unbundle a contract, an insurer shall:

(a) apply this Ind AS to the insurance component.
(b) apply Ind AS 109 to the deposit component.

Recognition and measurement
Temporary exemption from some other Ind ASs
13. Paragraphs 10–12 of Ind AS 8, Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors, specify criteria for an entity to use in developing an accounting policy if no Ind AS applies specifically to an item. However, this Ind AS exempts an insurer from applying those criteria to its accounting policies for:

(a) insurance contracts that it issues (including related acquisition costs and related intangible assets, such as those described in paragraphs 31 and 32); and
(b) reinsurance contracts that it holds.

14. Nevertheless, this Ind AS does not exempt an insurer from some implications of the criteria in paragraphs 10–12 of Ind AS 8. Specifically, an insurer:

(a) shall not recognise as a liability any provisions for possible future claims, if those claims arise under insurance contracts that are not in existence at the end of the reporting period (such as catastrophe provisions and equalisation provisions).
(b) shall carry out the liability adequacy test described in paragraphs 15–19.
(c) shall remove an insurance liability (or a part of an insurance liability) from its balance sheet when, and only when, it is extinguished—ie when the obligation specified in the contract is discharged or cancelled or expires.
(d) shall not offset:

(i) reinsurance assets against the related insurance liabilities; or
(ii) income or expense from reinsurance contracts against the expense or income from the related insurance contracts.

(e) shall consider whether its reinsurance assets are impaired (see paragraph 20).

Liability adequacy test
15. An insurer shall assess at the end of each reporting period whether its recognised insurance liabilities are adequate, using current estimates of future cash flows under its insurance contracts. If that assessment shows that the carrying amount of its insurance liabilities (less related deferred acquisition costs and related intangible assets, such as those discussed in paragraphs 31 and 32) is inadequate in the light of the estimated future cash flows, the entire deficiency shall be recognised in profit or loss.

16. If an insurer applies a liability adequacy test that meets specified minimum requirements, this Ind AS imposes no further requirements. The minimum requirements are the following:

(a) The test considers current estimates of all contractual cash flows, and of related cash flows such as claims handling costs, as well as cash flows resulting from embedded options and guarantees.
(b) If the test shows that the liability is inadequate, the entire deficiency is recognised in profit or loss.

17. If an insurer’s accounting policies do not require a liability adequacy test that meets the minimum requirements of paragraph 16, the insurer shall:

(a) determine the carrying amount of the relevant insurance liabilities less the carrying amount of:

(i) any related deferred acquisition costs; and
(ii) any related intangible assets, such as those acquired in a business combination or portfolio transfer (see paragraphs 31 and 32). However, related reinsurance assets are not considered because an insurer accounts for them separately (see paragraph 20).

(b) determine whether the amount described in (a) is less than the carrying amount that would be required if the relevant insurance liabilities were within the scope of Ind AS 37. If it is less, the insurer shall recognise the entire difference in profit or loss and decrease the carrying amount of the related deferred acquisition costs or related intangible assets or increase the carrying amount of the relevant insurance liabilities.

18. If an insurer’s liability adequacy test meets the minimum requirements of paragraph 16, the test is applied at the level of aggregation specified in that test. If its liability adequacy test does not meet those minimum requirements, the comparison described in paragraph 17 shall be made at the level of a portfolio of contracts that are subject to broadly similar risks and managed together as a single portfolio.

19. The amount described in paragraph 17(b) (ie the result of applying Ind AS 37) shall reflect future investment margins (see paragraphs 27–29) if, and only if, the amount described in paragraph 17(a) also reflects those margins.

Impairment of reinsurance assets
20. If a cedant’s reinsurance asset is impaired, the cedant shall reduce its carrying amount accordingly and recognise that impairment loss in profit or loss. A reinsurance asset is impaired if, and only if:

(a) there is objective evidence, as a result of an event that occurred after initial recognition of the reinsurance asset, that the cedant may not receive all amounts due to it under the terms of the contract; and
(b) that event has a reliably measurable impact on the amounts that the cedant will receive from the reinsurer.

Changes in accounting policies
21. Paragraphs 22-30 apply both to changes made by an insurer that already applies Ind ASs and to changes made by an insurer adopting Ind ASs for the first time.

22. An insurer may change its accounting policies for insurance contracts if, and only if, the change makes the financial statements more relevant to the economic decision-making needs of users and no less reliable, or more reliable and no less relevant to those needs. An insurer shall judge relevance and reliability by the criteria in Ind AS 8.

23. To justify changing its accounting policies for insurance contracts, an insurer shall show that the change brings its financial statements closer to meeting the criteria in Ind AS 8, but the change need not achieve full compliance with those criteria. The following specific issues are discussed below:

(a) current interest rates (paragraph 24);
(b) continuation of existing practices (paragraph 25);
(c) prudence (paragraph 26);
(d) future investment margins (paragraphs 27–29); and
(e) shadow accounting (paragraph 30).

Current market interest rates
24. An insurer is permitted, but not required, to change its accounting policies so that it remeasures designated insurance liabilities to reflect current market interest rates and recognises changes in those liabilities in profit or loss. At that time, it may also introduce accounting policies that require other current estimates and assumptions for the designated liabilities. The election in this paragraph permits an insurer to change its accounting policies for designated liabilities, without applying those policies consistently to all similar liabilities as Ind AS 8 would otherwise require. If an insurer designates liabilities for this election, it shall continue to apply current market interest rates (and, if applicable, the other current estimates and assumptions) consistently in all periods to all these liabilities until they are extinguished.

Continuation of existing practices
25. An insurer may continue the following practices, but the introduction of any of them does not satisfy paragraph 22:

(a) measuring insurance liabilities on an undiscounted basis.
(b) measuring contractual rights to future investment management fees at an amount that exceeds their fair value as implied by a comparison with current fees charged by other market participants for similar services. It is likely that the fair value at inception of those contractual rights equals the origination costs paid, unless future investment management fees and related costs are out of line with market comparables.
(c) using non-uniform accounting policies for the insurance contracts (and related deferred acquisition costs and related intangible assets, if any) of subsidiaries, except as permitted by paragraph 24. If those accounting policies are not uniform, an insurer may change them if the change does not make the accounting policies more diverse and also satisfies the other requirements in this Ind AS.

Prudence
26. An insurer need not change its accounting policies for insurance contracts to eliminate excessive prudence. However, if an insurer already measures its insurance contracts with sufficient prudence, it shall not introduce additional prudence.

Future investment margins
27. An insurer need not change its accounting policies for insurance contracts to eliminate future investment margins. However, there is a rebuttable presumption that an insurer’s financial statements will become less relevant and reliable if it introduces an accounting policy that reflects future investment margins in the measurement of insurance contracts, unless those margins affect the contractual payments. Two examples of accounting policies that reflect those margins are:

(a) using a discount rate that reflects the estimated return on the insurer’s assets; or
(b) projecting the returns on those assets at an estimated rate of return, discounting those projected returns at a different rate and including the result in the measurement of the liability.

28. An insurer may overcome the rebuttable presumption described in paragraph 27 if, and only if, the other components of a change in accounting policies increase the relevance and reliability of its financial statements sufficiently to outweigh the decrease in relevance and reliability caused by the inclusion of future investment margins. For example, suppose that an insurer’s existing accounting policies for insurance contracts involve excessively prudent assumptions set at inception and a discount rate prescribed by a regulator without direct reference to market conditions, and ignore some embedded options and guarantees. The insurer might make its financial statements more relevant and no less reliable by switching to a comprehensive investor-oriented basis of accounting that is widely used and involves:

(a) current estimates and assumptions;
(b) a reasonable (but not excessively prudent) adjustment to reflect risk and uncertainty;
(c) measurements that reflect both the intrinsic value and time value of embedded options and guarantees; and
(d) a current market discount rate, even if that discount rate reflects the estimated return on the insurer’s assets.

29. In some measurement approaches, the discount rate is used to determine the present value of a future profit margin. That profit margin is then attributed to different periods using a formula. In those approaches, the discount rate affects the measurement of the liability only indirectly. In particular, the use of a less appropriate discount rate has a limited or no effect on the measurement of the liability at inception. However, in other approaches, the discount rate determines the measurement of the liability directly. In the latter case, because the introduction of an asset-based discount rate has a more significant effect, it is highly unlikely that an insurer could overcome the rebuttable presumption described in paragraph 27.

Shadow accounting
30. In some accounting models, realised gains or losses on an insurer’s assets have a direct effect on the measurement of some or all of (a) its insurance liabilities, (b) related deferred acquisition costs and (c) related intangible assets, such as those described in paragraphs 31 and 32. An insurer is permitted, but not required, to change its accounting policies so that a recognised but unrealised gain or loss on an asset affects those measurements in the same way that a realised gain or loss does. The related adjustment to the insurance
liability (or deferred acquisition costs or intangible assets) shall be recognised in other comprehensive income if, and only if, the unrealised gains or losses are recognised in other comprehensive income. This practice is sometimes described as ‘shadow accounting’.

Insurance contracts acquired in a business combination or portfolio transfer
31. To comply with Ind AS 103, an insurer shall, at the acquisition date, measure at fair value the insurance liabilities assumed and insurance assets acquired in a business combination. However, an insurer is permitted, but not required, to use an expanded presentation that splits the fair value of acquired insurance contracts into two components:

(a) a liability measured in accordance with the insurer’s accounting policies for insurance contracts that it issues; and
(b) an intangible asset, representing the difference between (i) the fair value of the contractual insurance rights acquired and insurance obligations assumed and (ii) the amount described in (a). The subsequent measurement of this asset shall be consistent with the measurement of the related insurance liability.

32. An insurer acquiring a portfolio of insurance contracts may use the expanded presentation described in paragraph 31.

33. The intangible assets described in paragraphs 31 and 32 are excluded from the scope of Ind AS 38 and Ind AS 36, Impairment of Assets. However, Ind AS 38 and Ind AS 36 apply to customer lists and customer relationships reflecting the expectation of future contracts that are not part of the contractual insurance rights and contractual insurance obligations that existed at the date of a business combination or portfolio transfer.

Discretionary participation features
Discretionary participation features in insurance contracts
34. Some insurance contracts contain a discretionary participation feature as well as a guaranteed element. The issuer of such a contract:

(a) may, but need not, recognise the guaranteed element separately from the discretionary participation feature. If the issuer does not recognise them separately, it shall classify the whole contract as a liability. If the issuer classifies them separately, it shall classify the guaranteed element as a liability.
(b) shall, if it recognises the discretionary participation feature separately from the guaranteed element, classify that feature as either a liability or a separate component of equity. This Ind AS does not specify how the issuer determines whether that feature is a liability or equity. The issuer may split that feature into liability and equity components and shall use a consistent accounting policy for that split. The issuer shall not classify that feature as an intermediate category that is neither liability nor equity.
(c) may recognise all premiums received as revenue without separating any portion that relates to the equity component. The resulting changes in the guaranteed element and in the portion of the discretionary participation feature classified as a liability shall be recognised in profit or loss. If part or all of the discretionary participation feature is classified in equity, a portion of profit or loss may be attributable to that feature (in the same way that a portion may be attributable to non-controlling interests). The issuer shall recognise the portion of profit or loss attributable to any equity component of a discretionary participation feature as an allocation of profit or loss, not as expense or income (see Ind AS 1, Presentation of Financial Statements).
(d) shall, if the contract contains an embedded derivative within the scope of Ind AS 109, apply Ind AS 109 to that embedded derivative.
(e) shall, in all respects not described in paragraphs 14–20 and 34(a)–(d), continue its existing accounting policies for such contracts, unless it changes those accounting policies in a way that complies with paragraphs 21–30.

Discretionary participation features in financial instruments
35. The requirements in paragraph 34 also apply to a financial instrument that contains a discretionary participation feature. In addition:

(a) if the issuer classifies the entire discretionary participation feature as a liability, it shall apply the liability adequacy test in paragraphs 15–19 to the whole contract (ie both the guaranteed element and the discretionary participation feature). The issuer need not determine the amount that would result from applying Ind AS 109 to the guaranteed element.
(b) if the issuer classifies part or all of that feature as a separate component of equity, the liability recognised for the whole contract shall not be less than the amount that would result from applying Ind AS 109 to the guaranteed element. That amount shall include the intrinsic value of an option to surrender the contract, but need not include its time value if paragraph 9 exempts that option from measurement at fair value. The issuer need not disclose the amount that would result from applying Ind AS 109 to the guaranteed element, nor need it present that amount separately. Furthermore, the issuer need not determine that amount if the total liability recognised is clearly higher.
(c) although these contracts are financial instruments, the issuer may continue to recognise the premiums for those contracts as revenue and recognise as an expense the resulting increase in the carrying amount of the liability.
(d) although these contracts are financial instruments, an issuer applying paragraph 20(b) of Ind AS 107 to contracts with a discretionary participation feature shall disclose the total interest expense recognised in profit or loss, but need not calculate such interest expense using the effective interest method.

Disclosure
Explanation of recognised amounts
36. An insurer shall disclose information that identifies and explains the amounts in its financial statements arising from insurance contracts.

37. To comply with paragraph 36, an insurer shall disclose:

(a) its accounting policies for insurance contracts and related assets, liabilities, income and expense.
(b) the recognised assets, liabilities, income and expense (and, if it presents its statement of cash flows using the direct method, cash flows) arising from insurance contracts. Furthermore, if the insurer is a cedant, it shall disclose:

(i) gains and losses recognised in profit or loss on buying reinsurance; and
(ii) if the cedant defers and amortises gains and losses arising on buying reinsurance, the amortisation for the period and the amounts remaining unamortised at the beginning and end of the period.

(c) the process used to determine the assumptions that have the greatest effect on the measurement of the recognised amounts described in (b). When practicable, an insurer shall also give quantified disclosure of those assumptions.
(d) the effect of changes in assumptions used to measure insurance assets and insurance liabilities, showing separately the effect of each change that has a material effect on the financial statements.
(e) reconciliations of changes in insurance liabilities, reinsurance assets and, if any, related deferred acquisition costs.

Nature and extent of risks arising from insurance contracts
38. An insurer shall disclose information that enables users of its financial statements to evaluate the nature and extent of risks arising from insurance contracts.

39. To comply with paragraph 38, an insurer shall disclose:

(a) its objectives, policies and processes for managing risks arising from insurance contracts and the methods used to manage those risks.

(b) [Refer Appendix 1]

(c) information about insurance risk (both before and after risk mitigation by reinsurance), including information about:

(i) sensitivity to insurance risk (see paragraph 39A).
(ii) concentrations of insurance risk, including a description of how management determines concentrations and a description of the shared characteristic that identifies each concentration (eg type of insured event, geographical area, or currency).
(iii) actual claims compared with previous estimates (ie claims development). The disclosure about claims development shall go back to the period when the earliest material claim arose for which there is still uncertainty about the amount and timing of the claims payments, but need not go back more than ten years. An insurer need not disclose this information for claims for which uncertainty about the amount and timing of claims payments is typically resolved within one year.

(d) information about credit risk, liquidity risk and market risk that paragraphs 31–42 of Ind AS 107 would require if the insurance contracts were within the scope of Ind AS 107. However:

(i) an insurer need not provide the maturity analysis required by paragraph 39(a) and (b) of Ind AS 107 if it discloses information about the estimated timing of the net cash outflows resulting from recognised insurance liabilities instead. This may take the form of an analysis, by estimated timing, of the amounts recognised in the balance sheet.
(ii) if an insurer uses an alternative method to manage sensitivity to market conditions, such as an embedded value analysis, it may use that sensitivity analysis to meet the requirement in paragraph 40(a) of Ind AS 107. Such an insurer shall also provide the disclosures required by paragraph 41 of Ind AS 107.

(e) information about exposures to market risk arising from embedded derivatives contained in a host insurance contract if the insurer is not required to, and does not, measure the embedded derivatives at fair value.

39A To comply with paragraph 39(c)(i), an insurer shall disclose either (a) or (b) as follows:

(a) a sensitivity analysis that shows how profit or loss and equity would have been affected if changes in the relevant risk variable that were reasonably possible at the end of the reporting period had occurred; the methods and assumptions used in preparing the sensitivity analysis; and any changes from the previous period in the methods and assumptions used. However, if an insurer uses an alternative method to manage sensitivity to market conditions, such as an embedded value analysis, it may meet this requirement by disclosing that alternative sensitivity analysis and the disclosures required by paragraph 41 of Ind AS 107.
(b) qualitative information about sensitivity, and information about those terms and conditions of insurance contracts that have a material effect on the amount, timing and uncertainty of the insurer’s future cash flows.

40 *

41 *

41A *

41B *

41C *

41D *

41E *

41F *

41G As a consequence of issuance of Ind AS 115, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, paragraphs 4(a) and (c), B7(b), B18(h) and B21 are amended. An entity shall apply those amendments when it applies Ind AS 115.

Omitted *

Ind AS 116 amended paragraph 4. An entity shall apply that amendment when it applies Ind AS 116.

* Refer Appendix 1

Appendix A

Defined terms
This appendix is an integral part of the Ind AS.

Cedant The policyholder under a reinsurance contract.

deposit component A contractual component that is not accounted for as a derivative under Ind AS 109 and would be within the scope of Ind AS 109 if it were a separate instrument.

direct insurance contract An insurance contract that is not a reinsurance contract.

discretionary participation feature A contractual right to receive, as a supplement to guaranteed benefits, additional benefits:

(a) that are likely to be a significant portion of the total contractual benefits;
(b) whose amount or timing is contractually at the discretion of the issuer; and
(c) that are contractually based on:

(i) the performance of a specified pool of contracts or a specified type of
contract;
(ii) realised and/or unrealised investment returns on a specified pool of assets
held by the issuer; or
(iii) the profit or loss of the company, fund or other entity that issues the
contract.

fair value Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. (See Ind AS 113.)

financial guarantee contract A contract that requires the issuer to make specified payments to reimburse the holder for a loss it incurs because a specified debtor fails to make payment when due in accordance with the original or modified terms of a debt instrument.

financial risk The risk of a possible future change in one or more of a specified interest rate, financial instrument price, commodity price, foreign exchange rate, index of prices or rates, credit rating or credit index or other variable, provided in the case of a non-financial variable that the variable is not specific to a party to the contract.

guaranteed benefits Payments or other benefits to which a particular policyholder or investor has an unconditional right that is not subject to the contractual discretion of the issuer.

guaranteed element An obligation to pay guaranteed benefits, included in a contract that contains a discretionary participation feature.

insurance asset An insurer’s net contractual rights under an insurance contract.

insurance contract A contract under which one party (the insurer) accepts significant insurance risk from another party (the policyholder) by agreeing to compensate the policyholder if a specified uncertain future event (the insured event) adversely affects the policyholder. (See Appendix B for guidance on this definition.)

insurance liability An insurer’s net contractual obligations under an insurance contract.

insurance risk Risk, other than financial risk, transferred from the holder of a contract to the issuer.

insured event An uncertain future event that is covered by an insurance contract and creates insurance risk.

insurer The party that has an obligation under an insurance contract to compensate a policyholder if an insured event occurs.

liability adequacy test An assessment of whether the carrying amount of an insurance liability needs to be increased (or the carrying amount of related deferred acquisition costs or related intangible assets decreased), based on a review of future cash flows.

policyholder A party that has a right to compensation under an insurance contract if an insured event occurs.

reinsurance assets A cedant’s net contractual rights under a reinsurance contract.

reinsurance contract An insurance contract issued by one insurer (the reinsurer) to compensate another insurer (the cedant) for losses on one or more contracts issued by the cedant.

reinsurer The party that has an obligation under a reinsurance contract to compensate a cedant if an insured event occurs.

unbundle Account for the components of a contract as if they were separate contracts.

Appendix B

Definition of an insurance contract

This appendix is an integral part of the Ind AS.
B1 This appendix gives guidance on the definition of an insurance contract in Appendix A. It addresses the following issues:

(a) the term ‘uncertain future event’ (paragraphs B2–B4);
(b) payments in kind (paragraphs B5–B7);
(c) insurance risk and other risks (paragraphs B8–B17);
(d) examples of insurance contracts (paragraphs B18–B21);
(e) significant insurance risk (paragraphs B22–B28); and
(f) changes in the level of insurance risk (paragraphs B29 and B30).

Uncertain future event
B2 Uncertainty (or risk) is the essence of an insurance contract. Accordingly, at least one of the following is uncertain at the inception of an insurance contract:

(a) whether an insured event will occur;
(b) when it will occur; or
(c) how much the insurer will need to pay if it occurs.

B3 In some insurance contracts, the insured event is the discovery of a loss during the term of the contract, even if the loss arises from an event that occurred before the inception of the contract. In other insurance contracts, the insured event is an event that occurs during the term of the contract, even if the resulting loss is discovered after the end of the contract term.

B4 Some insurance contracts cover events that have already occurred, but whose financial effect is still uncertain. An example is a reinsurance contract that covers the direct insurer against adverse development of claims already reported by policyholders. In such contracts, the insured event is the discovery of the ultimate cost of those claims.

Payments in kind
B5 Some insurance contracts require or permit payments to be made in kind. An example is when the insurer replaces a stolen article directly, instead of reimbursing the policyholder. Another example is when an insurer uses its own hospitals and medical staff to provide medical services covered by the contracts.

B6 Some fixed-fee service contracts in which the level of service depends on an uncertain event meet the definition of an insurance contract in this Ind AS but are not regulated as insurance contracts in some countries. One example is a maintenance contract in which the service provider agrees to repair specified equipment after a malfunction. The fixed service fee is based on the expected number of malfunctions, but it is uncertain whether a particular machine will break down. The malfunction of the equipment adversely affects its owner and the contract compensates the owner (in kind, rather than cash). Another example is a contract for car breakdown services in which the provider agrees, for a fixed annual fee, to provide roadside assistance or tow the car to a nearby garage. The latter contract could meet the definition of an insurance contract even if the provider does not agree to carry out repairs or replace parts.

B7 Applying this Standard to the contracts described in paragraph B6 is likely to be no more burdensome than applying the Ind ASs that would be applicable if such contracts were outside the scope of this Ind AS:

(a) There are unlikely to be material liabilities for malfunctions and breakdowns that have already occurred.

If Ind AS 115 applied, the service provider would recognise revenue when (or as) it transfers services to the customer ( subject to other specified criteria). That approach is also acceptable under this Ind AS, which permits the service provider (i) to continue its existing accounting policies for these contracts unless they involve practices prohibited by paragraph 14 and (ii) to improve its accounting policies if so permitted by paragraphs 22–30.

 If Ind AS 18, Revenue applied, the service provider would recognise revenue by reference to the stage of completion (and subject to other specified criteria). That approach is also acceptable under this Ind AS, which permits the service provider (i) to continue its existing accounting policies for these contracts unless they involve practices prohibited by paragraph 14 and (ii) to improve its accounting policies if so permitted by paragraphs 22–30.

(b) If Ind AS 115 applied, the service provider would recognise revenue when (or as) it transfers services to the customer ( subject to other specified criteria). That approach is also acceptable under this Ind AS, which permits the service provider (i) to continue its existing accounting policies for these contracts unless they involve practices prohibited by paragraph 14 and (ii) to improve its accounting policies if so permitted by paragraphs 22–30.

(c) The service provider considers whether the cost of meeting its contractual obligation to provide services exceeds the revenue received in advance. To do this, it applies the liability adequacy test described in paragraphs 15–19 of this Ind AS. If this Accounting Standard did not apply to these contracts, the service provider would apply Ind AS 37 to determine whether the contracts are onerous.

(d) For these contracts, the disclosure requirements in this Ind AS are unlikely to add significantly to disclosures required by other Ind ASs.

Distinction between insurance risk and other risks
B8 The definition of an insurance contract refers to insurance risk, which this Ind AS defines as risk, other than financial risk, transferred from the holder of a contract to the issuer. A contract that exposes the issuer to financial risk without significant insurance risk is not an insurance contract.

B9 The definition of financial risk in Appendix A includes a list of financial and non-financial variables. That list includes non-financial variables that are not specific to a party to the contract, such as an index of earthquake losses in a particular region or an index of temperatures in a particular city. It excludes non-financial variables that are specific to a party to the contract, such as the occurrence or non-occurrence of a fire that damages or destroys an asset of that party. Furthermore, the risk of changes in the fair value of a non-financial asset is not a financial risk if the fair value reflects not only changes in market prices for such assets (a financial variable) but also the condition of a specific non-financial asset held by a party to a contract (a non-financial variable). For example, if a guarantee of the residual value of a specific car exposes the guarantor to the risk of changes in the car’s physical condition, that risk is insurance risk, not financial risk.

B10 Some contracts expose the issuer to financial risk, in addition to significant insurance risk. For example, many life insurance contracts both guarantee a minimum rate of return to policyholders (creating financial risk) and promise death benefits that at some times significantly exceed the policyholder’s account balance (creating insurance risk in the form of mortality risk). Such contracts are insurance contracts.

B11 Under some contracts, an insured event triggers the payment of an amount linked to a price index. Such contracts are insurance contracts, provided the payment that is contingent on the insured event can be significant. For example, a life-contingent annuity linked to a cost-of-living index transfers insurance risk because payment is triggered by an uncertain event—the survival of the annuitant. The link to the price index is an embedded derivative, but it also transfers insurance risk. If the resulting transfer of insurance risk is
significant, the embedded derivative meets the definition of an insurance contract, in which case it need not be separated and measured at fair value (see paragraph 7 of this Ind AS).

B12 The definition of insurance risk refers to risk that the insurer accepts from the policyholder. In other words, insurance risk is a pre-existing risk transferred from the policyholder to the insurer. Thus, a new risk created by the contract is not insurance risk.

B13 The definition of an insurance contract refers to an adverse effect on the policyholder. The definition does not limit the payment by the insurer to an amount equal to the financial impact of the adverse event. For example, the definition does not exclude ‘new-for-old’ coverage that pays the policyholder sufficient to permit replacement of a damaged old asset by a new asset. Similarly, the definition does not limit payment under a term life insurance contract to the financial loss suffered by the deceased’s dependants, nor does it preclude the payment of predetermined amounts to quantify the loss caused by death or an accident.

B14 Some contracts require a payment if a specified uncertain event occurs, but do not require an adverse effect on the policyholder as a precondition for payment. Such a contract is not an insurance contract even if the holder uses the contract to mitigate an underlying risk exposure. For example, if the holder uses a derivative to hedge an underlying non-financial variable that is correlated with cash flows from an asset of the entity, the derivative is not an insurance contract because payment is not conditional on whether the holder is adversely affected by a reduction in the cash flows from the asset. Conversely, the definition of an insurance contract refers to an uncertain event for which an adverse effect on the policyholder is a contractual precondition for payment. This contractual precondition does not require the insurer to investigate whether the event actually caused an adverse effect, but permits the insurer to deny payment if it is not satisfied that the event caused an adverse effect.

B15 Lapse or persistency risk (ie the risk that the counterparty will cancel the contract earlier or later than the issuer had expected in pricing the contract) is not insurance risk because the payment to the counterparty is not contingent on an uncertain future event that adversely affects the counterparty. Similarly, expense risk (ie the risk of unexpected increases in the administrative costs associated with the servicing of a contract, rather than in costs associated with insured events) is not insurance risk because an unexpected increase in expenses does not adversely affect the counterparty.

B16 Therefore, a contract that exposes the issuer to lapse risk, persistency risk or expense risk is not an insurance contract unless it also exposes the issuer to insurance risk. However, if the issuer of that contract mitigates that risk by using a second contract to transfer part of that risk to another party, the second contract exposes that other party to insurance risk.

B17 An insurer can accept significant insurance risk from the policyholder only if the insurer is an entity separate from the policyholder. In the case of a mutual insurer, the mutual accepts risk from each policyholder and pools that risk. Although policyholders bear that pooled risk collectively in their capacity as owners, the mutual has still accepted the risk that is the essence of an insurance contract.

Examples of insurance contracts
B18 The following are examples of contracts that are insurance contracts, if the transfer of insurance risk is significant:

(a) insurance against theft or damage to property.

(b) insurance against product liability, professional liability, civil liability or legal expenses.

(c) life insurance and prepaid funeral plans (although death is certain, it is uncertain when death will occur or, for some types of life insurance, whether death will occur within the period covered by the insurance).

(d) life-contingent annuities and pensions (ie contracts that provide compensation for the uncertain future event—the survival of the annuitant or pensioner—to assist the annuitant or pensioner in maintaining a given standard of living, which would otherwise be adversely affected by his or her survival).

(e) disability and medical cover.

(f) surety bonds, fidelity bonds, performance bonds and bid bonds (ie contracts that provide compensation if another party fails to perform a contractual obligation, for example an obligation to construct a building).

(g) credit insurance that provides for specified payments to be made to reimburse the holder for a loss it incurs because a specified debtor fails to make payment when due under the original or modified terms of a debt instrument. These contracts could have various legal forms, such as that of a guarantee, some types of letter of credit, a credit derivative default contract or an insurance contract. However, although these contracts meet the definition of an insurance contract, they also meet the definition of a financial guarantee contract in Ind AS 109 and are within the scope of Ind AS 107 and
Ind AS 109, not this Ind AS (see paragraph 4(d)). Nevertheless, if an issuer of financial guarantee contracts has previously asserted explicitly that it regards such contracts as insurance contracts and has used accounting applicable to insurance contracts, the issuer may elect to apply either Ind AS 107 and Ind AS 109 or this Ind AS to such financial guarantee contracts.

product warranties. Product warranties issued by another party for goods sold by a manufacturer, dealer or retailer are within the scope of this Ind AS. However, product warranties issued directly by a manufacturer, dealer or retailer are outside its scope, because they are within the scope of Ind AS 115 and Ind AS 37.

 product warranties. Product warranties issued by another party for goods sold by a manufacturer, dealer or retailer are within the scope of this Ind AS. However, product warranties issued directly by a manufacturer, dealer or retailer are outside its scope, because they are within the scope of Ind AS 18 and Ind AS 37.

(h) product warranties. Product warranties issued by another party for goods sold by a manufacturer, dealer or retailer are within the scope of this Ind AS. However, product warranties issued directly by a manufacturer, dealer or retailer are outside its scope, because they are within the scope of Ind AS 115 and Ind AS 37.
(i) title insurance (ie insurance against the discovery of defects in title to land that were not apparent when the insurance contract was written). In this case, the insured event is the discovery of a defect in the title, not the defect itself.
(j) travel assistance (ie compensation in cash or in kind to policyholders for losses suffered while they are travelling). Paragraphs B6 and B7 discuss some contracts of this kind.
(k) catastrophe bonds that provide for reduced payments of principal, interest or both if a specified event adversely affects the issuer of the bond (unless the specified event does not create significant insurance risk, for example if the event is a change in an interest rate or foreign exchange rate).
(l) insurance swaps and other contracts that require a payment based on changes in climatic, geological or other physical variables that are specific to a party to the contract.
(m) reinsurance contracts.

B19 The following are examples of items that are not insurance contracts:

(a) investment contracts that have the legal form of an insurance contract but do not expose the insurer to significant insurance risk, for example life insurance contracts in which the insurer bears no significant mortality risk (such contracts are non-insurance financial instruments or service contracts, see paragraphs B20 and B21).
(b) contracts that have the legal form of insurance, but pass all significant insurance risk back to the policyholder through non-cancellable and enforceable mechanisms that adjust future payments by the policyholder as a direct result of insured losses, for example some financial reinsurance contracts or some group contracts (such contracts are normally non-insurance financial instruments or service contracts, see paragraphs B20 and B21).
(c) self-insurance, in other words retaining a risk that could have been covered by insurance (there is no insurance contract because there is no agreement with another party).
(d) contracts (such as gambling contracts) that require a payment if a specified uncertain future event occurs, but do not require, as a contractual precondition for payment, that the event adversely affects the policyholder. However, this does not preclude the specification of a predetermined payout to quantify the loss caused by a specified event such as death or an accident (see also paragraph B13).
(e) derivatives that expose one party to financial risk but not insurance risk, because they require that party to make payment based solely on changes in one or more of a specified interest rate, financial instrument price, commodity price, foreign exchange rate, index of prices or rates, credit rating or credit index or other variable, provided in the case of a non-financial variable that the variable is not specific to a party to the contract (see Ind AS 109).
(f) a credit-related guarantee (or letter of credit, credit derivative default contract or credit insurance contract) that requires payments even if the holder has not incurred a loss on the failure of the debtor to make payments when due (see Ind AS 109).
(g) contracts that require a payment based on a climatic, geological or other physical variable that is not specific to a party to the contract (commonly described as weather derivatives).

(h) catastrophe bonds that provide for reduced payments of principal, interest or both, based on a climatic, geological or other physical variable that is not specific to a party to the contract.

B20 If the contracts described in paragraph B19 create financial assets or financial liabilities, they are within the scope of Ind AS 109. Among other things, this means that the parties to the contract use what is sometimes called deposit accounting, which involves the following:

(a) one party recognises the consideration received as a financial liability, rather than as revenue.
(b) the other party recognises the consideration paid as a financial asset, rather than as an expense

If the contracts described in paragraph B19 do not create financial assets or financial liabilities, Ind AS 115 applies. Under Ind AS 115, revenue is recognised when (or as) an entity satisfies a performance obligation by transferring a promised good or service to a customer in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled.

 If the contracts described in paragraph B19 do not create financial assets or financial liabilities, Ind AS 18 applies. Under Ind AS 18, revenue associated with a transaction involving the rendering of services is recognised by reference to the stage of completion of the transaction if the outcome of the transaction can be estimated reliably.

B21 If the contracts described in paragraph B19 do not create financial assets or financial liabilities, Ind AS 115 applies. Under Ind AS 115, revenue is recognised when (or as) an entity satisfies a performance obligation by transferring a promised good or service to a customer in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled.

Significant insurance risk
B22 A contract is an insurance contract only if it transfers significant insurance risk. Paragraphs B8–B21 discuss insurance risk. The following paragraphs discuss the assessment of whether insurance risk is significant.

B23 Insurance risk is significant if, and only if, an insured event could cause an insurer to pay significant additional benefits in any scenario, excluding scenarios that lack commercial substance (ie have no discernible effect on the economics of the transaction). If significant additional benefits would be payable in scenarios that have commercial substance, the condition in the previous sentence may be met even if the insured event is extremely unlikely or even if the expected (ie probability-weighted) present value of contingent cash flows is a small proportion of the expected present value of all the remaining contractual cash flows.

B24 The additional benefits described in paragraph B23 refer to amounts that exceed those that would be payable if no insured event occurred (excluding scenarios that lack commercial substance). Those additional amounts include claims handling and claims assessment costs, but exclude:

(a) the loss of the ability to charge the policyholder for future services. For example, in an investment-linked life insurance contract, the death of the policyholder means that the insurer can no longer perform investment management services and collect a fee for doing so. However, this economic loss for the insurer does not reflect insurance risk, just as a mutual fund manager does not take on insurance risk in relation to the possible death of the client. Therefore, the potential loss of future investment management fees is not relevant in assessing how much insurance risk is transferred by a contract.
(b) waiver on death of charges that would be made on cancellation or surrender. Because the contract brought those charges into existence, the waiver of these charges does not compensate the policyholder for a pre-existing risk. Hence, they are not relevant in assessing how much insurance risk is transferred by a contract.
(c) a payment conditional on an event that does not cause a significant loss to the holder of the contract. For example, consider a contract that requires the issuer to pay one million rupees if an asset suffers physical damage causing an insignificant economic loss of one rupee to the holder. In this contract, the holder transfers to the insurer the insignificant risk of losing one rupee. At the same time, the contract creates non-insurance risk that the issuer will need to pay 999,999 rupees if the specified event occurs. Because the issuer does not accept significant insurance risk from the holder, this contract is not an insurance contract.
(d) possible reinsurance recoveries. The insurer accounts for these separately.

B25 An insurer shall assess the significance of insurance risk contract by contract, rather than by reference to materiality to the financial statements. Thus, insurance risk may be significant even if there is a minimal probability of material losses for a whole book of contracts. This contract-by-contract assessment makes it easier to classify a contract as an insurance contract. However, if a relatively homogeneous book of small contracts is known to consist of contracts that all transfer insurance risk, an insurer need not examine each
contract within that book to identify a few non-derivative contracts that transfer insignificant insurance risk.

B26 It follows from paragraphs B23–B25 that if a contract pays a death benefit exceeding the amount payable on survival, the contract is an insurance contract unless the additional death benefit is insignificant (judged by reference to the contract rather than to an entire book of contracts). As noted in paragraph B24(b), the waiver on death of cancellation or surrender charges is not included in this assessment if this waiver does not compensate the policyholder for a pre-existing risk. Similarly, an annuity contract that pays out regular sums for the rest of a policyholder’s life is an insurance contract, unless the aggregate life-contingent payments are insignificant.

B27 Paragraph B23 refers to additional benefits. These additional benefits could include a requirement to pay benefits earlier if the insured event occurs earlier and the payment is not adjusted for the time value of money. An example is whole life insurance for a fixed amount (in other words, insurance that provides a fixed death benefit whenever the policyholder dies, with no expiry date for the cover). It is certain that the policyholder will die, but the date of death is uncertain. The insurer will suffer a loss on those individual contracts for which policyholders die early, even if there is no overall loss on the whole book of contracts.

B28 If an insurance contract is unbundled into a deposit component and an insurance component, the significance of insurance risk transfer is assessed by reference to the insurance component. The significance of insurance risk transferred by an embedded derivative is assessed by reference to the embedded derivative.

Changes in the level of insurance risk
B29 Some contracts do not transfer any insurance risk to the issuer at inception, although they do transfer insurance risk at a later time. For example, consider a contract that provides a specified investment return and includes an option for the policyholder to use the proceeds of the investment on maturity to buy a life-contingent annuity at the current annuity rates charged by the insurer to other new annuitants when the policyholder exercises the option. The contract transfers no insurance risk to the issuer until the option is exercised, because the insurer remains free to price the annuity on a basis that reflects the insurance risk transferred to the insurer at that time. However, if the contract specifies the annuity rates (or a basis for setting the annuity rates), the contract transfers insurance risk to the issuer at inception.

B30 A contract that qualifies as an insurance contract remains an insurance contract until all rights and obligations are extinguished or expire.

Appendix 1

Note: This Appendix is not a part of the Indian Accounting Standard. The purpose of this Appendix is only to bring out the differences between Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 104 and the corresponding International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS) 4, Insurance Contracts, issued by the International Accounting Standards Board.

Comparison with IFRS 4, Insurance Contracts
1 Different terminology is used, to make it consistent with existing laws eg, term ‘balance sheet’ is used instead of ‘Statement of financial position’ and ‘Statement of profit and loss’ is used instead of ‘Statement of comprehensive income’.

2 The transitional provisions given in IFRS 4 have not been given in Ind AS 104, since all transitional provisions related to Ind ASs, wherever considered appropriate have been included in Ind AS 101, First-time Adoption of Indian Accounting Standards corresponding to IFRS 1, First-time Adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards.

3 Paragraph 39(b) has been deleted in IFRS 4 by IASB. However, paragraph number has been retained in Ind AS 104 to maintain consistency with IFRS 4.

Paragraphs 40-41F and 41H related to effective date have not been included in Ind AS 104 as these are not relevant in Indian context. However, in order to maintain consistency with paragraph numbers of IFRS 4, these paragraph numbers are retained in Ind AS 104.

Paragraphs 40 to 41F related to effective date have not been included in Ind AS 104 as these are not relevant in Indian context. However, in order to maintain consistency with paragraph numbers of IFRS 4, these paragraph numbers are retained in Ind AS 104.

Substituted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2018 dated 28.03.2018 effective from 01.04.2018. To view the notification, link4]Click Here[/link4]
Substituted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2016, GSR 365(E) dated 30.03.2016. To view the notification,Click Here
Substituted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2019 dated 30.03.2019. To view the Notification, Click Here.
Substituted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2018 dated 28.03.2018 effective from 01.04.2018. To view the notification,Click Here
Substituted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2016, GSR 365(E) dated 30.03.2016. To view the notification,Click Here
Inserted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting
Standards) Amendment Rules, 2018 dated 28.03.2018 effective from 01.04.2018. To view the notification,Click Here
Inserted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2019 dated 30.03.2019. To view the Notification, Click Here.
Inserted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2019 dated 30.03.2019. To view the Notification, Click Here.
Substituted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2018 dated 28.03.2018 effective from 01.04.2018. To view the notification,Click Here
Substituted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2016, GSR 365(E) dated 30.03.2016. To view the notification,Click Here
Substituted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2018 dated 28.03.2018 effective from 01.04.2018. To view the notification,Click Here
Substituted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2016, GSR 365(E) dated 30.03.2016. To view the notification,Click Here
Substituted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2018 dated 28.03.2018 effective from 01.04.2018. To view the notification,Click Here
Substituted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2016, GSR 365(E) dated 30.03.2016. To view the notification,Click Here
Substituted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2019 dated 30.03.2019. To view the Notification, Click Here.
Inserted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2018 dated 28.03.2018 effective from 01.04.2018. To view the notification,Click Here

Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 105

Non-current Assets Held for Sale and Discontinued Operations

(This Indian Accounting Standard includes paragraphs set in bold type and plain type, which have equal authority. Paragraphs in bold type indicate the main principles.)

Objective

1. The objective of this Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) is to specify the accounting for assets held for sale, and the presentation and disclosure of discontinued operations. In particular, this Ind AS requires:

(a) assets that meet the criteria to be classified as held for sale to be measured at the lower of carrying amount and fair value less costs to sell, and depreciation on such assets to cease; and

(b) assets that meet the criteria to be classified as held for sale to be presented separately in the balance sheet and the results of discontinued operations to be presented separately in the statement of profit and loss.

Scope

2. The classification and presentation requirements of this Ind AS apply to all recognised non-current assets8 and to all disposal groups of an entity. The measurement requirements of this Ind AS apply to all recognised non-current assets and disposal groups (as set out in paragraph 4), except for those assets listed in paragraph 5 which shall continue to be measured in accordance with the Standard noted.

3. Assets classified as non-current in accordance with Ind AS 1, Presentation of Financial Statements, shall not be reclassified as current assets until they meet the criteria to be classified as held for sale in accordance with this Ind AS. Assets of a class that an entity would normally regard as non-current that are acquired exclusively with a view to resale shall not be classified as current unless they meet the criteria to be classified as held for sale in accordance with this Ind AS.

4. Sometimes an entity disposes of a group of assets, possibly with some directly associated liabilities, together in a single transaction. Such a disposal group may be a group of cash-generating units, a single cash generating unit, or part of a cash-generating unit.9 The group may include any assets and any liabilities of the entity, including current assets, current liabilities and assets excluded by paragraph 5 from the measurement
requirements of this Ind AS. If a non-current asset within the scope of the measurement requirements of this Ind AS is part of a disposal group, the measurement requirements of this Ind AS apply to the group as a whole, so that the group is measured at the lower of its carrying amount and fair value less costs to sell. The requirements for measuring the individual assets and liabilities within the disposal group are set out in paragraphs 18, 19 and 23.

5. The measurement provisions of this Ind AS10 do not apply to the following assets, which are covered by the Ind ASs listed, either as individual assets or as part of a disposal group:

(a) deferred tax assets (Ind AS 12, Income Taxes).

(b) assets arising from employee benefits (Ind AS 19, Employee Benefits).

(c) financial assets within the scope of Ind AS 109, Financial Instruments.

(d) [Refer Appendix 1]

(e) non-current assets that are measured at fair value less costs to sell in accordance with Ind AS 41, Agriculture.

(f) contractual rights under insurance contracts as defined in Ind AS 104, Insurance Contracts.

5A. The classification, presentation and measurement requirements in this Ind AS applicable to a non-current asset (or disposal group) that is classified as held for sale apply also to a non-current asset (or disposal group) that is classified as held for distribution to owners acting in their capacity as owners (held for distribution to owners).

5B. This Ind AS specifies the disclosures required in respect of non-current assets (or disposal groups) classified as held for sale or discontinued operations. Disclosures in other Ind ASs do not apply to such assets (or disposal groups) unless those Ind ASs require:

(a) specific disclosures in respect of non-current assets (or disposal groups) classified as held for sale or discontinued operations; or

(b) disclosures about measurement of assets and liabilities within a disposal group that are not within the scope of the measurement requirement of Ind AS 105 and such disclosures are not already provided in the other notes to the financial statements.

Additional disclosures about non-current assets (or disposal groups) classified as held for sale or discontinued operations may be necessary to comply with the general requirements of Ind AS 1, in particular paragraphs 15 and 125 of that Standard.

Classification of non-current assets (or disposal groups) as held for sale or as held for distribution to owners

6. An entity shall classify a non-current asset (or disposal group) as held for sale if its carrying amount will be recovered principally through a sale transaction rather than through continuing use.

7. For this to be the case, the asset (or disposal group) must be available for immediate sale in its present condition subject only to terms that are usual and customary for sales of such assets (or disposal groups) and its sale must be highly probable. Thus, an asset (or disposal group) cannot be classified as a non-current asset (or disposal group) held for sale, if the entity intends to sell it in a distant future.

8. For the sale to be highly probable, the appropriate level of management must be committed to a plan to sell the asset (or disposal group), and an active programme to locate a buyer and complete the plan must have been initiated. Further, the asset (or disposal group) must be actively marketed for sale at a price that is reasonable in relation to its current fair value. In addition, the sale should be expected to qualify for recognition as a completed sale within one year from the date of classification, except as permitted by
paragraph 9, and actions required to complete the plan should indicate that it is unlikely that significant changes to the plan will be made or that the plan will be withdrawn. The probability of shareholders’ approval (if required in the jurisdiction) should be considered as part of the assessment of whether the sale is highly probable.

8A An entity that is committed to a sale plan involving loss of control of a subsidiary shall classify all the assets and liabilities of that subsidiary as held for sale when the criteria set out in paragraphs 6–8 are met, regardless of whether the entity will retain a non-controlling interest in its former subsidiary after the sale.

9. Events or circumstances may extend the period to complete the sale beyond one year. An extension of the period required to complete a sale does not preclude an asset (or disposal group) from being classified as held for sale if the delay is caused by events or circumstances beyond the entity’s control and there is sufficient evidence that the entity remains committed to its plan to sell the asset (or disposal group). This will be the
case when the criteria in Appendix B are met.

10. Sale transactions include exchanges of non-current assets for other non-current assets when the exchange has commercial substance in accordance with Ind AS 16, Property, Plant and Equipment.

11. When an entity acquires a non-current asset (or disposal group) exclusively with a view to its subsequent disposal, it shall classify the non-current asset (or disposal group) as held for sale at the acquisition date only if the one-year requirement in paragraph 8 is met (except as permitted by paragraph 9) and it is highly probable that any other criteria in paragraphs 7 and 8 that are not met at that date will be met within a short period following the acquisition (usually within three months).

12. If the criteria in paragraphs 7 and 8 are met after the reporting period, an entity shall not classify a non-current asset (or disposal group) as held for sale in those financial statements when issued. However, when those criteria are met after the reporting period but before the approval of the financial statements for issue, the entity shall disclose the information specified in paragraph 41(a), (b) and (d) in the notes.

12A. A non-current asset (or disposal group) is classified as held for distribution to owners when the entity is committed to distribute the asset (or disposal group) to the owners. For this to be the case, the assets must be available for immediate distribution in their present condition and the distribution must be highly probable. For the distribution to be highly probable, actions to complete the distribution must have been initiated and should be expected to be completed within one year from the date of classification. Actions required to complete the distribution should indicate that it is unlikely that significant changes to the distribution will be made or that the distribution will be withdrawn. The probability of shareholders’ approval (if required in the jurisdiction) should be considered as part of the assessment of whether the distribution is highly probable.

Non-current assets that are to be abandoned

13. An entity shall not classify as held for sale a non-current asset (or disposal group) that is to be abandoned. This is because its carrying amount will be recovered principally through continuing use. However, if the disposal group to be abandoned meets the criteria in paragraph 32(a)–(c), the entity shall present the results and cash flows of the disposal group as discontinued operations in accordance with paragraphs 33 and 34 at the date on which it ceases to be used. Non-current assets (or disposal groups) to be abandoned include non-current assets (or disposal groups) that are to be used to the end of their economic life and non-current assets (or disposal groups) that are to be closed rather than sold.

14. An entity shall not account for a non-current asset that has been temporarily taken out of use as if it had been abandoned.

Measurement of non-current assets (or disposal groups) classified as held for sale

Measurement of a non-current asset (or disposal group)

15. An entity shall measure a non-current asset (or disposal group) classified as held for sale at the lower of its carrying amount and fair value less costs to sell.

15A An entity shall measure a non-current asset (or disposal group) classified as held for distribution to owners at the lower of its carrying amount and fair value less costs to distribute.

16. If a newly acquired asset (or disposal group) meets the criteria to be classified as held for sale (see paragraph 11), applying paragraph 15 will result in the asset (or disposal group) being measured on initial recognition at the lower of its carrying amount had it not been so classified (for example, cost) and fair value less costs to sell. Hence, if the asset (or disposal group) is acquired as part of a business combination, it shall be measured
at fair value less costs to sell.

17. When the sale is expected to occur beyond one year, the entity shall measure the costs to sell at their present value. Any increase in the present value of the costs to sell that arises from the passage of time shall be presented in profit or loss as a financing cost.

18. Immediately before the initial classification of the asset (or disposal group) as held for sale, the carrying amounts of the asset (or all the assets and liabilities in the group) shall be measured in accordance with applicable Ind ASs.

19. On subsequent remeasurement of a disposal group, the carrying amounts of any assets and liabilities that are not within the scope of the measurement requirements of this Ind AS, but are included in a disposal group classified as held for sale, shall be remeasured in accordance with applicable Ind ASs before the fair value less costs to sell of the disposal group is remeasured.

Recognition of impairment losses and reversals

20. An entity shall recognise an impairment loss for any initial or subsequent write-down of the asset (or disposal group) to fair value less costs to sell, to the extent that it has not been recognised in accordance with paragraph 19.

21. An entity shall recognise a gain for any subsequent increase in fair value less costs to sell of an asset, but not in excess of the cumulative impairment loss that has been recognised either in accordance with this Ind AS or previously in accordance with Ind AS 36, Impairment of Assets.

22. An entity shall recognise a gain for any subsequent increase in fair value less costs to sell of a disposal group:

(a) to the extent that it has not been recognised in accordance with paragraph 19; but

(b) not in excess of the cumulative impairment loss that has been recognised, either in accordance with this Ind AS or previously in accordance with Ind AS 36, on the non-current assets that are within the scope of the measurement requirements of this Ind AS.

23. The impairment loss (or any subsequent gain) recognised for a disposal group shall reduce (or increase) the carrying amount of the non-current assets in the group that are within the scope of the measurement requirements of this Ind AS, in the order of allocation set out in paragraphs 104(a) and (b) and 122 of Ind AS 36 .

24. A gain or loss not previously recognised by the date of the sale of a non-current asset (or disposal group) shall be recognised at the date of derecognition. Requirements relating to derecognition are set out in:

(a) paragraphs 67–72 of Ind AS 16 for property, plant and equipment, and

(b) paragraphs 112–117 of Ind AS 38, Intangible Assets, for intangible assets.

25. An entity shall not depreciate (or amortise) a non-current asset while it is classified as held for sale or while it is part of a disposal group classified as held for sale. Interest and other expenses attributable to the liabilities of a disposal group classified as held for sale shall continue to be recognised.

If an entity has classified an asset (or disposal group) as held for sale or as held for distribution to owners, but the criteria in paragraphs 7–9 (for held for sale) or in paragraph 12A (for held for distribution to owners) are no longer met, the entity shall cease to classify the asset (or disposal group) as held for sale or held for distribution to owners (respectively). In such cases an entity shall follow the guidance in paragraphs 27–29 to account for this change except when paragraph 26A applies.

Changes to a plan of sale

26. If an entity has classified an asset (or disposal group) as held for sale, but the criteria in paragraphs 7–9 are no longer met, the entity shall cease to classify the asset (or disposal group) as held for sale.

If an entity reclassifies an asset (or disposal group) directly from being held for sale to being held for distribution to owners, or directly from being held for distribution to owners to being held for sale, then the change in classification is considered a continuation of the original plan of disposal. The entity:

(a) shall not follow the guidance in paragraphs 27–29 to account for this change. The entity shall apply the classification, presentation and measurement requirements in this Ind AS that are applicable to the new method of disposal.

(b) shall measure the non-current asset (or disposal group) by following the requirements in paragraph 15 (if reclassified as held for sale) or 15A (if reclassified as held for distribution to owners) and recognise any reduction or increase in the fair value less costs to sell/costs to distribute of the non-current asset (or disposal group) by following the requirements in paragraphs 20–25.

(c) shall not change the date of classification in accordance with paragraphs 8 and 12A. This does not preclude an extension of the period required to complete a sale or a distribution to owners if the conditions in paragraph 9 are met.

The entity shall measure a non-current asset (or disposal group) that ceases to be classified as held for sale or as held for distribution to owners (or ceases to be included in a disposal group classified as held for sale or as held for distribution to owners) at the lower of:

(a) its carrying amount before the asset (or disposal group) was classified as held for sale or as held for distribution to owners, adjusted for any depreciation, amortisation or revaluations that would have been recognised had the asset (or disposal group) not been classified as held for sale or as held for distribution to owners, and

(b) its recoverable amount at the date of the subsequent decision not to sell or distribute

27. The entity shall measure a non-current asset that ceases to be classified as held for sale (or ceases to be included in a disposal group classified as held for sale) at the lower of:

(a) its carrying amount before the asset (or disposal group) was classified as held for sale, adjusted for any depreciation, amortisation or revaluations that would have been recognised had the asset (or disposal group) not been classified as held for sale, and

(b) its recoverable amount at the date of the subsequent decision not to sell.

The entity shall include any required adjustment to the carrying amount of a non-current asset that ceases to be classified as held for sale or as held for distribution to owners in profit or loss from continuing operations in the period in which the criteria in paragraphs 7–9 or 12A, respectively, are no longer met. Financial statements for the periods since classification as held for sale or as held for distribution to owners shall be amended accordingly if the disposal group or non-current asset that ceases to be classified as held for sale or as held for distribution to owners is a subsidiary, joint operation, joint venture, associate, or a portion of an interest in a joint venture or an associate. The entity shall present that adjustment in the same caption in the statement of profit and loss used to present a gain or loss, if any, recognised in accordance with paragraph 37.

28. The entity shall include any required adjustment to the carrying amount of a non-current asset that ceases to be classified as held for sale in profit or loss from continuing operations in the period in which the criteria in paragraphs 7–9 are no longer met. Financial statements for the periods since classification as held for sale shall be amended accordingly if the disposal group or non-current asset that ceases to be classified as held for sale is a subsidiary, joint operation, joint venture, associate, or a portion of an interest in a joint venture or an associate. The entity shall present that adjustment in the same caption in the statement of profit and loss used to present a gain or loss, if any, recognised in accordance with paragraph 37.

If an entity removes an individual asset or liability from a disposal group classified as held for sale, the remaining assets and liabilities of the disposal group to be sold shall continue to be measured as a group only if the group meets the criteria in paragraphs 7–9. If an entity removes an individual asset or liability from a disposal group classified as held for distribution to owners, the remaining assets and liabilities of the disposal group to be distributed shall continue to be measured as a group only if the group meets the criteria in paragraph 12A. Otherwise, the remaining non-current assets of the group that individually meet the criteria to be classified as held for sale (or as held for distribution to owners) shall be measured individually at the lower of their carrying amounts and fair values less costs to sell (or costs to distribute) at that date. Any non-current assets that do not meet the criteria for held for sale shall cease to be classified as held for sale in accordance with paragraph 26. Any non-current assets that do not meet the criteria for held for distribution to owners shall cease to be classified as held for distribution to owners in accordance with paragraph 26.

29. If an entity removes an individual asset or liability from a disposal group classified as held for sale, the remaining assets and liabilities of the disposal group to be sold shall continue to be measured as a group only if the group meets the criteria in paragraphs 7–9. Otherwise, the remaining non-current assets of the group that individually meet the criteria to be classified as held for sale shall be measured individually at the lower
of their carrying amounts and fair values less costs to sell at that date. Any non-current assets that do not meet the criteria shall cease to be classified as held for sale in accordance with paragraph 26.

Presentation and disclosure

30. An entity shall present and disclose information that enables users of the financial statements to evaluate the financial effects of discontinued operations and disposals of non-current assets (or disposal groups).

Presenting discontinued operations

31. A component of an entity comprises operations and cash flows that can be clearly distinguished, operationally and for financial reporting purposes, from the rest of the entity. In other words, a component of an entity will have been a cash-generating unit or a group of cash-generating units while being held for use.

32. A discontinued operation is a component of an entity that either has been disposed of, or is classified as held for sale, and

(a) represents a separate major line of business or geographical area of operations,

(b) is part of a single co-ordinated plan to dispose of a separate major line of business or geographical area of operations or

(c) is a subsidiary acquired exclusively with a view to resale.

33. An entity shall disclose:

(a) a single amount in the statement of profit and loss comprising the total of:

(i) the post-tax profit or loss of discontinued operations and

(ii) the post-tax gain or loss recognised on the measurement to fair value less costs to sell or on the disposal of the assets or disposal group(s) constituting the discontinued operation.

(b) an analysis of the single amount in (a) into:

(i) the revenue, expenses and pre-tax profit or loss of discontinued operations;

(ii) the related income tax expense as required by paragraph 81(h) of Ind AS 12; and

(iii) the gain or loss recognised on the measurement to fair value less costs to sell or on the disposal of the assets or disposal group(s) constituting the discontinued operation.

(iv) the related income tax expense as required by paragraph 81(h) of Ind AS 12.

The analysis may be presented in the notes or in the statement of profit and loss. If it is presented in the statement of profit and loss it shall be presented in a section identified as relating to discontinued operations, ie separately from continuing operations. The analysis is not required for disposal groups that are newly acquired subsidiaries that meet the criteria to be classified as held for sale on acquisition (see paragraph 11).

(c) the net cash flows attributable to the operating, investing and financing activities of discontinued operations. These disclosures may be presented either in the notes or in the financial statements. These disclosures are not required for disposal groups that are newly acquired subsidiaries that meet the criteria to be classified as held for sale on acquisition (see paragraph 11).

(d) the amount of income from continuing operations and from discontinued operations attributable to owners of the parent. These disclosures may be presented either in the notes or in the statement of profit and loss.

33A. [Refer Appendix 1]

34. An entity shall re-present the disclosures in paragraph 33 for prior periods presented in the financial statements so that the disclosures relate to all operations that have been discontinued by the end of the reporting period for the latest period presented.

35. Adjustments in the current period to amounts previously presented in discontinued operations that are directly related to the disposal of a discontinued operation in a prior period shall be classified separately in discontinued operations. The nature and amount of such adjustments shall be disclosed. Examples of circumstances in which these adjustments may arise include the following:

(a) the resolution of uncertainties that arise from the terms of the disposal transaction, such as the resolution of purchase price adjustments and indemnification issues with the purchaser.

(b) the resolution of uncertainties that arise from and are directly related to the operations of the component before its disposal, such as environmental and product warranty obligations retained by the seller.

(c) the settlement of employee benefit plan obligations, provided that the settlement is directly related to the disposal transaction.

36. If an entity ceases to classify a component of an entity as held for sale, the results of operations of the component previously presented in discontinued operations in accordance with paragraphs 33–35 shall be reclassified and included in income from continuing operations for all periods presented. The amounts for prior periods shall be described as having been re-presented.

36A. An entity that is committed to a sale plan involving loss of control of a subsidiary shall disclose the information required in paragraphs 33–36 when the subsidiary is a disposal group that meets the definition of a discontinued operation in accordance with paragraph 32.

Gains or losses relating to continuing operations

37. Any gain or loss on the remeasurement of a non-current asset (or disposal group) classified as held for sale that does not meet the definition of a discontinued operation shall be included in profit or loss from continuing operations.

Presentation of a non-current asset or disposal group classified as held for sale

38. An entity shall present a non-current asset classified as held for sale and the assets of a disposal group classified as held for sale separately from other assets in the balance sheet. The liabilities of a disposal group classified as held for sale shall be presented separately from other liabilities in the balance sheet. Those assets and liabilities shall not be offset and presented as a single amount. The major classes of assets and liabilities classified as held for sale shall be separately disclosed either in the balance sheet or in the notes, except as permitted by paragraph 39. An entity shall present separately any cumulative income or expense recognised in other comprehensive income relating to a non-current asset (or disposal group) classified as held for sale.

39. If the disposal group is a newly acquired subsidiary that meets the criteria to be classified as held for sale on acquisition (see paragraph 11), disclosure of the major classes of assets and liabilities is not required.

40. An entity shall not reclassify or re-present amounts presented for non-current assets or for the assets and liabilities of disposal groups classified as held for sale in the balance sheets for prior periods to reflect the classification in the balance sheet for the latest period presented.

Additional disclosures

41. An entity shall disclose the following information in the notes in the period in which a non-current asset (or disposal group) has been either classified as held for sale or sold:

(a) a description of the non-current asset (or disposal group);

(b) a description of the facts and circumstances of the sale, or leading to the expected disposal, and the expected manner and timing of that disposal;

42. If either paragraph 26 or paragraph 29 applies, an entity shall disclose, in the period of the decision to change the plan to sell the non-current asset (or disposal group), a description of the facts and circumstances leading to the decision and the effect of the decision on the results of operations for the period and any prior periods presented.

Appendix A

Defined terms

This appendix is an integral part of the Ind AS.

cash-generating unit The smallest identifiable group of assets that generates cash inflows that are largely independent of the cash inflows from other assets or groups of assets.

component of an entity Operations and cash flows that can be clearly distinguished, operationally and for financial reporting purposes, from the rest of the entity.

costs to sell The incremental costs directly attributable to the disposal of an asset (or disposal group), excluding finance costs and income tax expense.

current asset An entity shall classify an asset as current when:

(a) it expects to realise the asset, or intends to sell or consume it, in its normal
operating cycle;

(b) it holds the asset primarily for the purpose of trading;

(c) it expects to realise the asset within twelve months after the reporting period;
or

(d) the asset is cash or a cash equivalent (as defined in Ind AS 7) unless the asset
is restricted from being exchanged or used to settle a liability for at least
twelve months after the reporting period.

discontinued operation A component of an entity that either has been disposed of or is classified as held for sale and:

(a) represents a separate major line of business or geographical area of
operations,

(b) is part of a single co-ordinated plan to dispose of a separate major line of
business or geographical area of operations or

(c) is a subsidiary acquired exclusively with a view to resale.

disposal group A group of assets to be disposed of, by sale or otherwise, together as a group in a single transaction, and liabilities directly associated with those assets that will be transferred in the transaction. The group includes goodwill acquired in a business combination if the group is a cash-generating unit to which goodwill has been allocated in
accordance with the requirements of paragraphs 80–87 of Ind AS 36, Impairment of
Assets, or if it is an operation within such a cash-generating unit.

fair value Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a
liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date.
(See Ind AS 113.)

firm purchase commitment An agreement with an unrelated party, binding on both parties and usually legally enforceable, that (a) specifies all significant terms, including the price and timing of the transactions, and (b) includes a disincentive for non-performance that is sufficiently large to make performance highly probable.

highly probable Significantly more likely than probable

non-current asset An asset that does not meet the definition of a current asset.

probable More likely than not.

recoverable amount The higher of an asset’s fair value less costs to sell and its value in use.

value in use The present value of estimated future cash flows expected to arise from the continuing use of an asset and from its disposal at the end of its useful life.

Appendix B

Application supplement

This appendix is an integral part of the Ind AS.

Extension of the period required to complete a sale

B1. As noted in paragraph 9, an extension of the period required to complete a sale does not preclude an asset (or disposal group) from being classified as held for sale if the delay is caused by events or circumstances beyond the entity’s control and there is sufficient evidence that the entity remains committed to its plan to sell the asset (or disposal group). An exception to the one-year requirement in paragraph 8 shall therefore apply in the
following situations in which such events or circumstances arise:

(a) at the date an entity commits itself to a plan to sell a non-current asset (or disposal group) it reasonably expects that others (not a buyer) will impose conditions on the transfer of the asset (or disposal group) that will extend the period required to complete the sale, and:

(i) actions necessary to respond to those conditions cannot be initiated until after a firm purchase commitment is obtained, and

(ii) a firm purchase commitment is highly probable within one year.

(b) an entity obtains a firm purchase commitment and, as a result, a buyer or others unexpectedly impose conditions on the transfer of a non-current asset (or disposal group) previously classified as held for sale that will extend the period required to complete the sale, and:

(i) timely actions necessary to respond to the conditions have been taken, and

(ii) a favourable resolution of the delaying factors is expected.

(c) during the initial one-year period, circumstances arise that were previously considered unlikely and, as a result, a non-current asset (or disposal group) previously classified as held for sale is not sold by the end of that period, and:

(i) during the initial one-year period the entity took action necessary to respond to the change in circumstances,

(ii) the non-current asset (or disposal group) is being actively marketed at a price that is reasonable, given the change in circumstances, and

(iii) the criteria in paragraphs 7 and 8 are met.

Appendix C

References to matters contained in other Indian Accounting Standards

This Appendix is an integral part of the Ind AS.

Appendix A, Distributions of Non-cash Assets to Owners, contained in Ind AS 10, Events after the Reporting Period.

Appendix 1

Note: This appendix is not a part of the Indian Accounting Standard. The purpose of this Appendix is only to bring out the major differences, if any, between Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 105 and the corresponding International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS) 5, Non-current Assets Held for Sale and Discontinued Operations, issued by the International Accounting Standards Board.

Comparison with IFRS 5, Non-current Assets Held for Sale and Discontinued Operations

1 The transitional provisions given in IFRS 5 have not been given in Ind AS 105, since all transitional provisions related to Ind ASs, wherever considered appropriate have been included in Ind AS 101, First-time Adoption of Indian Accounting Standards, corresponding to IFRS 1, First-time Adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards.

2 Different terminology is used in this standard, eg, the term ‘balance sheet’ is used instead of ‘Statement of financial position’ and ‘Statement of profit and loss’ is used instead of ‘Statement of comprehensive income’. Words ‘approval of the financial statements for issue’ have been used instead of ‘authorisation of the financial statements for issue’ in the context of financial statements considered for the purpose of events after the reporting period.

3 Requirements regarding presentation of discontinued operations in the separate income statement, where separate income statement is presented under paragraph 33A of IFRS 5 have been deleted. This change is consequential to the removal of option regarding two statement approach in Ind AS 1. Ind AS 1 requires that the components of profit or loss and components of other comprehensive income shall be presented as a part of the statement of profit and loss. However, paragraph number 33A has been retained in Ind AS 105 to
maintain consistency with paragraph numbers of IFRS 5.

4 Paragraph 5(d) of IFRS 5 deals with non-current assets that are accounted for in accordance with the fair value model in IAS 40, Investment Property. Since Ind AS 40 prohibits the use of fair value model, this paragraph is deleted in Ind AS 105.

Paragraph 7 prescribes the conditions for classification of a non-current asset (or disposal group) as held for sale. A clarification has been added in Paragraph 7 that the non-current asset (or disposal group) cannot be classified as held for sale, if the entity intends to sell it in a distant future.

Substituted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2016, GSR 365(E) dated 30.03.2016. To view the notification,Click Here
Substituted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2016, GSR 365(E) dated 30.03.2016. To view the notification,Click Here
Inserted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2016, GSR 365(E) dated 30.03.2016. To view the notification,Click Here
Substituted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2016, GSR 365(E) dated 30.03.2016. To view the notification,Click Here
Substituted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2016, GSR 365(E) dated 30.03.2016. To view the notification,Click Here
Substituted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2016, GSR 365(E) dated 30.03.2016. To view the notification,Click Here

Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 106


Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 107

Financial Instruments: Disclosures

(This Indian Accounting Standard includes paragraphs set in bold type and plain type, which have equal authority.
Paragraphs in bold type indicate the main principles.)

Objective

1 The objective of this Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) is to require entities to provide disclosures in their financial statements that enable users to evaluate:

(a) the significance of financial instruments for the entity’s financial position and performance; and

(b) the nature and extent of risks arising from financial instruments to which the entity is exposed during the period and at the end of the reporting period, and how the entity manages those risks.

2 The principles in this Ind AS complement the principles for recognising, measuring and presenting financial assets and financial liabilities in Ind AS 32, Financial Instruments: Presentation, and Ind AS 109, Financial Instruments.

Scope

3 This Ind AS shall be applied by all entities to all types of financial instruments, except:

(a) those interests in subsidiaries, associates or joint ventures that are accounted for in accordance with Ind AS 110, Consolidated Financial Statements, Ind AS 27, Separate Financial Statements or Ind AS 28, Investments in Associates and Joint Ventures. However, in some cases, Ind AS 110, Ind AS 27 or Ind AS 28 require or permit an entity to account for an interest in a subsidiary, associate or joint venture using Ind AS 109; in those cases, entities shall apply the requirements of this Ind AS and, for those measured at fair value, the requirements of Ind AS 113 Fair Value Measurement. Entities shall also apply this Ind AS to all derivatives linked to interests in subsidiaries, associates or joint ventures unless the derivative meets the definition of an equity instrument in Ind AS 32.

(b) employers’ rights and obligations arising from employee benefit plans, to which Ind AS 19, Employee Benefits, applies.

(c) [Refer Appendix 1]

(d) insurance contracts as defined in Ind AS 104, Insurance Contracts. However, this Ind AS applies to derivatives that are embedded in insurance contracts if Ind AS 109 requires the entity to account for them separately. Moreover, an issuer shall apply this Ind AS to financial guarantee contracts if the issuer applies Ind AS 109 in recognising and measuring the contracts, but shall apply Ind AS 104 if the issuer elects, in accordance with paragraph 4(d) of Ind AS 104, to apply Ind AS 104 in recognising
and measuring them.

(e) financial instruments, contracts and obligations under share-based payment transactions to which Ind AS 102, Share-based Payment, applies, except that this Ind AS applies to contracts within the scope of Ind AS 109.

(f) instruments that are required to be classified as equity instruments in accordance with paragraphs 16A and 16B or paragraphs 16C and 16D of Ind AS 32.

4 This Ind AS applies to recognised and unrecognised financial instruments. Recognised financial instruments include financial assets and financial liabilities that are within the scope of Ind AS 109. Unrecognised financial instruments include some financial instruments that, although outside the scope of Ind AS 109, are within the scope of this Ind AS.

5 This Ind AS applies to contracts to buy or sell a non-financial item that are within the scope of Ind AS 109.

The credit risk disclosure requirements in paragraphs 35A to 35N apply to those rights that Ind AS 115 , Revenue from Contracts with Customers specifies are accounted for in accordance with Ind AS 109 for the purposes of recognising impairment gains or losses. Any reference to financial assets or financial instruments in these paragraphs shall include those rights unless otherwise specified.

The credit risk disclosure requirements in paragraph 35A–35N apply to those rights that Ind AS 18, Revenue specifies are accounted for in accordance with Ind AS 109 for the purposes of recognising impairment gains or losses. Any reference to financial assets or financial instruments in these paragraphs shall include those rights unless otherwise specified.

5A The credit risk disclosure requirements in paragraph 35A–35N apply to those rights that Ind AS 115 Revenue from Contracts with Customers specifies are accounted for in accordance with Ind AS 109 for the purposes of recognising impairment gains or losses. Any reference to financial assets or financial instruments in these paragraphs shall include those rights unless otherwise specified.

Classes of financial instruments and level of disclosure

6 When this Ind AS requires disclosures by class of financial instrument, an entity shall group financial instruments into classes that are appropriate to the nature of the information disclosed and that take into account the characteristics of those financial instruments. An entity shall provide sufficient information to permit reconciliation to the line items presented in the balance sheet.

Significance of financial instruments for financial position and performance

7 An entity shall disclose information that enables users of its financial statements to evaluate the significance of financial instruments for its financial position and performance.

Balance sheet
Categories of financial assets and financial liabilities 

8 The carrying amounts of each of the following categories, as specified in Ind AS 109, shall be disclosed either in the balance sheet or in the notes:

(a) financial assets measured at fair value through profit or loss, showing separately (i) those designated as such upon initial recognition or subsequently in accordance with paragraph 6.7.1 of Ind AS 109 and (ii) those mandatorily measured at fair value through profit or loss in accordance with Ind AS 109.

(b)- [Refer Appendix 1]

(d)

(e) financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss, showing separately (i) those designated as such upon initial recognition or subsequently in accordance with paragraph 6.7.1 of Ind AS 109 and (ii) those that meet the definition of held for trading in Ind AS 109 .

(f) financial assets measured at amortised cost.

(g) financial liabilities measured at amortised cost.

(h) financial assets measured at fair value through other comprehensive income, showing separately (i) financial assets that are measured at fair value through other comprehensive income in accordance with paragraph 4.1.2A of Ind AS 109; and (ii) investments in equity instruments designated as such upon initial recognition in accordance with paragraph 5.7.5 of Ind AS 109.

Financial assets or financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss

9 If the entity has designated as measured at fair value through profit or loss a financial asset (or group of financial assets) that would otherwise be measured at fair value through other comprehensive income or amortised cost, it shall disclose:

(a) the maximum exposure to credit risk (see paragraph 36(a)) of the financial asset (or group of financial assets) at the end of the reporting period.

(b) the amount by which any related credit derivatives or similar instruments mitigate that maximum exposure to credit risk [see paragraph 36(b)].

(c) the amount of change, during the period and cumulatively, in the fair value of the financial asset (or group of financial assets) that is attributable to changes in the credit risk of the financial asset determined either:

(i) as the amount of change in its fair value that is not attributable to changes in market conditions that give rise to market risk ; or

(ii) using an alternative method the entity believes more faithfully represents the amount of change in its fair value that is attributable to changes in the credit risk of the asset.

Changes in market conditions that give rise to market risk include changes in an observed (benchmark) interest rate, commodity price, foreign exchange rate or index of prices or rates.

(d) the amount of the change in the fair value of any related credit derivatives or similar instruments that has occurred during the period and cumulatively since the financial asset was designated.

10 If the entity has designated a financial liability as at fair value through profit or loss in accordance with paragraph 4.2.2 of Ind AS 109 and is required to present the effects of changes in that liability’s credit risk in other comprehensive income ( see paragraph 5.7.7 of Ind AS 109), it shall disclose:

(a) the amount of change, cumulatively, in the fair value of the financial liability that is attributable to changes in the credit risk of that liability (see paragraphs B5.7.13-B5.7.20 of Ind AS 109 for guidance on determining the effects of changes in a liability’s credit risk).

(b) the difference between the financial liability’s carrying amount and the amount the entity would be contractually required to pay at maturity to the holder of the obligation.

(c) any transfers of the cumulative gain or loss within equity during the period including the reason for such transfers.

(d) if a liability is derecognised during the period, the amount (if any) presented in other comprehensive income that was realised at derecognition.

10A If an entity has designated a financial liability as at fair value through profit or loss in accordance with paragraph 4.2.2 of Ind AS 109 and is required to present all changes in the fair value of that liability (including the effects of changes in the credit risk of the liability) in profit or loss (see paragraphs 5.7.7 and 5.7.8 of Ind AS 109), it shall disclose:

(a) the amount of change, during the period and cumulatively, in the fair value of the financial liability that is attributable to changes in the credit risk of that liability (see paragraphs B5.7.13–B5.7.20 of Ind AS 109 for guidance on determining the effects of changes in a liability’s credit risk); and

(b) the difference between the financial liability’s carrying amount and the amount the entity would be contractually required to pay at maturity to the holder of the obligation.

11 The entity shall also disclose:

(a) a detailed description of the methods used to comply with the requirements in paragraphs 9(c), 10(a) and 10A(a) and paragraph 5.7.7(a) of Ind AS 109, including an explanation of why the method is appropriate.

(b) if the entity believes that the disclosure it has given, either in the balance sheet or in the notes, to comply with the requirements in paragraph 9(c), 10(a) or 10A(a) or paragraph 5.7.7(a) of Ind AS 109 does not faithfully represent the change in the fair value of the financial asset or financial liability attributable to changes in its credit risk, the reasons for reaching this conclusion and the factors it believes are relevant.

(c) a detailed description of the methodology or methodologies used to determine whether presenting the effects of changes in a liability’s credit risk in other comprehensive income would create or enlarge an accounting mismatch in profit or loss (see paragraphs 5.7.7 and 5.7.8 of Ind AS 109). If an entity is required to present the effects of changes in a liability’s credit risk in profit or loss (see paragraph
5.7.8 of Ind AS 109), the disclosure must include a detailed description of the economic relationship described in paragraph B5.7.6 of Ind AS 109.

Investments in equity instruments designated at fair value through other comprehensive income

11A If an entity has designated investments in equity instruments to be measured at fair value through other comprehensive income, as permitted by paragraph 5.7.5 of Ind AS 109, it shall disclose:

(a) which investments in equity instruments have been designated to be measured at fair value through other comprehensive income.

(b) the reasons for using this presentation alternative.

(c) the fair value of each such investment at the end of the reporting period.

(d) dividends recognised during the period, showing separately those related to investments derecognised during the reporting period and those related to investments held at the end of the reporting period.

(e) any transfers of the cumulative gain or loss within equity during the period including the reason for such transfers.

11B If an entity derecognised investments in equity instruments measured at fair value through other comprehensive income during the reporting period, it shall disclose:

(a) the reasons for disposing of the investments.

(b) the fair value of the investments at the date of derecognition.

(c) the cumulative gain or loss on disposal.

Reclassification

12- [Refer Appendix 1]

12A

12B An entity shall disclose if, in the current or previous reporting periods, it has reclassified any financial assets in accordance with paragraph 4.4.1 of Ind AS 109. For each such event, an entity shall disclose:

(a) the date of reclassification.

(b) a detailed explanation of the change in business model and a qualitative description of its effect on the entity’s financial statements.

(c) the amount reclassified into and out of each category.

12C For each reporting period following reclassification until derecognition, an entity shall disclose for assets reclassified out of the fair value through profit or loss category so that they are measured at amortised cost or fair value through other comprehensive income in accordance with paragraph 4.4.1 of Ind AS 109:

(a) the effective interest rate determined on the date of reclassification; and

(b) the interest revenue recognised.

12D If, since its last annual reporting date, an entity has reclassified financial assets out of the fair value through other comprehensive income category so that they are measured at amortised cost or out of the fair value through profit or loss category so that they are measured at amortised cost or fair value through other comprehensive income it shall disclose:

(a) the fair value of the financial assets at the end of the reporting period; and

(b) the fair value gain or loss that would have been recognised in profit or loss or other comprehensive income during the reporting period if the financial assets had not been reclassified.

13 [Refer Appendix 1]

Offsetting financial assets and financial liabilities

13A The disclosures in paragraphs 13B–13E supplement the other disclosure requirements of this Ind AS and are required for all recognised financial instruments that are set off in accordance with paragraph 42 of Ind AS

32. These disclosures also apply to recognised financial instruments that are subject to an enforceable master netting arrangement or similar agreement, irrespective of whether they are set off in accordance with paragraph 42 of Ind AS 32.

13B An entity shall disclose information to enable users of its financial statements to evaluate the effect or potential effect of netting arrangements on the entity’s financial position. This includes the effect or potential effect of rights of set-off associated with the entity’s recognised financial assets and recognised financial liabilities that are within the scope of paragraph 13A.

13C To meet the objective in paragraph 13B, an entity shall disclose, at the end of the reporting period, the following quantitative information separately for recognised financial assets and recognised financial liabilities that are within the scope of paragraph 13A:

(a) the gross amounts of those recognised financial assets and recognised financial liabilities;

(b) the amounts that are set-off in accordance with the criteria in paragraph 42 of Ind AS 32 when determining the net amounts presented in the statement of financial position;

(c) the net amounts presented in the balance sheet;

(d) the amounts subject to an enforceable master netting arrangement or similar agreement that are not otherwise included in paragraph 13C(b), including:

(i) amounts related to recognised financial instruments that do not meet some or all of the offsetting criteria in paragraph 42 of Ind AS 32; and

(ii) amounts related to financial collateral (including cash collateral); and

(e) the net amount after deducting the amounts in (d) from the amounts in (c) above.
The information required by this paragraph shall be presented in a tabular format, separately for financial assets and financial liabilities, unless another format is more appropriate.

13D The total amount disclosed in accordance with paragraph 13C(d) for an instrument shall be limited to the amount in paragraph 13C(c) for that instrument.

13E An entity shall include a description in the disclosures of the rights of set-off associated with the entity’s recognised financial assets and recognised financial liabilities subject to enforceable master netting arrangements and similar agreements that are disclosed in accordance with paragraph 13C(d), including the nature of those rights.

13F If the information required by paragraphs 13B–13E is disclosed in more than one note to the financial statements, an entity shall cross-refer between those notes.

Collateral

14 An entity shall disclose:

(a) the carrying amount of financial assets it has pledged as collateral for liabilities or contingent liabilities, including amounts that have been reclassified in accordance with paragraph3.2.23(a) of Ind AS 109; and

(b) the terms and conditions relating to its pledge.

15 When an entity holds collateral (of financial or non-financial assets) and is permitted to sell or repledge the collateral in the absence of default by the owner of the collateral, it shall disclose:

(a) the fair value of the collateral held;

(b) the fair value of any such collateral sold or repledged, and whether the entity has an obligation to return it; and

(c) the terms and conditions associated with its use of the collateral.

Allowance account for credit losses

16 [Refer Appendix 1]

16A The carrying amount of financial assets measured at fair value through other comprehensive income in accordance with paragraph 4.1.2A of Ind AS 109 is not reduced by a loss allowance and an entity shall not present the loss allowance separately in the balance sheet as a reduction of the carrying amount of the financial asset. However, an entity shall disclose the loss allowance in the notes to the financial statements.

Compound financial instruments with multiple embedded derivatives

17 If an entity has issued an instrument that contains both a liability and an equity component (see paragraph 28 of Ind AS 32) and the instrument has multiple embedded derivatives whose values are interdependent (such as a callable convertible debt instrument), it shall disclose the existence of those features.

Defaults and breaches

18 For loans payable recognised at the end of the reporting period, an entity shall disclose:

(a) details of any defaults during the period of principal, interest, sinking fund, or redemption terms of those loans payable;

(b) the carrying amount of the loans payable in default at the end of the reporting period; and

(c) whether the default was remedied, or the terms of the loans payable were renegotiated, before the financial statements were approved for issue.

19 If, during the period, there were breaches of loan agreement terms other than those described in paragraph 18, an entity shall disclose the same information as required by paragraph 18 if those breaches permitted the lender to demand accelerated repayment (unless the breaches were remedied, or the terms of the loan were renegotiated, on or before the end of the reporting period).

Statement of profit and loss
Items of income, expense, gains or losses

20 An entity shall disclose the following items of income, expense, gains or losses either in the statement of profit and loss or in the notes:

(a) net gains or net losses on:

(i) financial assets or financial liabilities measured at fair value through profit or loss, showing separately those on financial assets or financial liabilities designated as such upon initial recognition or subsequently in accordance with paragraph 6.7.1 of Ind AS 109, and those on financial assets or financial liabilities that are mandatorily measured at fair value through profit or loss in accordance with Ind AS 109 (eg financial liabilities that meet the definition of held for trading in Ind AS 109). For financial liabilities designated as at fair value through profit or loss, an entity shall show separately the amount of gain or loss recognised in other comprehensive income and the amount recognised in profit or loss.

(ii)- [Refer Appendix 1]

(iv)

(v) financial liabilities measured at amortised cost.

(vi) financial assets measured at amortised cost.

(vii) investments in equity instruments designated at fair value through other comprehensive income in accordance with paragraph 5.7.5 of Ind AS 109.

(viii) financial assets measured at fair value through other comprehensive income in accordance with paragraph 4.1.2A of Ind AS 109, showing separately the amount of gain or loss recognised in other comprehensive income during the period and the amount reclassified upon derecognition from accumulated other comprehensive income to profit or loss for the period.

(b) total interest revenue and total interest expense (calculated using the effective interest method) for  financial assets that are measured at amortised cost or that are measured at fair value through other comprehensive income in accordance with paragraph 4.1.2A of Ind AS 109 (showing these amounts separately); or financial liabilities that are not measured at fair value through profit or loss.

(c) fee income and expense (other than amounts included in determining the effective interest rate) arising from:

(i) financial assets and financial liabilities that are not at fair value through profit or loss; and

(ii) trust and other fiduciary activities that result in the holding or investing of assets on behalf of individuals, trusts, retirement benefit plans, and other institutions.

(d)-(e) [Refer Appendix] 1

20A An entity shall disclose an analysis of the gain or loss recognised in the statement of profit and loss arising from the derecognition of financial assets measured at amortised cost, showing separately gains and losses arising from derecognition of those financial assets. This disclosure shall include the reasons for derecognising those financial assets.

Other disclosures
Accounting policies

In accordance with paragraph 117 of Ind AS 1, Presentation of Financial Statements, an entity discloses its significant accounting policies, comprising the measurement basis (or bases) used in preparing the financial statements and the other accounting policies used that are relevant to an understanding of the financial statements.

21 In accordance with paragraph 117 of Ind AS 1 Presentation of Financial Statements, an entity discloses, in the summary of significant accounting policies, the measurement basis (or bases) used in preparing the financial statements and the other accounting policies used that are relevant to an understanding of the financial statements.
Hedge accounting

21A An entity shall apply the disclosure requirements in paragraphs 21B–24F for those risk exposures that an entity hedges and for which it elects to apply hedge accounting. Hedge accounting disclosures shall provide information about:

(a) an entity’s risk management strategy and how it is applied to manage risk;

(b) how the entity’s hedging activities may affect the amount, timing and uncertainty of its future cash flows;and

(c) the effect that hedge accounting has had on the entity’s balance sheet, statement of profit and loss and statement of changes in equity.

21B An entity shall present the required disclosures in a single note or separate section in its financial statements. However, an entity need not duplicate information that is already presented elsewhere, provided that the information is incorporated by cross-reference from the financial statements to some other statement, such as a management commentary or risk report, that is available to users of the financial statements on the same terms as the financial statements and at the same time. Without the information incorporated by cross reference, the financial statements are incomplete.

21C When paragraphs 22A–24F require the entity to separate by risk category the information disclosed, the entity shall determine each risk category on the basis of the risk exposures an entity decides to hedge and for which hedge accounting is applied. An entity shall determine risk categories consistently for all hedge accounting disclosures.

21D To meet the objectives in paragraph 21A, an entity shall (except as otherwise specified below) determine how much detail to disclose, how much emphasis to place on different aspects of the disclosure requirements, the appropriate level of aggregation or disaggregation, and whether users of financial statements need additional explanations to evaluate the quantitative information disclosed. However, an entity shall use the same level of aggregation or disaggregation it uses for disclosure requirements of related information in this Ind AS and Ind
AS 113, Fair Value Measurement.

The risk management strategy

22 [Refer Appendix 1]

22A An entity shall explain its risk management strategy for each risk category of risk exposures that it decides to hedge and for which hedge accounting is applied. This explanation should enable users of financial statements to evaluate (for example):

(a) how each risk arises.

(b) how the entity manages each risk; this includes whether the entity hedges an item in its entirety for all risks or hedges a risk component (or components) of an item and why.

(c) the extent of risk exposures that the entity manages.

22B To meet the requirements in paragraph 22A, the information should include (but is not limited to) a description of:

(a) the hedging instruments that are used (and how they are used) to hedge risk exposures;

(b) how the entity determines the economic relationship between the hedged item and the hedging instrument for the purpose of assessing hedge effectiveness; and

(c) how the entity establishes the hedge ratio and what the sources of hedge ineffectiveness are.

22C When an entity designates a specific risk component as a hedged item (see paragraph 6.3.7 of Ind AS 109) it shall provide, in addition to the disclosures required by paragraphs 22A and 22B, qualitative or quantitative information about:

(a) how the entity determined the risk component that is designated as the hedged item (including a description of the nature of the relationship between the risk component and the item as a whole); and

(b) how the risk component relates to the item in its entirety (for example, the designated risk component historically covered on average 80 per cent of the changes in fair value of the item as a whole). The amount, timing and uncertainty of future cash flows

23 [Refer Appendix 1]

23A Unless exempted by paragraph 23C, an entity shall disclose by risk category quantitative information to allow users of its financial statements to evaluate the terms and conditions of hedging instruments and how they affect the amount, timing and uncertainty of future cash flows of the entity.

23B To meet the requirement in paragraph 23A, an entity shall provide a breakdown that discloses:

(a) a profile of the timing of the nominal amount of the hedging instrument; and

(b) if applicable, the average price or rate (for example strike or forward prices etc) of the hedging instrument.

23C In situations in which an entity frequently resets (ie discontinues and restarts) hedging relationships because both the hedging instrument and the hedged item frequently change (ie the entity uses a dynamic process in which both the exposure and the hedging instruments used to manage that exposure do not remain the same for long—such as in the example in paragraph B6.5.24(b) of Ind AS 109) the entity:

(a) is exempt from providing the disclosures required by paragraphs 23A and 23B.

(b) shall disclose:

(i) information about what the ultimate risk management strategy is in relation to those hedging relationships;

(ii) a description of how it reflects its risk management strategy by using hedge accounting and designating those particular hedging relationships; and

(iii) an indication of how frequently the hedging relationships are discontinued and restarted as part of the entity’s process in relation to those hedging relationships.

23D An entity shall disclose by risk category a description of the sources of hedge ineffectiveness that are expected to affect the hedging relationship during its term.

23E If other sources of hedge ineffectiveness emerge in a hedging relationship, an entity shall disclose those sources by risk category and explain the resulting hedge ineffectiveness.

23F For cash flow hedges, an entity shall disclose a description of any forecast transaction for which hedge accounting had been used in the previous period, but which is no longer expected to occur.

The effects of hedge accounting on financial position and performance

24 [Refer Appendix 1]

24A An entity shall disclose, in a tabular format, the following amounts related to items designated as hedging instruments separately by risk category for each type of hedge (fair value hedge, cash flow hedge or hedge of a net investment in a foreign operation):

(a) the carrying amount of the hedging instruments (financial assets separately from financial liabilities);

(b) the line item in the balance sheet that includes the hedging instrument;

(c) the change in fair value of the hedging instrument used as the basis for recognising hedge ineffectiveness for the period; and

(d) the nominal amounts (including quantities such as tonnes or cubic metres) of the hedging instruments.

24B An entity shall disclose, in a tabular format, the following amounts related to hedged items separately by risk category for the types of hedges as follows:

(a) for fair value hedges:

(i) the carrying amount of the hedged item recognised in the balance sheet (presenting assets separately from liabilities);

(ii) the accumulated amount of fair value hedge adjustments on the hedged item included in the carrying amount of the hedged item recognised in the balance sheet (presenting assets separately from liabilities);

(iii) the line item in the balance sheet that includes the hedged item;

(iv) the change in value of the hedged item used as the basis for recognising hedge ineffectiveness for the period; and

(v) the accumulated amount of fair value hedge adjustments remaining in the balance sheet for any hedged items that have ceased to be adjusted for hedging gains and losses in accordance with paragraph 6.5.10 of Ind AS 109.

(b) for cash flow hedges and hedges of a net investment in a foreign operation:

(i) the change in value of the hedged item used as the basis for recognising hedge ineffectiveness for the period (ie for cash flow hedges the change in value used to determine the recognised hedge ineffectiveness in accordance with paragraph 6.5.11(c) of Ind AS 109);

(ii) the balances in the cash flow hedge reserve and the foreign currency translation reserve for continuing hedges that are accounted for in accordance with paragraphs 6.5.11 and 6.5.13(a) of Ind AS 109; and

(iii) the balances remaining in the cash flow hedge reserve and the foreign currency translation reserve from any hedging relationships for which hedge accounting is no longer applied.

24C An entity shall disclose, in a tabular format, the following amounts separately by risk category for the types of hedges as follows:

(a) for fair value hedges:

(i) hedge ineffectiveness—ie the difference between the hedging gains or losses of the hedging instrument and the hedged item—recognised in profit or loss (or other comprehensive income for hedges of an equity instrument for which an entity has elected to present changes in fair value in other comprehensive income in accordance with paragraph 5.7.5 of Ind AS 109); and

(ii) the line item in the statement of profit and loss that includes the recognised hedge ineffectiveness.

(b) for cash flow hedges and hedges of a net investment in a foreign operation:

(i) hedging gains or losses of the reporting period that were recognised in other comprehensive income;

(ii) hedge ineffectiveness recognised in profit or loss;

(iii) the line item in the statement of profit and loss that includes the recognised hedge ineffectiveness;

(iv) the amount reclassified from the cash flow hedge reserve or the foreign currency translation reserve into profit or loss as a reclassification adjustment (see Ind AS 1) (differentiating between amounts for which hedge accounting had previously been used, but for which the hedged future cash flows are no longer expected to occur, and amounts that have been transferred because the hedged item has affected profit or loss);

(v) the line item in the statement of profit and loss that includes the reclassification adjustment (see Ind AS 1); and

(vi) for hedges of net positions, the hedging gains or losses recognised in a separate line item in the statement of profit and loss (see paragraph 6.6.4 of Ind AS 109).

24D When the volume of hedging relationships to which the exemption in paragraph 23C applies is unrepresentative of normal volumes during the period (ie the volume at the reporting date does not reflect the volumes during the period) an entity shall disclose that fact and the reason it believes the volumes are unrepresentative.

24E An entity shall provide a reconciliation of each component of equity and an analysis of other comprehensive income in accordance with Ind AS 1 that, taken together:

(a) differentiates, at a minimum, between the amounts that relate to the disclosures in paragraph 24C(b)(i) and (b)(iv) as well as the amounts accounted for in accordance with paragraph 6.5.11(d)(i) and (d)(iii) of Ind AS 109;

(b) differentiates between the amounts associated with the time value of options that hedge transaction related hedged items and the amounts associated with the time value of options that hedge time-period related hedged items when an entity accounts for the time value of an option in accordance with paragraph 6.5.15 of Ind AS 109; and

(c) differentiates between the amounts associated with forward elements of forward contracts and the foreign currency basis spreads of financial instruments that hedge transaction related hedged items, and the amounts associated with forward elements of forward contracts and the foreign currency basis spreads of financial instruments that hedge time-period related hedged items when an entity accounts for those amounts in accordance with paragraph 6.5.16 of Ind AS 109.

24F An entity shall disclose the information required in paragraph 24E separately by risk category. This disaggregation by risk may be provided in the notes to the financial statements.

Option to designate a credit exposure as measured at fair value through profit or loss

24G If an entity designated a financial instrument, or a proportion of it, as measured at fair value through profit or loss because it uses a credit derivative to manage the credit risk of that financial instrument it shall disclose:

(a) for credit derivatives that have been used to manage the credit risk of financial instruments designated as measured at fair value through profit or loss in accordance with paragraph 6.7.1 of Ind AS 109, a reconciliation of each of the nominal amount and the fair value at the beginning and at the end of the period;

(b) the gain or loss recognised in profit or loss on designation of a financial instrument, or a proportion of it, as measured at fair value through profit or loss in accordance with paragraph 6.7.1 of Ind AS 109; and

(c) on discontinuation of measuring a financial instrument, or a proportion of it, at fair value through profit or loss, that financial instrument’s fair value that has become the new carrying amount in accordance with paragraph 6.7.4(b) of Ind AS 109 and the related nominal or principal amount (except for providing comparative information in accordance with Ind AS 1, an entity does not need to continue this disclosure in subsequent periods).

Fair value

25 Except as set out in paragraph 29, for each class of financial assets and financial liabilities (see paragraph 6), an entity shall disclose the fair value of that class of assets and liabilities in a way that permits it to be compared with its carrying amount.

26 In disclosing fair values, an entity shall group financial assets and financial liabilities into classes, but shall offset them only to the extent that their carrying amounts are offset in the balance sheet.

27 [Refer Appendix 1]

27B

28 In some cases, an entity does not recognise a gain or loss on initial recognition of a financial asset or financial liability because the fair value is neither evidenced by a quoted price in an active market for an identical asset or liability (ie a Level 1 input) nor based on a valuation technique that uses only data from observable markets (see paragraph B5.1.2A of Ind AS 109). In such cases, the entity shall disclose by class of financial asset or financial liability:

(a) its accounting policy for recognising in profit or loss the difference between the fair value at initial recognition and the transaction price to reflect a change in factors (including time) that market participants would take into account when pricing the asset or liability (see paragraph B5.1.2A(b) of Ind AS 109).

(b) the aggregate difference yet to be recognised in profit or loss at the beginning and end of the period and a reconciliation of changes in the balance of this difference.

(c) why the entity concluded that the transaction price was not the best evidence of fair value, including a description of the evidence that supports the fair value.

29 Disclosures of fair value are not required:

(a) when the carrying amount is a reasonable approximation of fair value, for example, for financial instruments such as short-term trade receivables and payables;

(b) [Refer Appendix 1]

for a contract containing a discretionary participation feature (as described in Ind AS 104) if the fair value of that feature cannot be measured reliably; or

for lease liabilities

(c) for a contract containing a discretionary participation feature (as described in Ind AS 104) if the fair value of that feature cannot be measured reliably.

30 In the case described in paragraph 29(c), an entity shall disclose information to help users of the financial statements make their own judgements about the extent of possible differences between the carrying amount of those contracts and their fair value, including:

(a) the fact that fair value information has not been disclosed for these instruments because their fair value cannot be measured reliably;

(b) a description of the financial instruments, their carrying amount, and an explanation of why fair value cannot be measured reliably;

(c) information about the market for the instruments;

(d) information about whether and how the entity intends to dispose of the financial instruments; and

(e) if financial instruments whose fair value previously could not be reliably measured are derecognised, that fact, their carrying amount at the time of derecognition, and the amount of gain or loss recognised.

Nature and extent of risks arising from financial instruments

31 An entity shall disclose information that enables users of its financial statements to evaluate the nature and extent of risks arising from financial instruments to which the entity is exposed at the end of the reporting period.

32 The disclosures required by paragraphs 33–42 focus on the risks that arise from financial instruments and how they have been managed. These risks typically include, but are not limited to, credit risk, liquidity risk and market risk.

32A Providing qualitative disclosures in the context of quantitative disclosures enables users to link related disclosures and hence form an overall picture of the nature and extent of risks arising from financial instruments. The interaction between qualitative and quantitative disclosures contributes to disclosure of information in a way that better enables users to evaluate an entity’s exposure to risks.

Qualitative disclosures

33 For each type of risk arising from financial instruments, an entity shall disclose:

(a) the exposures to risk and how they arise;

(b) its objectives, policies and processes for managing the risk and the methods used to measure the risk; and

(c) any changes in (a) or (b) from the previous period.

Quantitative disclosures

34 For each type of risk arising from financial instruments, an entity shall disclose:

(a) summary quantitative data about its exposure to that risk at the end of the reporting period. This disclosure shall be based on the information provided internally to key management personnel of the entity (as defined in Ind AS 24, Related Party Disclosures), for example the entity’s board of directors or chief executive officer.

(b) the disclosures required by paragraphs 36–42, to the extent not provided in accordance with (a).

(c) concentrations of risk if not apparent from the disclosures made in accordance with (a) and (b).

35 If the quantitative data disclosed as at the end of the reporting period are unrepresentative of an entity’s exposure to risk during the period, an entity shall provide further information that is representative.

Credit risk
Scope and objectives

35A An entity shall apply the disclosure requirements in paragraphs 35F–35N to financial instruments to which the impairment requirements in Ind AS 109 are applied. However:

(a) for trade receivables, contract assets and lease receivables, paragraph 35J applies to those trade receivables, contract assets or lease receivables on which lifetime expected credit losses are recognised in accordance with paragraph 5.5.15 of Ind AS 109, if those financial assets are modified while more than 30 days past due; and
(b) paragraph 35K(b) does not apply to lease receivables.

35B The credit risk disclosures made in accordance with paragraphs 35F–35N shall enable users of financial statements to understand the effect of credit risk on the amount, timing and uncertainty of future cash flows. To achieve this objective, credit risk disclosures shall provide:

(a) information about an entity’s credit risk management practices and how they relate to the recognition and measurement of expected credit losses, including the methods, assumptions and information used to measure expected credit losses;

(b) quantitative and qualitative information that allows users of financial statements to evaluate the amounts in the financial statements arising from expected credit losses, including changes in the amount of expected credit losses and the reasons for those changes; and

(c) information about an entity’s credit risk exposure (ie the credit risk inherent in an entity’s financial assets and commitments to extend credit) including significant credit risk concentrations.

35C An entity need not duplicate information that is already presented elsewhere, provided that the information is incorporated by cross-reference from the financial statements to other statements, such as a management commentary or risk report that is available to users of the financial statements on the same terms as the financial
statements and at the same time. Without the information incorporated by cross-reference, the financial statements are incomplete.

35D To meet the objectives in paragraph 35B, an entity shall (except as otherwise specified) consider how much detail to disclose, how much emphasis to place on different aspects of the disclosure requirements, the appropriate level of aggregation or disaggregation, and whether users of financial statements need additional
explanations to evaluate the quantitative information disclosed.

35E If the disclosures provided in accordance with paragraphs 35F–35N are insufficient to meet the objectives in paragraph 35B, an entity shall disclose additional information that is necessary to meet those objectives.

The credit risk management practices

35F An entity shall explain its credit risk management practices and how they relate to the recognition and measurement of expected credit losses. To meet this objective an entity shall disclose information that enables users of financial statements to understand and evaluate:

(a) how an entity determined whether the credit risk of financial instruments has increased significantly since initial recognition, including, if and how:

(i) financial instruments are considered to have low credit risk in accordance with paragraph 5.5.10 of Ind AS 109, including the classes of financial instruments to which it applies; and

(ii) the presumption in paragraph 5.5.11 of Ind AS 109, that there have been significant increases in credit risk since initial recognition when financial assets are more than 30 days past due, has been rebutted;

(b) an entity’s definitions of default, including the reasons for selecting those definitions;

(c) how the instruments were grouped if expected credit losses were measured on a collective basis;

(d) how an entity determined that financial assets are credit-impaired financial assets;

(e) an entity’s write-off policy, including the indicators that there is no reasonable expectation of recovery and information about the policy for financial assets that are written-off but are still subject to enforcement activity; and

(f) how the requirements in paragraph 5.5.12 of Ind AS 109 for the modification of contractual cash flows of financial assets have been applied, including how an entity:

(i) determines whether the credit risk on a financial asset that has been modified while the loss allowance was measured at an amount equal to lifetime expected credit losses, has improved to the extent that the loss allowance reverts to being measured at an amount equal to 12-month expected credit losses in accordance with paragraph 5.5.5 of Ind AS 109; and

(ii) monitors the extent to which the loss allowance on financial assets meeting the criteria in (i) is subsequently remeasured at an amount equal to lifetime expected credit losses in accordance with paragraph 5.5.3 of Ind AS 109.

35G An entity shall explain the inputs, assumptions and estimation techniques used to apply the requirements in Section 5.5 of Ind AS 109. For this purpose an entity shall disclose:

(a) the basis of inputs and assumptions and the estimation techniques used to:

(i) measure the 12-month and lifetime expected credit losses;

(ii) determine whether the credit risk of financial instruments have increased significantly since initial recognition; and

(iii) determine whether a financial asset is a credit-impaired financial asset.

(b) how forward-looking information has been incorporated into the determination of expected credit losses, including the use of macroeconomic information; and

(c) changes in the estimation techniques or significant assumptions made during the reporting period and the reasons for those changes.

Quantitative and qualitative information about amounts arising from expected credit losses

35H To explain the changes in the loss allowance and the reasons for those changes, an entity shall provide, by class of financial instrument, a reconciliation from the opening balance to the closing balance of the loss allowance, in a table, showing separately the changes during the period for:

(a) the loss allowance measured at an amount equal to 12-month expected credit losses;

(b) the loss allowance measured at an amount equal to lifetime expected credit losses for:

(i) financial instruments for which credit risk has increased significantly since initial recognition but that are not credit-impaired financial assets;

(ii) financial assets that are credit-impaired at the reporting date (but that are not purchased or originated credit-impaired); and

(iii) trade receivables, contract assets or lease receivables for which the loss allowances are measured in accordance with paragraph 5.5.15 of Ind AS 109.

(c) financial assets that are purchased or originated credit-impaired. In addition to the reconciliation, an entity shall disclose the total amount of undiscounted expected credit losses at initial recognition on financial assets initially recognised during the reporting period.

35I To enable users of financial statements to understand the changes in the loss allowance disclosed in accordance with paragraph 35H, an entity shall provide an explanation of how significant changes in the gross carrying amount of financial instruments during the period contributed to changes in the loss allowance. The information shall be provided separately for financial instruments that represent the loss allowance as listed in paragraph 35H(a)–(c) and shall include relevant qualitative and quantitative information. Examples of changes in the gross carrying amount of financial instruments that contributed to the changes in the loss allowance may include:

(a) changes because of financial instruments originated or acquired during the reporting period;

(b) the modification of contractual cash flows on financial assets that do not result in a derecognition of those financial assets in accordance with Ind AS 109;

(c) changes because of financial instruments that were derecognised (including those that were written-off) during the reporting period; and

(d) changes arising from whether the loss allowance is measured at an amount equal to 12-month or lifetime expected credit losses.

35J To enable users of financial statements to understand the nature and effect of modifications of contractual cash flows on financial assets that have not resulted in derecognition and the effect of such modifications on the measurement of expected credit losses, an entity shall disclose:

(a) the amortised cost before the modification and the net modification gain or loss recognised for financial assets for which the contractual cash flows have been modified during the reporting period while they had a loss allowance measured at an amount equal to lifetime expected credit losses; and

(b) the gross carrying amount at the end of the reporting period of financial assets that have been modified since initial recognition at a time when the loss allowance was measured at an amount equal to lifetime expected credit losses and for which the loss allowance has changed during the reporting period to an amount equal to 12-month expected credit losses.

35K To enable users of financial statements to understand the effect of collateral and other credit enhancements on the amounts arising from expected credit losses, an entity shall disclose by class of financial instrument:

(a) the amount that best represents its maximum exposure to credit risk at the end of the reporting period without taking account of any collateral held or other credit enhancements (eg netting agreements that do not qualify for offset in accordance with Ind AS 32).

(b) a narrative description of collateral held as security and other credit enhancements, including:

(i) a description of the nature and quality of the collateral held;

(ii) an explanation of any significant changes in the quality of that collateral or credit enhancements as a result of deterioration or changes in the collateral policies of the entity during the reporting period; and

(iii) information about financial instruments for which an entity has not recognised a loss allowance because of the collateral.

(c) quantitative information about the collateral held as security and other credit enhancements (for example, quantification of the extent to which collateral and other credit enhancements mitigate credit risk) for financial assets that are credit-impaired at the reporting date.

35L An entity shall disclose the contractual amount outstanding on financial assets that were written off during the reporting period and are still subject to enforcement activity.

Credit risk exposure

35M To enable users of financial statements to assess an entity’s credit risk exposure and understand its significant credit risk concentrations, an entity shall disclose, by credit risk rating grades, the gross carrying amount of financial assets and the exposure to credit risk on loan commitments and financial guarantee contracts. This information shall be provided separately for financial instruments:

(a) for which the loss allowance is measured at an amount equal to 12-month expected credit losses;

(b) for which the loss allowance is measured at an amount equal to lifetime expected credit losses and that are:

(i) financial instruments for which credit risk has increased significantly since initial recognition but that are not credit-impaired financial assets;

(ii) financial assets that are credit-impaired at the reporting date (but that are not purchased or originated credit-impaired); and

(iii) trade receivables, contract assets or lease receivables for which the loss allowances are measured in accordance with paragraph 5.5.15 of Ind AS 109.

(c) that are purchased or originated credit-impaired financial assets.

35N For trade receivables, contract assets and lease receivables to which an entity applies paragraph 5.5.15 of Ind AS 109, the information provided in accordance with paragraph

35M may be based on a provision matrix (see paragraph B5.5.35 of Ind AS 109).

36 For all financial instruments within the scope of this Ind AS, but to which the impairment requirements in Ind AS 109 are not applied, an entity shall disclose by class of financial instrument:

(a) the amount that best represents its maximum exposure to credit risk at the end of the reporting period without taking account of any collateral held or other credit enhancements (eg netting agreements that do not qualify for offset in accordance with Ind AS 32); this disclosure is not required for financial instruments whose carrying amount best represents the maximum exposure to credit risk.

(b) a description of collateral held as security and other credit enhancements, and their financial effect (eg quantification of the extent to which collateral and other credit enhancements mitigate credit risk) in respect of the amount that best represents the maximum exposure to credit risk (whether disclosed in accordance with (a) or represented by the carrying amount of a financial instrument).

(c) [Refer Appendix 1]

(d) [Refer Appendix 1]

Financial assets that are either past due or impaired

[Refer Appendix 1].

Collateral and other credit enhancements obtained

38 When an entity obtains financial or non-financial assets during the period by taking possession of collateral it holds as security or calling on other credit enhancements (eg guarantees), and such assets meet the recognition criteria in other Ind AS, an entity shall disclose for such assets held at the reporting date:

(a) the nature and carrying amount of the assets; and

(b) when the assets are not readily convertible into cash, its policies for disposing of such assets or for using them in its operations.

Liquidity risk

39 An entity shall disclose:

(a) a maturity analysis for non-derivative financial liabilities (including issued financial guarantee contracts) that shows the remaining contractual maturities.

(b) a maturity analysis for derivative financial liabilities. The maturity analysis shall include the remaining contractual maturities for those derivative financial liabilities for which contractual maturities are essential for an understanding of the timing of the cash flows (see paragraph B11B).

(c) a description of how it manages the liquidity risk inherent in (a) and (b).

Market risk
Sensitivity analysis

40 Unless an entity complies with paragraph 41, it shall disclose:

(a) a sensitivity analysis for each type of market risk to which the entity is exposed at the end of the reporting period, showing how profit or loss and equity would have been affected by changes in the relevant risk variable that were reasonably possible at that date;

(b) the methods and assumptions used in preparing the sensitivity analysis; and

(c) changes from the previous period in the methods and assumptions used, and the reasons for such changes.

41 If an entity prepares a sensitivity analysis, such as value-at-risk, that reflects interdependencies between risk variables (eg interest rates and exchange rates) and uses it to manage financial risks, it may use that sensitivity analysis in place of the analysis specified in paragraph 40. The entity shall also disclose:

(a) an explanation of the method used in preparing such a sensitivity analysis, and of the main parameters and assumptions underlying the data provided; and

(b) an explanation of the objective of the method used and of limitations that may result in the information not fully reflecting the fair value of the assets and liabilities involved.

Other market risk disclosures

42 When the sensitivity analyses disclosed in accordance with paragraph 40 or 41 are unrepresentative of a risk inherent in a financial instrument (for example because the year-end exposure does not reflect the exposure during the year), the entity shall disclose that fact and the reason it believes the sensitivity analyses are unrepresentative.

Transfers of financial assets

42A The disclosure requirements in paragraphs 42B–42H relating to transfers of financial assets supplement the other disclosure requirements of this Ind AS. An entity shall present the disclosures required by paragraphs 42B–42H in a single note in its financial statements. An entity shall provide the required disclosures for all transferred financial assets that are not derecognised and for any continuing involvement in a transferred
asset, existing at the reporting date, irrespective of when the related transfer transaction occurred. For the purposes of applying the disclosure requirements in those paragraphs, an entity transfers all or a part of a financial asset (the transferred financial asset) if, and only if, it either:

(a) transfers the contractual rights to receive the cash flows of that financial asset; or

(b) retains the contractual rights to receive the cash flows of that financial asset, but assumes a contractual obligation to pay the cash flows to one or more recipients in an arrangement.

42B An entity shall disclose information that enables users of its financial statements:

(a) to understand the relationship between transferred financial assets that are not derecognised in their entirety and the associated liabilities; and

(b) to evaluate the nature of, and risks associated with, the entity’s continuing involvement in derecognised financial assets.

42C For the purposes of applying the disclosure requirements in paragraphs 42E–42H, an entity has continuing involvement in a transferred financial asset if, as part of the transfer, the entity retains any of the contractual rights or obligations inherent in the transferred financial asset or obtains any new contractual rights or obligations relating to the transferred financial asset. For the purposes of applying the disclosure requirements
in paragraphs 42E–42H, the following do not constitute continuing involvement:

(a) normal representations and warranties relating to fraudulent transfer and concepts of reasonableness, good faith and fair dealings that could invalidate a transfer as a result of legal action;

(b) forward, option and other contracts to reacquire the transferred financial asset for which the contract price (or exercise price) is the fair value of the transferred financial asset; or

(c) an arrangement whereby an entity retains the contractual rights to receive the cash flows of a financial asset but assumes a contractual obligation to pay the cash flows to one or more entities and the conditions in paragraph 3.2.5(a)–(c) of Ind AS 109 are met.

Transferred financial assets that are not derecognised in their entirety

42D An entity may have transferred financial assets in such a way that part or all of the transferred financial assets do not qualify for derecognition. To meet the objectives set out in paragraph 42B(a), the entity shall disclose at each reporting date for each class of transferred financial assets that are not derecognised in their entirety:

(a) the nature of the transferred assets.

(b) the nature of the risks and rewards of ownership to which the entity is exposed.

(c) a description of the nature of the relationship between the transferred assets and the associated liabilities, including restrictions arising from the transfer on the reporting entity’s use of the transferredassets.

(d) when the counterparty (counterparties) to the associated liabilities has (have) recourse only to the transferred assets, a schedule that sets out the fair value of the transferred assets, the fair value of the associated liabilities and the net position (the difference between the fair value of the transferred assets and the associated liabilities).

(e) when the entity continues to recognise all of the transferred assets, the carrying amounts of the transferred assets and the associated liabilities.

(f) when the entity continues to recognise the assets to the extent of its continuing involvement (see paragraphs 3.2.6(c)(ii) and 3.2.16 of Ind AS 109), the total carrying amount of the original assets before the transfer, the carrying amount of the assets that the entity continues to recognise, and the carrying amount of the associated liabilities.

Transferred financial assets that are derecognised in their entirety

42E To meet the objectives set out in paragraph 42B(b), when an entity derecognizes transferred financial assets in their entirety (see paragraph 3.2.6(a) and (c)(i) of Ind AS 109) but has continuing involvement in them, the entity shall disclose, as a minimum, for each type of continuing involvement at each reporting date:

(a) the carrying amount of the assets and liabilities that are recognised in the entity’s balance sheet and represent the entity’s continuing involvement in the derecognised financial assets, and the line items in which the carrying amount of those assets and liabilities are recognised.

(b) the fair value of the assets and liabilities that represent the entity’s continuing involvement in the derecognised financial assets.

(c) the amount that best represents the entity’s maximum exposure to loss from its continuing involvement in the derecognised financial assets, and information showing how the maximum exposure to loss is determined.

(d) the undiscounted cash outflows that would or may be required to repurchase derecognised financial assets (eg the strike price in an option agreement) or other amounts payable to the transferee in respect of the transferred assets. If the cash outflow is variable then the amount disclosed should be based on the conditions that exist at each reporting date.

(e) a maturity analysis of the undiscounted cash outflows that would or may be required to repurchase the derecognised financial assets or other amounts payable to the transferee in respect of the transferred assets, showing the remaining contractual maturities of the entity’s continuing involvement.

(f) qualitative information that explains and supports the quantitative disclosures required in (a)–(e).

42F An entity may aggregate the information required by paragraph 42E in respect of a particular asset if the entity has more than one type of continuing involvement in that derecognised financial asset, and report it under one type of continuing involvement.

42G In addition, an entity shall disclose for each type of continuing involvement:

(a) the gain or loss recognised at the date of transfer of the assets.

(b) income and expenses recognised, both in the reporting period and cumulatively, from the entity’s continuing involvement in the derecognised financial assets (eg fair value changes in derivative instruments).

(c) if the total amount of proceeds from transfer activity (that qualifies for derecognition) in a reporting period is not evenly distributed throughout the reporting period (eg if a substantial proportion of the total amount of transfer activity takes place in the closing days of a reporting period):

(i) when the greatest transfer activity took place within that reporting period (eg the last five days before the end of the reporting period),

(ii) the amount (eg related gains or losses) recognised from transfer activity in that part of the reporting period, and

(iii) the total amount of proceeds from transfer activity in that part of the reporting period.

An entity shall provide this information for each period for which a statement of profit and loss is presented.

Supplementary information

42H An entity shall disclose any additional information that it considers necessary to meet the disclosure objectives in paragraph 42B.

43-44BB Omitted*

44CC Ind AS 116 amended paragraphs 29 and B11D. An entity shall apply those amendments when it applies Ind AS 116.

Appendix A

Defined terms
This appendix is an integral part of the Ind AS.

credit risk The risk that one party to a financial instrument will cause a financial loss for the other party by failing to discharge an obligation.

credit risk rating grades credit risk Rating of credit risk based on the risk of a default occurring rating grades on the financial instrument.

currency risk The risk that the fair value or future cash flows of a financial instrument will fluctuate because of changes in foreign exchange rates.

interest rate risk The risk that the fair value or future cash flows of a financial instrument will fluctuate because of changes in market interest rates.

liquidity risk The risk that an entity will encounter difficulty in meeting obligations associated with financial liabilities that are settled by delivering cash or another financial asset.
loans payable Loans payable are financial liabilities, other than short-term trade payables on normal credit terms.

market risk The risk that the fair value or future cash flows of a financial instrument will fluctuate because of changes in market prices. Market risk comprises three types of risk: currency risk, interest rate risk and other price risk.

other price risk The risk that the fair value or future cash flows of a financial instrument will fluctuate because of changes in market prices (other than those arising from interest rate risk or currency risk), whether those changes are caused by factors specific to the individual financial instrument or its issuer or by factors affecting all similar financial instruments traded in the market.

The following terms are defined in paragraph 11 of Ind AS 32, Appendix A of Ind AS 109 or Appendix A of Ind AS 113 and are used in this Ind AS with the meaning specified in Ind AS 32, Ind AS 109 and Ind AS 113.
• amortised cost of a financial asset or financial liability
• contract asset
• credit-impaired financial assets
• derecognition
• derivative
• dividends
• effective interest method
• equity instrument
• expected credit losses
• fair value
• financial asset
• financial guarantee contract
• financial instrument
• financial liability
• financial liability at fair value through profit or loss
• forecast transaction
• gross carrying amount
• hedging instrument

• held for trading
• impairment gains or losses
• loss allowance
• purchased or originated credit-impaired financial assets
• reclassification date
• regular way purchase or sale

Appendix B

Application guidance
This appendix is an integral part of the Ind AS.

Classes of financial instruments and level of disclosure (paragraph 6)

B1 Paragraph 6 requires an entity to group financial instruments into classes that are appropriate to the nature of the information disclosed and that take into account the characteristics of those financial instruments. The classes described in paragraph 6 are determined by the entity and are, thus, distinct from the categories of financial instruments specified in Ind AS 109 (which determine how financial instruments are measured and where changes in fair value are recognised).

B2 In determining classes of financial instrument, an entity shall, at a minimum:

(a) distinguish instruments measured at amortised cost from those measured at fair value.

(b) treat as a separate class or classes those financial instruments outside the scope of this Ind AS.

B3 An entity decides, in the light of its circumstances, how much detail it provides to satisfy the requirements of this Ind AS, how much emphasis it places on different aspects of the requirements and how it aggregates information to display the overall picture without combining information with different characteristics. It is necessary to strike a balance between overburdening financial statements with excessive detail that may not
assist users of financial statements and obscuring important information as a result of too much aggregation. For example, an entity shall not obscure important information by including it among a large amount of insignificant detail. Similarly, an entity shall not disclose information that is so aggregated that it obscures important differences between individual transactions or associated risks.

B4 [Refer Appendix 1]

Other disclosure – accounting policies (paragraph 21)

B5

Paragraph 21 requires disclosure of the measurement basis (or bases) used in preparing the financial statements and the other accounting policies used that are relevant to an understanding of the financial statements. For financial instruments, such disclosure may include:

(a) for financial liabilities designated as at fair value through profit or loss:

(i) the nature of the financial liabilities the entity has designated as at fair value through profit or loss;

(ii) the criteria for so designating such financial liabilities on initial recognition; and

(iii) how the entity has satisfied the conditions in paragraph 4.2.2 of Ind AS 109 for such designation.

(aa) for financial assets designated as measured at fair value through profit or loss:

(i) the nature of the financial assets the entity has designated as measured at fair value through profit or loss; and

(ii) how the entity has satisfied the criteria in paragraph 4.1.5 of Ind AS 109 for such designation.

(b) [Refer Appendix 1]

(c) whether regular way purchases and sales of financial assets are accounted for at trade date or at settlement date (see paragraph 3.1.2 of Ind AS 109).

(d) [Refer Appendix 1]

(e) how net gains or net losses on each category of financial instrument are determined [see paragraph 20(a)], for example, whether the net gains or net losses on items at fair value through profit or loss include interest or dividend income.

(f)-(g) [Refer Appendix 1]

Paragraph 122 of Ind AS 1 also requires entities to disclose, in the summary of significant accounting policies or other notes, the judgements, apart from those involving estimations, that management has made in the process of applying the entity’s accounting policies and that have the most significant effect on the amounts
recognised in the financial statements.

Nature and extent of risks arising from financial instruments (paragraphs 31–42)

B6 The disclosures required by paragraphs 31–42 shall be either given in the financial statements or incorporated by cross-reference from the financial statements to some other statement, such as a management commentary or risk report, that is available to users of the financial statements on the same terms as the financial statements and at the same time. Without the information incorporated by cross-reference, the financial
statements are incomplete.

Quantitative disclosures (paragraph 34)

B7 Paragraph 34(a) requires disclosures of summary quantitative data about an entity’s exposure to risks based on the information provided internally to key management personnel of the entity. When an entity uses several methods to manage a risk exposure, the entity shall disclose information using the method or methods that provide the most relevant and reliable information. Ind AS 8, Accounting Policies, Changes in
Accounting Estimates and Errors, discusses relevance and reliability.

B8 Paragraph 34(c) requires disclosures about concentrations of risk. Concentrations of risk arise from financial instruments that have similar characteristics and are affected similarly by changes in economic or other conditions. The identification of concentrations of risk requires judgement taking into account the circumstances of the entity. Disclosure of concentrations of risk shall include:

(a) a description of how management determines concentrations;

(b) a description of the shared characteristic that identifies each concentration (eg. counterparty, geographical area, currency or market); and

(c) the amount of the risk exposure associated with all financial instruments sharing that characteristic.

Credit risk management practices (paragraphs 35F-35G)

B8A Paragraph 35F(b) requires the disclosure of information about how an entity has defined default for different financial instruments and the reasons for selecting those definitions. In accordance with paragraph 5.5.9 of Ind AS 109, the determination of whether lifetime expected credit losses should be recognised is based on the
increase in the risk of a default occurring since initial recognition. Information about an entity’s definitions of default that will assist users of financial statements in understanding how an entity has applied the expected credit loss requirements in Ind AS 109 may include:

(a) the qualitative and quantitative factors considered in defining default;

(b) whether different definitions have been applied to different types of financial instruments; and

(c) assumptions about the cure rate (ie. the number of financial assets that return to a performing status) after a default occurred on the financial asset.

B8B To assist users of financial statements in evaluating an entity’s restructuring and modification policies, paragraph 35F(f)(i) requires the disclosure of information about how an entity monitors the extent to which the loss allowance on financial assets previously disclosed in accordance with paragraph 35F(f)(i) are subsequently measured at an amount equal to lifetime expected credit losses in accordance with paragraph 5.5.3 of Ind AS 109. Quantitative information that will assist users in understanding the subsequent increase
in credit risk of modified financial assets may include information about modified financial assets meeting the criteria in paragraph 35F(f)(i) for which the loss allowance has reverted to being measured at an amount equal to lifetime expected credit losses (ie. a deterioration rate).

B8C Paragraph 35G(a) requires the disclosure of information about the basis of inputs and assumptions and the estimation techniques used to apply the impairment requirements in Ind AS 109. An entity’s assumptions and inputs used to measure expected credit losses or determine the extent of increases in credit risk since initial recognition may include information obtained from internal historical information or rating reports and assumptions about the expected life of financial instruments and the timing of the sale of collateral.

Changes in the loss allowance (paragraph 35H)

B8D In accordance with paragraph 35H, an entity is required to explain the reasons for the changes in the loss allowance during the period. In addition to the reconciliation from the opening balance to the closing balance of the loss allowance, it may be necessary to provide a narrative explanation of the changes. This narrative explanation may include an analysis of the reasons for changes in the loss allowance during the period,
including:

(a) the portfolio composition;

(b) the volume of financial instruments purchased or originated; and

(c) the severity of the expected credit losses

B8E For loan commitments and financial guarantee contracts the loss allowance is recognised as a provision. An entity should disclose information about the changes in the loss allowance for financial assets separately from those for loan commitments and financial guarantee contracts. However, if a financial instrument includes both a loan (ie financial asset) and an undrawn commitment (ie. loan commitment) component and the entity cannot separately identify the expected credit losses on the loan commitment component from those on the financial asset component, the expected credit losses on the loan commitment should be recognised together with the loss allowance for the financial asset. To the extent that the combined expected credit losses exceed the gross
carrying amount of the financial asset, the expected credit losses should be recognised as a provision.

Collateral (paragraph 35K)

B8F Paragraph 35K requires the disclosure of information that will enable users of financial statements to understand the effect of collateral and other credit enhancements on the amount of expected credit losses. An entity is neither required to disclose information about the fair value of collateral and other credit enhancements nor is it required to quantify the exact value of the collateral that was included in the calculation of expected
credit losses (ie. the loss given default).

B8G A narrative description of collateral and its effect on amounts of expected credit losses might include information about:

(a) the main types of collateral held as security and other credit enhancements (examples of the latter being guarantees, credit derivatives and netting agreements that do not qualify for offset in accordance with Ind AS 32);

(b) the volume of collateral held and other credit enhancements and its significance in terms of the loss allowance;

(c) the policies and processes for valuing and managing collateral and other credit enhancements;

(d) the main types of counterparties to collateral and other credit enhancements and their creditworthiness; and

(e) information about risk concentrations within the collateral and other credit enhancements.

Credit risk exposure (paragraphs 35M–35N)

B8H Paragraph 35M requires the disclosure of information about an entity’s credit risk exposure and significant concentrations of credit risk at the reporting date. A concentration of credit risk exists when a number of counterparties are located in a geographical region or are engaged in similar activities and have similar economic characteristics that would cause their ability to meet contractual obligations to be similarly affected by changes in economic or other conditions. An entity should provide information that enables users of financial statements to understand whether there are groups or portfolios of financial instruments with particular features that could affect a large portion of that group of financial instruments such as concentration to particular risks. This could include, for example, loan-to-value groupings, geographical, industry or issuer-type concentrations.

B8I The number of credit risk rating grades used to disclose the information in accordance with paragraph 35M shall be consistent with the number that the entity reports to key management personnel for credit risk management purposes. If past due information is the only borrower-specific information available and an entity uses past due information to assess whether credit risk has increased significantly since initial recognition in
accordance with paragraph 5.5.10 of Ind AS 109, an entity shall provide an analysis by past due status for those financial assets.

B8J When an entity has measured expected credit losses on a collective basis, the entity may not be able to allocate the gross carrying amount of individual financial assets or the exposure to credit risk on loan commitments and financial guarantee contracts to the credit risk rating grades for which lifetime expected credit losses are recognised. In that case, an entity should apply the requirement in paragraph 35M to those financial instruments that can be directly allocated to a credit risk rating grade and disclose separately the gross carrying amount of financial instruments for which lifetime expected credit losses have been measured on a collective basis.

Maximum credit risk exposure [paragraph 36(a)]

B9 Paragraphs 35K(a) and 36(a) require disclosure of the amount that best represents the entity’s maximum exposure to credit risk. For a financial asset, this is typically the gross carrying amount, net of:

(a) any amounts offset in accordance with Ind AS 32; and

(b) any loss allowance recognised in accordance with Ind AS 109.

B10 Activities that give rise to credit risk and the associated maximum exposure to credit risk include, but are not limited to:

(a) granting loans to customers and placing deposits with other entities. In these cases, the maximum exposure to credit risk is the carrying amount of the related financial assets.

(b) entering into derivative contracts, eg. foreign exchange contracts, interest rate swaps and credit derivatives. When the resulting asset is measured at fair value, the maximum exposure to credit risk at the end of the reporting period will equal the carrying amount.

(c) granting financial guarantees. In this case, the maximum exposure to credit risk is the maximum amount the entity could have to pay if the guarantee is called on, which may be significantly greater than the amount recognised as a liability.

(d) making a loan commitment that is irrevocable over the life of the facility or is revocable only in response to a material adverse change. If the issuer cannot settle the loan commitment net in cash or another financial instrument, the maximum credit exposure is the full amount of the commitment. This is because it is uncertain whether the amount of any undrawn portion may be drawn upon in the future. This may be significantly greater than the amount recognised as a liability.

Quantitative liquidity risk disclosures (paragraphs 34(a) and 39(a) and (b))

B10A In accordance with paragraph 34(a) an entity discloses summary quantitative data about its exposure to liquidity risk on the basis of the information provided internally to key management personnel. An entity shall explain how those data are determined. If the outflows of cash (or another financial asset) included in those data could either:

(a) occur significantly earlier than indicated in the data, or

(b) be for significantly different amounts from those indicated in the data (eg. for a derivative that is included in the data on a net settlement basis but for which the counterparty has the option to require gross settlement), the entity shall state that fact and provide quantitative information that enables users of its financial statements to evaluate the extent of this risk unless that information is included in the contractual maturity analyses required by paragraph 39(a) or (b).

B11 In preparing the maturity analyses required by paragraph 39(a) and (b), an entity uses its judgement to determine an appropriate number of time bands. For example, an entity might determine that the following time bands are appropriate:

(a) not later than one month;

(b) later than one month and not later than three months;

(c) later than three months and not later than one year; and

(d) later than one year and not later than five years.

B11A In complying with paragraph 39(a) and (b), an entity shall not separate an embedded derivative from a hybrid (combined) financial instrument. For such an instrument, an entity shall apply paragraph 39(a).

B11B Paragraph 39(b) requires an entity to disclose a quantitative maturity analysis for derivative financial liabilities that shows remaining contractual maturities if the contractual maturities are essential for an understanding of the timing of the cash flows. For example, this would be the case for:

(a) an interest rate swap with a remaining maturity of five years in a cash flow hedge of a variable rate financial asset or liability.

(b) all loan commitments.

B11C Paragraph 39(a) and (b) requires an entity to disclose maturity analyses for financial liabilities that show the remaining contractual maturities for some financial liabilities. In this disclosure:

(a) when a counterparty has a choice of when an amount is paid, the liability is allocated to the earliest period in which the entity can be required to pay. For example, financial liabilities that an entity can be required to repay on demand (eg demand deposits) are included in the earliest time band.

(b) when an entity is committed to make amounts available in instalments, each instalment is allocated to the earliest period in which the entity can be required to pay. For example, an undrawn loan commitment is included in the time band containing the earliest date it can be drawn down.

(c) for issued financial guarantee contracts the maximum amount of the guarantee is allocated to the earliest period in which the guarantee could be called.

B11D The contractual amounts disclosed in the maturity analyses as required by paragraph 39(a) and (b) are the contractual undiscounted cash flows, for example:

gross lease liabilities (before deducting finance charges);

(a) gross finance lease obligations (before deducting finance charges);

(b) prices specified in forward agreements to purchase financial assets for cash;

(c) net amounts for pay-floating/receive-fixed interest rate swaps for which net cash flows are exchanged;

(d) contractual amounts to be exchanged in a derivative financial instrument (eg a currency swap) for which gross cash flows are exchanged; and

(e) gross loan commitments.

Such undiscounted cash flows differ from the amount included in the balance sheet because the amount in balance sheet is based on discounted cash flows. When the amount payable is not fixed, the amount disclosed is determined by reference to the conditions existing at the end of the reporting period. For example, when the amount payable varies with changes in an index, the amount disclosed may be based on the level of the index at the end of the period.

B11E Paragraph 39(c) requires an entity to describe how it manages the liquidity risk inherent in the items disclosed in the quantitative disclosures required in paragraph 39(a) and (b). An entity shall disclose a maturity analysis of financial assets it holds for managing liquidity risk (eg financial assets that are readily saleable or expected to generate cash inflows to meet cash outflows on financial liabilities), if that information is necessary to enable users of its financial statements to evaluate the nature and extent of liquidity risk.

B11F Other factors that an entity might consider in providing the disclosure required in paragraph 39(c) include, but are not limited to, whether the entity:

(a) has committed borrowing facilities (eg commercial paper facilities) or other lines of credit (eg stand-by credit facilities) that it can access to meet liquidity needs;

(b) holds deposits at central banks to meet liquidity needs;

(c) has very diverse funding sources;

(d) has significant concentrations of liquidity risk in either its assets or its funding sources;

(e) has internal control processes and contingency plans for managing liquidity risk;

(f) has instruments that include accelerated repayment terms (eg on the downgrade of the entity’s credit rating);

(g) has instruments that could require the posting of collateral (eg margin calls for derivatives);

(h) has instruments that allow the entity to choose whether it settles its financial liabilities by delivering cash (or another financial asset) or by delivering its own shares; or

(i) has instruments that are subject to master netting agreements.

B12-B16 [Refer Appendix 1]

Market risk – sensitivity analysis (paragraphs 40 and 41)

B17 Paragraph 40(a) requires a sensitivity analysis for each type of market risk to which the entity is exposed. In accordance with paragraph B3, an entity decides how it aggregates information to display the overall picture without combining information with different characteristics about exposures to risks from significantly different economic environments. For example:

(a) an entity that trades financial instruments might disclose this information separately for financial instruments held for trading and those not held for trading.

(b) an entity would not aggregate its exposure to market risks from areas of hyperinflation with its exposure to the same market risks from areas of very low inflation. If an entity has exposure to only one type of market risk in only one economic environment, it would not show disaggregated information.

B18 Paragraph 40(a) requires the sensitivity analysis to show the effect on profit or loss and equity of reasonably possible changes in the relevant risk variable (eg prevailing market interest rates, currency rates, equity prices or commodity prices). For this purpose:

(a) entities are not required to determine what the profit or loss for the period would have been if relevant risk variables had been different. Instead, entities disclose the effect on profit or loss and equity at the end of the reporting period assuming that a reasonably possible change in the relevant risk variable had occurred at the end of the reporting period and had been applied to the risk exposures in existence at that
date. For example, if an entity has a floating rate liability at the end of the year, the entity would disclose the effect on profit or loss (ie interest expense) for the current year if interest rates had varied by reasonably possible amounts.

(b) entities are not required to disclose the effect on profit or loss and equity for each change within a range of reasonably possible changes of the relevant risk variable. Disclosure of the effects of the changes at the limits of the reasonably possible range would be sufficient.

B19 In determining what a reasonably possible change in the relevant risk variable is, an entity should consider:

(a) the economic environments in which it operates. A reasonably possible change should not include remote or ‘worst case’ scenarios or ‘stress tests’. Moreover, if the rate of change in the underlying risk variable is stable, the entity need not alter the chosen reasonably possible change in the risk variable. For example, assume that interest rates are 5 per cent and an entity determines that a fluctuation in interest rates of ±50 basis points is reasonably possible. It would disclose the effect on profit or loss and equity if interest rates were to change to 4.5 per cent or 5.5 per cent. In the next period, interest rates have increased to 5.5 per cent. The entity continues to believe that interest rates may fluctuate by ±50 basis points (ie that the rate
of change in interest rates is stable). The entity would disclose the effect on profit or loss and equity if interest rates were to change to 5 per cent or 6 per cent. The entity would not be required to revise its assessment that interest rates might reasonably fluctuate by ±50 basis points, unless there is evidence that interest rates have become significantly more volatile.

(b) the time frame over which it is making the assessment. The sensitivity analysis shall show the effects of changes that are considered to be reasonably possible over the period until the entity will next present these disclosures, which is usually its next annual reporting period.

B20 Paragraph 41 permits an entity to use a sensitivity analysis that reflects interdependencies between risk variables, such as a value-at-risk methodology, if it uses this analysis to manage its exposure to financial risks. This applies even if such a methodology measures only the potential for loss and does not measure the
potential for gain. Such an entity might comply with paragraph 41(a) by disclosing the type of value-at-risk model used (eg whether the model relies on Monte Carlo simulations), an explanation about how the model works and the main assumptions (eg the holding period and confidence level). Entities might also disclose the historical observation period and weightings applied to observations within that period, an explanation of how
options are dealt with in the calculations, and which volatilities and correlations (or, alternatively, Monte Carlo probability distribution simulations) are used.

B21 An entity shall provide sensitivity analyses for the whole of its business, but may provide different types of sensitivity analysis for different classes of financial instruments.

Interest rate risk

B22 Interest rate risk arises on interest-bearing financial instruments recognised in the balance sheet (eg debt instruments acquired or issued) and on some financial instruments not recognised in the balance sheet (eg some loan commitments).

Currency risk

B23 Currency risk (or foreign exchange risk) arises on financial instruments that are denominated in a foreign currency, ie in a currency other than the functional currency in which they are measured. For the purpose of this Ind AS, currency risk does not arise from financial instruments that are non-monetary items or from financial instruments denominated in the functional currency.

B24 A sensitivity analysis is disclosed for each currency to which an entity has significant exposure.

Other price risk

B25 Other price risk arises on financial instruments because of changes in, for example, commodity prices or equity prices. To comply with paragraph 40, an entity might disclose the effect of a decrease in a specified stock market index, commodity price, or other risk variable. For example, if an entity gives residual value guarantees that are financial instruments, the entity discloses an increase or decrease in the value of the assets
to which the guarantee applies.

B26 Two examples of financial instruments that give rise to equity price risk are (a) a holding of equities in another entity and (b) an investment in a trust that in turn holds investments in equity instruments. Other examples include forward contracts and options to buy or sell specified quantities of an equity instrument and swaps that are indexed to equity prices. The fair values of such financial instruments are affected by changes
in the market price of the underlying equity instruments.

B27 In accordance with paragraph 40(a), the sensitivity of profit or loss (that arises, for example, from instruments measured at fair value through profit or loss) is disclosed separately from the sensitivity of other comprehensive income (that arises, for example, from investments in equity instruments whose changes in fair value are presented in other comprehensive income ).

B28 Financial instruments that an entity classifies as equity instruments are not remeasured. Neither profit or loss nor equity will be affected by the equity price risk of those instruments. Accordingly, no sensitivity analysis is required.

Derecognition (paragraphs 42C–42H)
Continuing involvement (paragraph 42C)

B29 The assessment of continuing involvement in a transferred financial asset for the purposes of the disclosure requirements in paragraphs 42E–42H is made at the level of the reporting entity. For example, if a subsidiary transfers to an unrelated third party a financial asset in which the parent of the subsidiary has continuing involvement, the subsidiary does not include the parent’s involvement in the assessment of whether it has
continuing involvement in the transferred asset in its separate or individual financial statements (ie when the subsidiary is the reporting entity). However, a parent would include its continuing involvement (or that of another member of the group) in a financial asset transferred by its subsidiary in determining whether it has continuing involvement in the transferred asset in its consolidated financial statements (ie when the reporting entity is the group).

An entity does not have a continuing involvement in a transferred financial asset if, as part of the transfer, it neither retains any of the contractual rights or obligations inherent in the transferred financial asset nor acquires any new contractual rights or obligations relating to the transferred financial asset. An entity does not have continuing involvement in a transferred financial asset if it has neither an interest in the future performance of the transferred financial asset nor a responsibility under any circumstances to make payments in respect of the transferred financial asset in the future. The term ‘payment’ in this context does not include cash flows of the transferred financial asset that an entity collects and is required to remit to the transferee.

B30 An entity does not have a continuing involvement in a transferred financial asset if, as part of the transfer, it neither retains any of the contractual rights or obligations inherent in the transferred financial asset nor acquires any new contractual rights or obligations relating to the transferred financial asset. An entity does not have continuing involvement in a transferred financial asset if it has neither an interest in the future performance of the transferred financial asset nor a responsibility under any circumstances to make payments
in respect of the transferred financial asset in the future.

When an entity transfers a financial asset, the entity may retain the right to service that financial asset for a fee that is included in, for example, a servicing contract. The entity assesses the servicing contract in accordance with the guidance in paragraphs 42C and B30 to decide whether the entity has continuing involvement as a result of the servicing contract for the purposes of the disclosure requirements. For example, a servicer will have continuing involvement in the transferred financial asset for the purposes of the disclosure requirements if the servicing fee is dependent on the amount or timing of the cash flows collected from the transferred financial asset. Similarly, a servicer has continuing involvement for the purposes of the disclosure requirements if a fixed fee would not be paid in full because of non-performance of the transferred financial asset. In these examples, the servicer has an interest in the future performance of the transferred financial asset. This assessment is independent of whether the fee to be received is expected to compensate the entity adequately for performing the servicing.

B31 Continuing involvement in a transferred financial asset may result from contractual provisions in the transfer agreement or in a separate agreement with the transferee or a third party entered into in connection with the transfer.

Transferred financial assets that are not derecognised in their entirety (paragraph 42D)

B32 Paragraph 42D requires disclosures when part or all of the transferred financial assets do not qualify for derecognition. Those disclosures are required at each reporting date at which the entity continues to recognise the transferred financial assets, regardless of when the transfers occurred.

Types of continuing involvement (paragraphs 42E–42H)

B33 Paragraphs 42E–42H require qualitative and quantitative disclosures for each type of continuing involvement in derecognised financial assets. An entity shall aggregate its continuing involvement into types that are representative of the entity’s exposure to risks. For example, an entity may aggregate its continuing involvement by type of financial instrument (eg guarantees or call options) or by type of transfer (eg factoring of receivables, securitisations and securities lending).

Maturity analysis for undiscounted cash outflows to repurchase transferred assets [paragraph 42E(e)]

B34 Paragraph 42E(e) requires an entity to disclose a maturity analysis of the undiscounted cash outflows to repurchase derecognised financial assets or other amounts payable to the transferee in respect of the derecognised financial assets, showing the remaining contractual maturities of the entity’s continuing involvement. This analysis distinguishes cash flows that are required to be paid (eg forward contracts), cash
flows that the entity may be required to pay (eg written put options) and cash flows that the entity might choose to pay (eg purchased call options).

B35 An entity shall use its judgement to determine an appropriate number of time bands in preparing the maturity analysis required by paragraph 42E(e). For example, an entity might determine that the following maturity time bands are appropriate:

(a) not later than one month;

(b) later than one month and not later than three months;

(c) later than three months and not later than six months;

(d) later than six months and not later than one year;

(e) later than one year and not later than three years;

(f) later than three years and not later than five years; and

(g) more than five years.

B36 If there is a range of possible maturities, the cash flows are included on the basis of the earliest date on which the entity can be required or is permitted to pay.

Qualitative information [paragraph 42E(f)]

B37 The qualitative information required by paragraph 42E(f) includes a description of the derecognised financial assets and the nature and purpose of the continuing involvement retained after transferring those assets. It also includes a description of the risks to which an entity is exposed, including:

(a) a description of how the entity manages the risk inherent in its continuing involvement in the derecognised financial assets.

(b) whether the entity is required to bear losses before other parties, and the ranking and amounts of losses borne by parties whose interests rank lower than the entity’s interest in the asset (ie its continuing involvement in the asset).

(c) a description of any triggers associated with obligations to provide financial support or to repurchase a transferred financial asset.

Gain or loss on derecognition [paragraph 42G(a)]

B38 Paragraph 42G(a) requires an entity to disclose the gain or loss on derecognition relating to financial assets in which the entity has continuing involvement. The entity shall disclose if a gain or loss on derecognition arose because the fair values of the components of the previously recognised asset (ie the interest in the asset derecognised and the interest retained by the entity) were different from the fair value of the previously recognised asset as a whole. In that situation, the entity shall also disclose whether the fair value measurements included significant inputs that were not based on observable market data, as described in paragraph 27A.

Supplementary information (paragraph 42H)

B39 The disclosures required in paragraphs 42D–42G may not be sufficient to meet the disclosure objectives in paragraph 42B. If this is the case, the entity shall disclose whatever additional information is necessary to meet the disclosure objectives. The entity shall decide, in the light of its circumstances, how much additional information it needs to provide to satisfy the information needs of users and how much emphasis it places on
different aspects of the additional information. It is necessary to strike a balance between burdening financial statements with excessive detail that may not assist users of financial statements and obscuring information as a result of too much aggregation.

Offsetting financial assets and financial liabilities
(paragraphs 13A–13F).
Scope (paragraph 13A)

B40 The disclosures in paragraphs 13B–13E are required for all recognised financial instruments that are set off in accordance with paragraph 42 of Ind AS 32. In addition, financial instruments are within the scope of the disclosure requirements in paragraphs 13B–13E if they are subject to an enforceable master netting arrangement or similar agreement that covers similar financial instruments and transactions, irrespective of
whether the financial instruments are set-off in accordance with paragraph 42 of Ind AS 32.

B41 The similar agreements referred to in paragraphs 13A and B40 include derivative clearing agreements, global master repurchase agreements, global master securities lending agreements, and any related rights to financial collateral. The similar financial instruments and transactions referred to in paragraph B40 include derivatives,
sale and repurchase agreements, reverse sale and repurchase agreements, securities borrowing, and securities lending agreements. Examples of financial instruments that are not within the scope of paragraph 13A are loans and customer deposits at the same institution (unless they are set-off in the balance sheet), and financial instruments that are subject only to a collateral agreement.

Disclosure of quantitative information for recognised financial assets and recognised financial liabilities within the scope of paragraph 13A (paragraph 13C)

B42 Financial instruments disclosed in accordance with paragraph 13C may be subject to different measurement requirements (for example, a payable related to a repurchase agreement may be measured at amortised cost, while a derivative will be measured at fair value). An entity shall include instruments at their recognised amounts and describe any resulting measurement differences in the related disclosures.

Disclosure of the gross amounts of recognised financial assets and recognised financial liabilities within the scope of paragraph 13A [paragraph 13C(a)]

B43 The amounts required by paragraph 13C(a) relate to recognised financial instruments that are set-off in accordance with paragraph 42 of Ind AS 32. The amounts required by paragraph 13C(a) also relate to recognised financial instruments that are subject to an enforceable master netting arrangement or similar agreement irrespective of whether they meet the offsetting criteria. However, the disclosures required by paragraph 13C(a) do not relate to any amounts recognised as a result of collateral agreements that do not meet
the offsetting criteria in paragraph 42 of Ind AS 32. Instead, such amounts are required to be disclosed in accordance with paragraph 13C(d).

Disclosure of the amounts that are set-off in accordance with the criteria in paragraph 42 of Ind AS 32 [paragraph 13C(b)]

B44 Paragraph 13C(b) requires that entities disclose the amounts set-off in accordance with paragraph 42 of Ind AS 32 when determining the net amounts presented in the balance sheet. The amounts of both the recognised financial assets and the recognised financial liabilities that are subject to set-off under the same arrangement will be disclosed in both the financial asset and financial liability disclosures. However, the amounts
disclosed (in, for example, a table) are limited to the amounts that are subject to set-off. For example, an entity may have a recognised derivative asset and a recognised derivative liability that meet the offsetting criteria in paragraph 42 of Ind AS 32. If the gross amount of the derivative asset is larger than the gross amount of the derivative liability, the financial asset disclosure table will include the entire amount of the derivative asset (in accordance with paragraph 13C(a)) and the entire amount of the derivative liability (in accordance with paragraph 13C(b)). However, while the financial liability disclosure table will include the entire amount of the derivative liability (in accordance with paragraph 13C(a)), it will only include the amount of the derivative asset (in accordance with paragraph 13C(b)) that is equal to the amount of the derivative liability.

Disclosure of the net amounts presented in the balance sheet (paragraph 13C(c))
B45 If an entity has instruments that meet the scope of these disclosures (as specified in paragraph 13A), but that do not meet the offsetting criteria in paragraph 42 of Ind AS 32, the amounts required to be disclosed by paragraph 13C(c) would equal the amounts required to be disclosed by paragraph 13C(a).

B46 The amounts required to be disclosed by paragraph 13C(c) must be reconciled to the individual line item amounts presented in the balance sheet. For example, if an entity determines that the aggregation or disaggregation of individual financial statement line item amounts provides more relevant information, it must reconcile the aggregated or disaggregated amounts disclosed in paragraph 13C(c) back to the individual
line item amounts presented in the balance sheet.

Disclosure of the amounts subject to an enforceable master netting arrangement or similar agreement that are not otherwise included in paragraph 13C(b) (paragraph 13C(d))

B47 Paragraph 13C(d) requires that entities disclose amounts that are subject to an enforceable master netting arrangement or similar agreement that are not otherwise included in paragraph 13C(b). Paragraph 13C(d)(i) refers to amounts related to recognised financial instruments that do not meet some or all of the offsetting criteria in paragraph 42 of Ind AS 32 (for example, current rights of set-off that do not meet the criterion in
paragraph 42(b) of Ind AS 32, or conditional rights of set-off that are enforceable and exercisable only in the event of default, or only in the event of insolvency or bankruptcy of any of the counterparties).

B48 Paragraph 13C(d)(ii) refers to amounts related to financial collateral, including cash collateral, both received and pledged. An entity shall disclose the fair value of those financial instruments that have been pledged or received as collateral. The amounts disclosed in accordance with paragraph 13C(d)(ii) should relate to the actual collateral received or pledged and not to any resulting payables or receivables recognised to return or receive back such collateral.

Limits on the amounts disclosed in paragraph 13C(d) (paragraph 13D)

B49 When disclosing amounts in accordance with paragraph 13C(d), an entity must take into account the effects of over-collateralisation by financial instrument. To do so, the entity must first deduct the amounts disclosed in accordance with paragraph 13C(d)(i) from the amount disclosed in accordance with paragraph 13C(c). The
entity shall then limit the amounts disclosed in accordance with paragraph 13C(d)(ii) to the remaining amount in paragraph 13C(c) for the related financial instrument. However, if rights to collateral can be enforced across financial instruments, such rights can be included in the disclosure provided in accordance with paragraph 13D.

Description of the rights of set-off subject to enforceable master netting arrangements and similar agreements (paragraph 13E)

B50 An entity shall describe the types of rights of set-off and similar arrangements disclosed in accordance with paragraph 13C(d), including the nature of those rights. For example, an entity shall describe its conditional rights. For instruments subject to rights of set-off that are not contingent on a future event but that do not meet the remaining criteria in paragraph 42 of Ind AS 32, the entity shall describe the reason(s) why the criteria are not met. For any financial collateral received or pledged, the entity shall describe the terms of the collateral agreement (for example, when the collateral is restricted).

Disclosure by type of financial instrument or by counterparty

B51 The quantitative disclosures required by paragraph 13C(a)–(e) may be grouped by type of financial instrument or transaction (for example, derivatives, repurchase and reverse repurchase agreements or securities borrowing and securities lending agreements).

B52 Alternatively, an entity may group the quantitative disclosures required by paragraph 13C(a)–(c) by type of financial instrument, and the quantitative disclosures required by paragraph 13C(c)–(e) by counterparty. If an entity provides the required information by counterparty, the entity is not required to identify the counterparties by name. However, designation of counterparties (Counterparty A, Counterparty B, Counterparty C, etc) shall remain consistent from year to year for the years presented to maintain comparability. Qualitative disclosures shall be considered so that further information can be given about the types of counterparties. When disclosure of the amounts in paragraph 13C(c)–(e) is provided by counterparty, amounts that are individually significant in terms of total counterparty amounts shall be separately disclosed and the remaining individually insignificant counterparty amounts shall be aggregated into one line item.

Other

B53 The specific disclosures required by paragraphs 13C–13E are minimum requirements. To meet the objective in paragraph 13B an entity may need to supplement them with additional (qualitative) disclosures, depending on the terms of the enforceable master netting arrangements and related agreements, including the nature of the rights of set-off, and their effect or potential effect on the entity’s financial position.

Appendix C

References to matters contained in other Indian Accounting Standards
This Appendix is an integral part of the Ind AS.

This appendix lists the appendices which are part of other Indian Accounting Standards and makes reference to Ind AS 107, Financial Instruments: Disclosures.

1. Appendix A, Distributions of Non-cash Assets to Owners, contained in Ind AS 10, Events After the Reporting Period

  Appendix D, Service Concession Arrangements, contained in Ind AS 115, Revenue from Contracts with Customers.

2.

Appendix C, Service Concession Arrangements, contained in Ind AS 115, Revenue from Contracts with Customers

Appendix 1

Note: This Appendix is not a part of the Indian Accounting Standard. The purpose of this Appendix is only to bring out the major differences, if any, between Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 107 and the corresponding International Accounting Standard (IFRS) 7, Financial Instruments: Disclosures, issued by the International Accounting Standards Board.

Comparison with IFRS 7, Financial Instruments: Disclosures

1 The transitional provisions given in IAS 107 have not been given in Ind AS 107, since all transitional provisions related to Ind ASs, wherever considered appropriate have been included in Ind AS 101, First-time Adoption of Indian Accounting Standards corresponding to IFRS 1, First-time Adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards.

2 Different terminology is used, as used in existing laws eg, the term ‘balance sheet’ is used instead of ‘Statement of financial position’ and ‘Statement of profit and loss’ is used instead of ‘Statement of comprehensive income’. Words ‘approved for issue’ have been used instead of ‘authorised for issue’ in the context of financial statements considered for the purpose of events after the reporting period.

3 Requirements regarding disclosure of description of gains and losses presented in the separate income statement, where separate income statement is presented, have been deleted. This change is consequential to the removal of option regarding two statement approach in Ind AS 1 as compared to IAS 1. Ind AS 1 requires that the components of profit or loss and components of other comprehensive income shall be presented as a
part of the statement of profit and loss.

4 The following paragraph numbers appear as ‘Deleted’ in IFRS 7. In order to maintain consistency with paragraph numbers of Ind 107, the paragraph numbers are retained in Ind AS 107 :
(i) paragraph 3(c)
(ii) paragraph 8(b)-(d)
(iii) paragraph 12-12A
(iv) paragraph 13
(v) paragraph 16
(vi) paragraph 20(a) (ii)-(iv) and 20(d)-(e)
(vii) paragraph 22
(viii) paragraph 23
(ix) paragraph 24
(x) paragraph 27-27B
(xi) paragraph 29(b)
(xii) paragraph 36 (c)-(d)

(xiii) paragraph 37
(xiv) paragraph B4 of Appendix B
(xv) paragraph B5 (b), (d), (f) & (g)
(xvi) paragraphs B12-B16 of Appendix B

Paragraphs 42I-42S of IFRS 7 have not been included in Ind AS 107 as these paragraphs relate to Initial application of IFRS 9 which are not relevant in Indian context. Paragraphs 43-44BB related to effective date and transition given in IFRS 7 have not been given in Ind AS 107 since it is not relevant in Indian context. However, in order to maintain consistency with paragraph numbers of IFRS 7, these paragraph numbers are retained in Ind AS 107.

Substituted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2018 dated 28.03.2018 effective from 01.04.2018. To view the notification,Click Here
Substituted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2016, GSR 365(E) dated 30.03.2016. To view the notification,Click Here
Substituted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2016, GSR 365(E) dated 30.03.2016. To view the notification,Click Here
Substituted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2019 dated 30.03.2019. To view the Notification, Click Here.
Substituted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2019 dated 30.03.2019. To view the Notification, Click Here.
Substituted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2019 dated 30.03.2019. To view the Notification, Click Here.
Substituted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2019 dated 30.03.2019. To view the Notification, Click Here.
Substituted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2016, GSR 365(E) dated 30.03.2016. To view the notification,Click Here
Substituted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2016, GSR 365(E) dated 30.03.2016. To view the notification,Click Here
Substituted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2019 dated 30.03.2019. To view the Notification, Click Here.
Substituted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2016, GSR 365(E) dated 30.03.2016. To view the notification,Click Here
Inserted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2016, GSR 365(E) dated 30.03.2016. To view the notification,Click Here
Substituted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2018 dated 28.03.2018 effective from 01.04.2018. To view the notification,Click Here
Substituted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2016, GSR 365(E) dated 30.03.2016. To view the notification,Click Here
Substituted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2019 dated 30.03.2019. To view the Notification, Click Here.

Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 108


Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 109

Financial Instruments
(The Indian Accounting Standard includes paragraphs set in bold type and plain type, which have equal authority. Paragraphs in bold type indicate the main principles.)

Chapter 1 Objective

1.1 The objective of this Standard is to establish principles for the financial reporting of financial assets and financial liabilities that will present relevant and useful information to users of financial statements for their assessment of the amounts, timing and uncertainty of an entity’s future cash flows.

Chapter 2 Scope
2.1 This Standard shall be applied by all entities to all types of financial instruments except:

(a) those interests in subsidiaries, associates and joint ventures that are accounted for in accordance with Ind AS110 Consolidated Financial Statements, Ind AS 27 Separate Financial Statements or Ind AS 28 Investments in Associates and Joint Ventures. However, in some cases, Ind AS110, Ind AS 27 or Ind AS 28 require or permit an entity to account for an interest in a subsidiary, associate or joint venture in accordance with some or all of the requirements of this Standard. Entities shall also apply this Standard to derivatives on an interest in a subsidiary, associate or joint venture unless the derivative meets the definition
of an equity instrument of the entity in Ind AS 32 Financial Instruments:Presentation.

rights and obligations under leases to which Ind AS 116, Leases applies. However:

(i) finance lease receivables (i.e. net investments in finance leases) and operating lease receivables recognised by a lessor are subject to the derecognition and impairment requirements of this Standard;

(ii) lease liabilities recognised by a lessee are subject to the derecognition requirements in paragraph 3.3.1 of this Standard; and

(iii) derivatives that are embedded in leases are subject to the embedded derivatives requirements of this Standard.

(b) rights and obligations under leases to which Ind AS 17 Leases applies. However:

(i) lease receivables recognised by a lessor are subject to the derecognition and impairment requirements of this Standard; 

(ii) finance lease payables recognised by a lessee are subject to the derecognition requirements of this Standard; and

(iii) derivatives that are embedded in leases are subject to the embedded derivatives requirements of this Standard.

(c) employers’ rights and obligations under employee benefit plans, to which Ind AS 19 Employee Benefits applies.

(d) financial instruments issued by the entity that meet the definition of an equity instrument in Ind AS 32 (including options and warrants) or that are required to be classified as an equity instrument in accordance with paragraphs 16A and 16B or paragraphs 16C and 16D of Ind AS 32. However, the holder of such equity instruments shall apply this Standard to those instruments, unless they meet the exception in (a).

(e) rights and obligations arising under (i) an insurance contract as defined in Ind AS 104 Insurance Contracts, other than an issuer’s rights and obligations arising under an insurance contract that meets the definition of a financial guarantee contract, or (ii) a contract that is within the scope of Ind AS104 because it contains a discretionary participation feature. However, this Standard applies to a derivative that is embedded in a contract within the scope of Ind AS104 if the derivative is not itself a contract within the scope of Ind AS104. Moreover, if an issuer of financial guarantee contracts has previously asserted explicitly that it regards such contracts as insurance contracts and has used accounting that is applicable to insurance contracts, the issuer may elect to apply either this
Standard or Ind AS104 to such financial guarantee contracts (see paragraphs B2.5–B2.6). The issuer may make that election contract by contract, but the election for each contract is irrevocable.

(f) any forward contract between an acquirer and a selling shareholder to buy or sell an acquiree that will result in a business combination within the scope of Ind AS103 Business Combinations at a future acquisition date. The term of the forward contract should not exceed a reasonable period normally necessary to obtain any required approvals and to complete the transaction.

(g) loan commitments other than those loan commitments described in paragraph 2.3. However, an issuer of loan commitments shall apply the impairment requirements of this Standard to loan commitments that are not otherwise within the scope of this Standard. Also, all loan commitments are subject to the derecognition requirements of this Standard.

(h) financial instruments, contracts and obligations under share-based payment transactions to which Ind AS102 Share-based Payment applies, except for contracts within the scope of paragraphs 2.4–2.7 of this Standard to which this Standard applies.

(i) rights to payments to reimburse the entity for expenditure that it is required to make to settle a liability that it recognises as a provision in accordance with Ind AS 37 Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets, or for which, in an earlier period, it recognised a provision in accordance with Ind AS 37.

 rights and obligations within the scope of Ind AS 115, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, that are financial instruments, except for those that Ind AS 115 specifies are accounted for in accordance with this Standard.

rights and obligations within the scope of Ind AS 11, Construction Contracts, and Ind AS 18, Revenue, that are financial instruments, except for those that Ind AS 11 and Ind AS 18 specify are accounted for in accordance with this Standard.

(j) rights and obligations within the scope of Ind AS115 Revenue from Contracts with Customers that are financial instruments, except for those that Ind AS115 specifies are accounted for in accordance with this Standard.

 The impairment requirements of this Standard shall be applied to those rights that Ind AS 115 specifies are accounted for in accordance with this Standard for the purposes of recognising impairment gains or losses.

The impairment requirements of this Standard shall be applied to those rights that Ind AS 11 and Ind AS 18 specify are accounted for in accordance with this Standard for the purposes of recognising impairment gains or losses.

2.2 The impairment requirements of this Standard shall be applied to those rights that Ind AS115 specifies are accounted for in accordance with this Standard for the purposes of recognising impairment gains or losses.

2.3 The following loan commitments are within the scope of this Standard:

(a) loan commitments that the entity designates as financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss (see paragraph 4.2.2). An entity that has a past practice of selling the assets resulting from its loan commitments shortly after origination shall apply this Standard to all its loan commitments in the same class.

(b) loan commitments that can be settled net in cash or by delivering or issuing another financial instrument. These loan commitments are derivatives. A loan commitment is not regarded as settled net merely because the loan is paid out in instalments (for example, a mortgage construction loan that is paid out in instalments in line with the progress of construction).

(c) commitments to provide a loan at a below-market interest rate (see paragraph 4.2.1(d)).

2.4 This Standard shall be applied to those contracts to buy or sell a non-financial item that can be settled net in cash or another financial instrument, or by exchanging financial instruments, as if the contracts were financial instruments, with the exception of contracts that were entered into and continue to be held for the purpose of the receipt or delivery of a non-financial item in accordance with the entity’s expected purchase, sale or usage requirements. However, this Standard shall be
applied to those contracts that an entity designates as measured at fair value through profit or loss in accordance with paragraph 2.5.

2.5 A contract to buy or sell a non-financial item that can be settled net in cash or another financial instrument, or by exchanging financial instruments, as if the contract was a financial instrument, may be irrevocably designated as measured at fair value through profit or loss even if it was entered into for the purpose of the receipt or delivery of a non-financial item in accordance with the entity’s expected purchase, sale or usage requirements. This designation is available only at inception of the contract and only if it eliminates or significantly reduces a recognition inconsistency (sometimes referred to as an ‘accounting mismatch’) that would otherwise arise from not recognising that contract because it is excluded from the scope of this Standard (see paragraph 2.4).

2.6 There are various ways in which a contract to buy or sell a non-financial item can be settled net in cash or another financial instrument or by exchanging financial instruments. These include:

(a) when the terms of the contract permit either party to settle it net in cash or another financial instrument or by exchanging financial instruments;

(b) when the ability to settle net in cash or another financial instrument, or by exchanging financial instruments, is not explicit in the terms of the contract, but the entity has a practice of settling similar contracts net in cash or another financial instrument or by exchanging financial instruments (whether with the counterparty, by entering into offsetting contracts or by selling the contract before its exercise or lapse);

(c) when, for similar contracts, the entity has a practice of taking delivery of the underlying and selling it within a short period after delivery for the purpose of generating a profit from short-term fluctuations in price or dealer’s margin; and

(d) when the non-financial item that is the subject of the contract is readily convertible to cash.

A contract to which (b) or (c) applies is not entered into for the purpose of the receipt or delivery of the non-financial item in accordance with the entity’s expected purchase, sale or usage requirements and, accordingly, is within the scope of this Standard. Other contracts to which paragraph 2.4 applies are evaluated to determine whether they were entered into and continue to be held for the purpose of the receipt or delivery of the non-financial item in accordance with the entity’s expected purchase, sale or usage requirements and, accordingly, whether they are within the scope of this Standard.

2.7 A written option to buy or sell a non-financial item that can be settled net in cash or another financial instrument, or by exchanging financial instruments, in accordance with paragraph 2.6(a) or 2.6(d) is within the scope of this Standard. Such a contract cannot be entered into for the purpose of the receipt or delivery of the non-financial item in accordance with the entity’s expected purchase, sale or usage requirements.

Chapter 3 Recognition and derecognition

3.1 Initial recognition

3.1.1 An entity shall recognise a financial asset or a financial liability in its balance sheet when, and only when, the entity becomes party to the contractual provisions of the instrument (see paragraphs B3.1.1 and B3.1.2). When an entity first recognises a financial asset, it shall classify it in accordance with paragraphs 4.1.1–4.1.5 and measure it in accordance with paragraphs 5.1.1–5.1.3. When an entity first recognises a financial liability, it shall classify it in accordance with paragraphs 4.2.1 and 4.2.2 and measure it in accordance with paragraph 5.1.1. 

Regular way purchase or sale of financial assets

3.1.2 A regular way purchase or sale of financial assets shall be recognised and derecognised, as applicable, using trade date accounting or settlement date accounting (see paragraphs B3.1.3–B3.1.6).

3.2 Derecognition of financial assets

3.2.1 In consolidated financial statements, paragraphs 3.2.2–3.2.9, B3.1.1, B3.1.2 and B3.2.1–B3.2.17 are applied at a consolidated level. Hence, an entity first consolidates all subsidiaries in accordance with Ind AS110 and then applies those paragraphs to the resulting group.

3.2.2 Before evaluating whether, and to what extent, derecognition is appropriate under paragraphs 3.2.3– 3.2.9, an entity determines whether those paragraphs should be applied to a part of a financial asset (or a part of a group of similar financial assets) or a financial asset (or a group of similar financial assets) in its entirety, as follows.

(a) Paragraphs 3.2.3–3.2.9 are applied to a part of a financial asset (or a part of a group of similar financial assets) if, and only if, the part being considered for derecognition meets one of the following three conditions.

(i) The part comprises only specifically identified cash flows from a financial asset (or a group of similar financial assets). For example, when an entity enters into an interest rate strip whereby the counterparty obtains the right to the interest cash flows, but not the principal cash flows from a debt instrument, paragraphs 3.2.3–3.2.9 are applied to the interest cash flows.

(ii) The part comprises only a fully proportionate (pro rata) share of the cash flows from a financial asset (or a group of similar financial assets). For example, when an entity enters into an arrangement whereby the counterparty obtains the rights to a 90 per cent share of all cash flows of a debt instrument, paragraphs 3.2.3–3.2.9 are applied to 90 per cent of those cash flows. If there is more than one counterparty, each counterparty is not required to have a proportionate share of the cash flows provided that the transferring entity has a fully proportionate share.

(iii) The part comprises only a fully proportionate (pro rata) share of specifically identified cash flows from a financial asset (or a group of similar financial assets). For example, when an entity enters into an arrangement whereby the counterparty obtains the rights to a 90 per cent share of interest cash flows from a financial asset, paragraphs 3.2.3–3.2.9 are applied to 90 per cent of those interest cash flows. If there is more than one counterparty, each counterparty is not required to have a proportionate share of the specifically identified cash flows provided that the transferring entity has a fully proportionate share.

(b) In all other cases, paragraphs 3.2.3–3.2.9 are applied to the financial asset in its entirety (or to the group of similar financial assets in their entirety). For example, when an entity transfers (i) the rights to the first or the last 90 per cent of cash collections from a financial asset (or a group of financial assets), or (ii) the rights to 90 per cent of the cash flows from a group of receivables, but provides a guarantee to compensate the buyer for any credit losses up to 8 per cent of the principal amount of the receivables, paragraphs 3.2.3–3.2.9 are applied to the financial asset (or a group of similar financial assets) in its entirety.

In paragraphs 3.2.3–3.2.12, the term ‘financial asset’ refers to either a part of a financial asset (or a part of a group of similar financial assets) as identified in (a) above or, otherwise, a financial asset (or a group of similar financial assets) in its entirety.

3.2.3 An entity shall derecognise a financial asset when, and only when:

(a) the contractual rights to the cash flows from the financial asset expire, or

(b) it transfers the financial asset as set out in paragraphs 3.2.4 and 3.2.5 and the transfer qualifies for derecognition in accordance with paragraph 3.2.6.
(See paragraph 3.1.2 for regular way sales of financial assets.)

3.2.4 An entity transfers a financial asset if, and only if, it either:

(a) transfers the contractual rights to receive the cash flows of the financial asset, or

(b) retains the contractual rights to receive the cash flows of the financial asset, but assumes a contractual obligation to pay the cash flows to one or more recipients in an arrangement that meets the conditions in paragraph 3.2.5.

3.2.5 When an entity retains the contractual rights to receive the cash flows of a financial asset (the ‘original asset’), but assumes a contractual obligation to pay those cash flows to one or more entities (the ‘eventual recipients’), the entity treats the transaction as a transfer of a financial asset if, and only if, all of the following three conditions are met.

(a) The entity has no obligation to pay amounts to the eventual recipients unless it collects equivalent amounts from the original asset. Short-term advances by the entity with the right of full recovery of the amount lent plus accrued interest at market rates do not violate this condition.

(b) The entity is prohibited by the terms of the transfer contract from selling or pledging the original asset other than as security to the eventual recipients for the obligation to pay them cash flows.

(c) The entity has an obligation to remit any cash flows it collects on behalf of the eventual recipients without material delay. In addition, the entity is not entitled to reinvest such cash flows, except for investments in cash or cash equivalents (as defined in Ind AS 7 Statement of Cash Flows) during the short settlement period from the collection date to the date of required remittance to the eventual recipients, and interest earned on such investments is passed to the eventual recipients.

3.2.6 When an entity transfers a financial asset (see paragraph 3.2.4), it shall evaluate the extent to which it retains the risks and rewards of ownership of the financial asset. In this case:

(a) if the entity transfers substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the financial asset, the entity shall derecognise the financial asset and recognise separately as assets or liabilities any rights and obligations created or retained in the transfer.

(b) if the entity retains substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the financial asset, the entity shall continue to recognise the financial asset.

(c) if the entity neither transfers nor retains substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the financial asset, the entity shall determine whether it has retained control of the financial asset. In this case:

(i) if the entity has not retained control, it shall derecognise the financial asset and recognise separately as assets or liabilities any rights and obligations created or retained in the transfer.

(ii) if the entity has retained control, it shall continue to recognise the financial asset to the extent of its continuing involvement in the financial asset (see paragraph 3.2.16).

3.2.7 The transfer of risks and rewards (see paragraph 3.2.6) is evaluated by comparing the entity’s exposure, before and after the transfer, with the variability in the amounts and timing of the net cash flows of the transferred asset. An entity has retained substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of a financial asset if its exposure to the variability in the present value of the future net cash flows from the financial asset does not change significantly as a result of the transfer (eg because the entity has sold a financial
asset subject to an agreement to buy it back at a fixed price or the sale price plus a lender’s return). An entity has transferred substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of a financial asset if its exposure to such variability is no longer significant in relation to the total variability in the present value of the future net cash flows associated with the financial asset (eg because the entity has sold a financial asset subject only to an option to buy it back at its fair value at the time of repurchase or has transferred a fully proportionate share of the cash flows from a larger financial asset in an arrangement, such as a loan sub-participation, that meets the conditions in paragraph 3.2.5).

3.2.8 Often it will be obvious whether the entity has transferred or retained substantially all risks and rewards of ownership and there will be no need to perform any computations. In other cases, it will be necessary to compute and compare the entity’s exposure to the variability in the present value of the future net cash flows before and after the transfer. The computation and comparison are made using as the discount rate an appropriate current market interest rate. All reasonably possible variability in net cash flows is considered, with greater weight being given to those outcomes that are more likely to occur.

3.2.9 Whether the entity has retained control (see paragraph 3.2.6(c)) of the transferred asset depends on the transferee’s ability to sell the asset. If the transferee has the practical ability to sell the asset in its entirety to an unrelated third party and is able to exercise that ability unilaterally and without needing to impose additional restrictions on the transfer, the entity has not retained control. In all other cases, the entity has retained control.

Transfers that qualify for derecognition

3.2.10 If an entity transfers a financial asset in a transfer that qualifies for derecognition in its entirety and retains the right to service the financial asset for a fee, it shall recognise either a servicing asset or a servicing liability for that servicing contract. If the fee to be received is not expected to compensate the entity adequately for performing the servicing, a servicing liability for the servicing obligation shall be recognised at its fair value. If the fee to be received is expected to be more than adequate compensation for the servicing, a servicing asset shall be recognised for the servicing right at an amount determined on the basis of an allocation of the carrying amount of the larger financial asset in accordance with paragraph 3.2.13.

3.2.11 If, as a result of a transfer, a financial asset is derecognised in its entirety but the transfer results in the entity obtaining a new financial asset or assuming a new financial liability, or a servicing liability, the entity shall recognise the new financial asset, financial liability or servicing liability at fair value.

3.2.12 On derecognition of a financial asset in its entirety, the difference between:

(a) the carrying amount (measured at the date of derecognition) and

(b) the consideration received (including any new asset obtained less any new liability assumed) shall be recognised in profit or loss.

3.2.13 If the transferred asset is part of a larger financial asset (eg when an entity transfers interest cash flows that are part of a debt instrument, see paragraph 3.2.2(a)) and the part transferred qualifies for derecognition in its entirety, the previous carrying amount of the larger financial asset shall be allocated between the part that continues to be recognised and the part that is derecognised, on the
basis of the relative fair values of those parts on the date of the transfer. For this purpose, a retained servicing asset shall be treated as a part that continues to be recognised. The difference between:

(a) the carrying amount (measured at the date of derecognition) allocated to the part derecognised and 

(b) the consideration received for the part derecognised (including any new asset obtained less any new liability assumed) shall be recognised in profit or loss.

3.2.14 When an entity allocates the previous carrying amount of a larger financial asset between the part that continues to be recognised and the part that is derecognised, the fair value of the part that continues to be recognised needs to be measured. When the entity has a history of selling parts similar to the part that continues to be recognised or other market transactions exist for such parts, recent prices of actual transactions provide the best estimate of its fair value. When there are no price quotes or recent market
transactions to support the fair value of the part that continues to be recognised, the best estimate of the fair value is the difference between the fair value of the larger financial asset as a whole and the consideration received from the transferee for the part that is derecognised.

Transfers that do not qualify for derecognition

3.2.15 If a transfer does not result in derecognition because the entity has retained substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the transferred asset, the entity shall continue to recognise the transferred asset in its entirety and shall recognise a financial liability for the consideration received. In subsequent periods, the entity shall recognise any income on the transferred asset and any expense incurred on the financial liability.

Continuing involvement in transferred assets

3.2.16 If an entity neither transfers nor retains substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of a transferred asset, and retains control of the transferred asset, the entity continues to recognise the transferred asset to the extent of its continuing involvement. The extent of the entity’s continuing involvement in the transferred asset is the extent to which it is exposed to changes in the value of the
transferred asset. For example:

(a) When the entity’s continuing involvement takes the form of guaranteeing the transferred asset, the extent of the entity’s continuing involvement is the lower of (i) the amount of the asset and (ii) the maximum amount of the consideration received that the entity could be required to repay (‘the guarantee amount’).

(b) When the entity’s continuing involvement takes the form of a written or purchased option (or both) on the transferred asset, the extent of the entity’s continuing involvement is the amount of the transferred asset that the entity may repurchase. However, in the case of a written put option on an asset that is measured at fair value, the extent of the entity’s continuing involvement is limited to the lower of the fair value of the transferred asset and the option
exercise price (see paragraph B3.2.13).

(c) When the entity’s continuing involvement takes the form of a cash-settled option or similar provision on the transferred asset, the extent of the entity’s continuing involvement is measured in the same way as that which results from non-cash settled options as set out in (b) above.

3.2.17 When an entity continues to recognise an asset to the extent of its continuing involvement, the entity also recognises an associated liability. Despite the other measurement requirements in this Standard, the transferred asset and the associated liability are measured on a basis that reflects the rights and obligations that the entity has retained. The associated liability is measured in such a way that the net carrying amount of the transferred asset and the associated liability is:

(a) the amortised cost of the rights and obligations retained by the entity, if the transferred asset is measured at amortised cost, or

(b) equal to the fair value of the rights and obligations retained by the entity when measured on a stand-alone basis, if the transferred asset is measured at fair value.

3.2.18 The entity shall continue to recognise any income arising on the transferred asset to the extent of its continuing involvement and shall recognise any expense incurred on the associated liability.

3.2.19 For the purpose of subsequent measurement, recognised changes in the fair value of the transferred asset and the associated liability are accounted for consistently with each other in accordance with paragraph 5.7.1, and shall not be offset.

3.2.20 If an entity’s continuing involvement is in only a part of a financial asset (eg when an entity retains an option to repurchase part of a transferred asset, or retains a residual interest that does not result in the retention of substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership and the entity retains control), the entity allocates the previous carrying amount of the financial asset between the part it continues to recognise under continuing involvement, and the part it no longer recognises on thee basis of the relative fair values of those parts on the date of the transfer. For this purpose, the requirements of paragraph 3.2.14 apply. The difference between:

(a) the carrying amount (measured at the date of derecognition) allocated to the part that is no longer recognised and

(b) the consideration received for the part no longer recognised shall be recognised in profit or loss.

3.2.21 If the transferred asset is measured at amortised cost, the option in this Standard to designate a financial liability as at fair value through profit or loss is not applicable to the associated liability.

All transfers

3.2.22 If a transferred asset continues to be recognised, the asset and the associated liability shall not be  offset. Similarly, the entity shall not offset any income arising from the transferred asset with any expense incurred on the associated liability (see paragraph 42 of Ind AS 32).

3.2.23 If a transferor provides non-cash collateral (such as debt or equity instruments) to the transferee, the accounting for the collateral by the transferor and the transferee depends on whether the transferee has the right to sell or repledge the collateral and on whether the transferor has defaulted. The transferor and transferee shall account for the collateral as follows:

(a) If the transferee has the right by contract or custom to sell or repledge the collateral, then the transferor shall reclassify that asset in its balance sheet (eg as a loaned asset, pledged equity instruments or repurchase receivable) separately from other assets.

(b) If the transferee sells collateral pledged to it, it shall recognise the proceeds from the sale and a liability measured at fair value for its obligation to return the collateral.

(c) If the transferor defaults under the terms of the contract and is no longer entitled to redeem the collateral, it shall derecognise the collateral, and the transferee shall recognise the collateral as its asset initially measured at fair value or, if it has already sold the collateral, derecognise its obligation to return the collateral.

(d) Except as provided in (c), the transferor shall continue to carry the collateral as its asset, and the transferee shall not recognise the collateral as an asset.

3.3 Derecognition of financial liabilities

3.3.1 An entity shall remove a financial liability (or a part of a financial liability) from its balance sheet when, and only when, it is extinguished—ie when the obligation specified in the contract is discharged or cancelled or expires.

3.3.2 An exchange between an existing borrower and lender of debt instruments with substantially different terms shall be accounted for as an extinguishment of the original financial liability and the recognition of a new financial liability. Similarly, a substantial modification of the terms of an existing financial liability or a part of it (whether or not attributable to the financial difficulty of the debtor) shall be accounted for as an extinguishment of the original financial liability and the
recognition of a new financial liability.

3.3.3 The difference between the carrying amount of a financial liability (or part of a financial liability) extinguished or transferred to another party and the consideration paid, including any non-cash assets transferred or liabilities assumed, shall be recognised in profit or loss.

3.3.4 If an entity repurchases a part of a financial liability, the entity shall allocate the previous carrying amount of the financial liability between the part that continues to be recognised and the part that is derecognised based on the relative fair values of those parts on the date of the repurchase. The difference between (a) the carrying amount allocated to the part derecognised and (b) the consideration paid, including any non-cash assets transferred or liabilities assumed, for the part derecognised shall be recognised in profit or loss.

Chapter 4 Classification

4.1 Classification of financial assets

4.1.1 Unless paragraph 4.1.5 applies, an entity shall classify financial assets as subsequently measured at amortised cost, fair value through other comprehensive income or fair value through profit or loss on the basis of both:

(a) the entity’s business model for managing the financial assets and (b) the contractual cash flow characteristics of the financial asset.

4.1.2 A financial asset shall be measured at amortised cost if both of the following conditions are met:

(a) the financial asset is held within a business model whose objective is to hold financial assets in order to collect contractual cash flows and

(b) the contractual terms of the financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.

Paragraphs B4.1.1–B4.1.26 provide guidance on how to apply these conditions.
4.1.2A A financial asset shall be measured at fair value through other comprehensive income if both of the following conditions are met:

(a) the financial asset is held within a business model whose objective is achieved by both collecting contractual cash flows and selling financial assets and

(b) the contractual terms of the financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.

Paragraphs B4.1.1–B4.1.26 provide guidance on how to apply these conditions.

4.1.3 For the purpose of applying paragraphs 4.1.2(b) and 4.1.2A(b):

(a) principal is the fair value of the financial asset at initial recognition. Paragraph B4.1.7B provides additional guidance on the meaning of principal.

(b) interest consists of consideration for the time value of money, for the credit risk associated with the principal amount outstanding during a particular period of time and for other basic lending risks and costs, as well as a profit margin. Paragraphs B4.1.7A and B4.1.9A–B4.1.9E provide additional guidance on the meaning of interest, including the meaning of the time value of money.

4.1.4 A financial asset shall be measured at fair value through profit or loss unless it is measured at amortised cost in accordance with paragraph 4.1.2 or at fair value through other comprehensive income in accordance with paragraph 4.1.2A. However an entity may make an irrevocable election at initial recognition for particular investments in equity instruments that would otherwise be measured at fair value through profit or loss to present subsequent changes in fair value in other
comprehensive income (see paragraphs 5.7.5–5.7.6).

Option to designate a financial asset at fair value through profit or loss

4.1.5 Despite paragraphs 4.1.1–4.1.4, an entity may, at initial recognition, irrevocably designate a financial asset as measured at fair value through profit or loss if doing so eliminates or significantly reduces a measurement or recognition inconsistency (sometimes referred to as an ‘accounting mismatch’) that would otherwise arise from measuring assets or liabilities or recognising the gains and losses on them on different bases (see paragraphs B4.1.29–B4.1.32).

4.2 Classification of financial liabilities

4.2.1 An entity shall classify all financial liabilities as subsequently measured at amortised cost, except for:

(a) financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss. Such liabilities, including derivatives that are liabilities, shall be subsequently measured at fair value.

(b) financial liabilities that arise when a transfer of a financial asset does not qualify for derecognition or when the continuing involvement approach applies. Paragraphs 3.2.15 and 3.2.17 apply to the measurement of such financial liabilities.

(c) financial guarantee contracts. After initial recognition, an issuerof such a contract shall [unless paragraph 4.2.1(a) or (b) applies] subsequently measure it at the higher of:

(i) the amount of the loss allowance determined in accordance with Section 5.5 and

 the amount initially recognised (see paragraph 5.1.1) less, when appropriate, the cumulative amount of income recognised in accordance with the principle s of Ind AS 115.

the amount initially recognised (see paragraph 5.1.1) less, when appropriate, the cumulative amount of income recognised in accordance with the principles of Ind AS 18.

(ii) the amount initially recognised (see paragraph 5.1.1) less, when appropriate, the cumulative amount of income recognised in accordance with the principles of Ind AS115.

(d) commitments to provide a loan at a below-market interest rate. An issuer of such a commitment shall [unless paragraph 4.2.1(a) applies] subsequently measure it at the higher of:

(i) the amount of the loss allowance determined in accordance with Section 5.5 and

 the amount initially recognised (see paragraph 5.1.1) less, when appropriate, the cumulative amount of income recognised in accordance with the principle s of Ind AS 115.

the amount initially recognised (see paragraph 5.1.1) less, when appropriate, the cumulative amount of income recognised in accordance with the principles of Ind AS 18.

(ii) the amount initially recognised (see paragraph 5.1.1) less, when appropriate, the cumulative amount of income recognised in accordance with the principles of Ind AS115.

(e) contingent consideration recognised by an acquirer in a business combination to which Ind AS103 applies. Such contingent consideration shall subsequently be measured at fair value with changes recognised in profit or loss.

Option to designate a financial liability at fair value through profit or loss

4.2.2 An entity may, at initial recognition, irrevocably designate a financial liability as measured at fair value through profit or loss when permitted by paragraph 4.3.5, or when doing so results in more relevant information, because either:

(a) it eliminates or significantly reduces a measurement or recognition inconsistency (sometimes referred to as ‘an accounting mismatch’) that would otherwise arise from measuring assets or liabilities or recognising the gains and losses on them on different bases (see paragraphs B4.1.29–B4.1.32); or

(b) a group of financial liabilities or financial assets and financial liabilities is managed and its performance is evaluated on a fair value basis, in accordance with a documented risk management or investment strategy, and information about the group is provided internally on that basis to the entity’s key management personnel (as defined in Ind AS 24 Related Party Disclosures), for example, the entity’s board of directors and chief executive officer (see
paragraphs B4.1.33–B4.1.36).

4.3 Embedded derivatives
4.3.1 An embedded derivative is a component of a hybrid contract that also includes a non-derivative host—with the effect that some of the cash flows of the combined instrument vary in a way similar to a stand-alone derivative. An embedded derivative causes some or all of the cash flows that otherwise would be required by the contract to be modified according to a specified interest rate, financial instrument price, commodity
price, foreign exchange rate, index of prices or rates, credit rating or credit index, or other variable, provided in the case of a non-financial variable that the variable is not specific to a party to the contract. A derivative that is attached to a financial instrument but is contractually transferable independently of that instrument, or has a different counterparty, is not an embedded derivative, but a separate financial instrument.

Hybrid contracts with financial asset hosts
4.3.2 If a hybrid contract contains a host that is an asset within the scope of this Standard, an entity shall apply the requirements in paragraphs 4.1.1–4.1.5 to the entire hybrid contract.

Other hybrid contracts
4.3.3 If a hybrid contract contains a host that is not an asset within the scope of this Standard, an embedded derivative shall be separated from the host and accounted for as a derivative under this Standard if, and only if:

(a) the economic characteristics and risks of the embedded derivative are not closely related to the economic characteristics and risks of the host (see paragraphs B4.3.5 and B4.3.8);

(b) a separate instrument with the same terms as the embedded derivative would meet the definition of a derivative; and

(c) the hybrid contract is not measured at fair value with changes in fair value recognised in profit or loss (ie. a derivative that is embedded in a financial liability at fair value through profit or loss is not separated).

4.3.4 If an embedded derivative is separated, the host contract shall be accounted for in accordance with the appropriate Standards. This Standard does not address whether an embedded derivative shall be presented separately in the balance sheet.

4.3.5 Despite paragraphs 4.3.3 and 4.3.4, if a contract contains one or more embedded derivatives and the host is not an asset within the scope of this Standard, an entity may designate the entire hybrid contract as at fair value through profit or loss unless:

(a) the embedded derivative(s) do(es) not significantly modify the cash flows that otherwise would be required by the contract; or

(b) it is clear with little or no analysis when a similar hybrid instrument is first considered that separation of the embedded derivative(s) is prohibited, such as a prepayment option embedded in a loan that permits the holder to prepay the loan for approximately its amortised cost.

4.3.6 If an entity is required by this Standard to separate an embedded derivative from its host, but is unable to measure the embedded derivative separately either at acquisition or at the end of a subsequent financial reporting period, it shall designate the entire hybrid contract as at fair value through profit or loss.

4.3.7 If an entity is unable to measure reliably the fair value of an embedded derivative on the basis of its terms and conditions, the fair value of the embedded derivative is the difference between the fair value of the hybrid contract and the fair value of the host. If the entity is unable to measure the fair value of the embedded derivative using this method, paragraph 4.3.6 applies and the hybrid contract is designated as at fair value through profit or loss.

4.4 Reclassification

4.4.1 When, and only when, an entity changes its business model for managing financial assets it shall reclassify all affected financial assets in accordance with paragraphs 4.1.1–4.1.4. See paragraphs 5.6.1–5.6.7, B4.4.1–B4.4.3 and B5.6.1–B5.6.2 for additional guidance on reclassifying financial assets.

4.4.2 An entity shall not reclassify any financial liability.

4.4.3 The following changes in circumstances are not reclassifications for the purposes of paragraphs 4.4.1– 4.4.2:

(a) an item that was previously a designated and effective hedging instrument in a cash flow hedge or net investment hedge no longer qualifies as such;

(b) an item becomes a designated and effective hedging instrument in a cash flow hedge or net investment hedge; and

(c) changes in measurement in accordance with Section 6.7.

Chapter 5 Measurement

5.1 Initial measurement

 Except for trade receivables within the scope of paragraph 5.1.3, at initial recognition, an entity shall measure a financial asset or financial liability at its fair value plus or minus, in the case of a financial asset or financial liability not at fair value through profit or loss, transaction costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition or issue of the financial asset or financial liability.

At initial recognition, an entity shall measure a financial asset or financial liability at its fair value plus or minus, in the case of a financial asset or financial liability not at fair value through profit or loss, transaction costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition or issue of the financial asset or financial liability.

5.1.1 Except for trade receivables within the scope of paragraph 5.1.3, at initial recognition, an entity shall measure a financial asset or financial liability at its fair value plus or minus, in the case of a financial asset or financial liability not at fair value through profit or loss, transaction costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition or issue of the financial asset or financial liability.

5.1.1A However, if the fair value of the financial asset or financial liability at initial recognition differs from the transaction price, an entity shall apply paragraph B5.1.2A.

5.1.2 When an entity uses settlement date accounting for an asset that is subsequently measured at amortised cost, the asset is recognised initially at its fair value on the trade date (see paragraphs B3.1.3–B3.1.6).

Despite the requirement in paragraph 5.1.1, at initial recognition, an entity shall measure trade receivables at their transaction price (as defined in Ind AS 115) if the trade receivables do not contain a significant financing component in accordance with Ind AS 115 (or when the entity applies the practical expedient in accordance with paragraph 63 of Ind AS 115).

5.1.3 Despite the requirement in paragraph 5.1.1, at initial recognition, an entity shall measure trade receivables at their transaction price (as defined in Ind AS 115) if the trade receivables do not contain a significant financing component in accordance with Ind AS 115 (or when the entity applies the practical expedient in accordance with paragraph 63 of Ind AS 115). 

5.2 Subsequent measurement of financial assets

5.2.1 After initial recognition, an entity shall measure a financial asset in accordance with paragraphs 4.1.1–4.1.5 at:

(a) amortised cost;
(b) fair value through other comprehensive income; or
(c) fair value through profit or loss.

5.2.2 An entity shall apply the impairment requirements in Section 5.5 to financial assets that are measured at amortised cost in accordance with paragraph 4.1.2 and to financial assets that are measured at fair value through other comprehensive income in accordance with paragraph 4.1.2A.

5.2.3 An entity shall apply the hedge accounting requirements in paragraphs 6.5.8–6.5.14 to a financial asset that is designated as a hedged item.

5.3 Subsequent measurement of financial liabilities

5.3.1 After initial recognition, an entity shall measure a financial liability in accordance with paragraphs 4.2.1–4.2.2.

5.3.2 An entity shall apply the hedge accounting requirements in paragraphs 6.5.8–6.5.14 to a financial liability that is designated as a hedged item.

5.4 Amortised cost measurement
Financial assets
Effective interest method
5.4.1 Interest revenue shall be calculated by using the effective interest method (see Appendix A and paragraphs B5.4.1–B5.4.7). This shall be calculated by applying the effective interest rate to the gross carrying amount of a financial asset except for:

(a) purchased or originated credit-impaired financial assets. For those financial assets, the entity shall apply the credit-adjusted  effective interest rate to the amortised cost of the financial asset from initial recognition.

(b) financial assets that are not purchased or originated credit-impaired financial assets but subsequently have become credit-impaired financial assets. For those financial assets, the entity shall apply the effective interest rate to the amortised cost of the financial asset in subsequent reporting periods.

5.4.2 An entity that, in a reporting period, calculates interest revenue by applying the effective interest method to the amortised cost of a financial asset in accordance with paragraph 5.4.1(b), shall, in subsequent reporting periods, calculate the interest revenue by applying the effective interest rate to the gross carrying amount if the credit risk on the financial instrument improves so that the financial asset is no longer credit-impaired
and the improvement can be related objectively to an event occurring after the requirements in paragraph 5.4.1(b) were applied (such as an improvement in the borrower’s credit rating).

Modification of contractual cash flows

5.4.3 When the contractual cash flows of a financial asset are renegotiated or otherwise modified and the renegotiation or modification does not result in the derecognition of that financial asset in accordance with this Standard, an entity shall recalculate the gross carrying amount of the financial asset and shall recognise a modification gain or loss in profit or loss. The gross carrying amount of the financial asset shall be recalculated as the present value of the renegotiated or modified contractual cash flows that are discounted at the financial asset’s original effective interest rate (or credit-adjusted effective interest rate for purchased or originated credit-impaired financial assets) or, when applicable, the revised effective interest rate calculated in accordance with paragraph 6.5.10. Any costs or fees incurred adjust the carrying amount of the modified financial asset and are amortised over the remaining term of the modified financial asset.

Write-off

5.4.4 An entity shall directly reduce the gross carrying amount of a financial asset when the entity has no reasonable expectations of recovering a financial asset in its entirety or a portion thereof. A write-off constitutes a derecognition event [see paragraph B3.2.16(r)].

5.5 Impairment
Recognition of expected credit losses
General approach

 An entity shall recognise a loss allowance for expected credit losses on a financial asset that is measured in accordance with paragraphs 4.1.2 or 4.1.2A, a lease receivable, a contract asset or a loan commitment and a financial guarantee contract to which the impairment requirements apply in accordance with paragraphs 2.1(g), 4.2.1(c) or 4.2.1(d).

An entity shall recognise a loss allowance for expected credit losses on a financial asset that is measured in accordance with paragraphs 4.1.2 or 4.1.2A, a lease receivable, a loan commitment and a financial guarantee contract to which the impairment requirements apply in accordance with paragraphs 2.1(g), 4.2.1(c) or 4.2.1(d).

5.5.1 An entity shall recognise a loss allowance for expected credit losses on a financial asset that is measured in accordance with paragraphs 4.1.2 or 4.1.2A, a lease receivable, a contract asset or a loan commitment and a financial guarantee contract to which the impairment requirements apply in accordance with paragraphs 2.1(g), 4.2.1(c) or 4.2.1(d).

5.5.2 An entity shall apply the impairment requirements for the recognition and measurement of a loss allowance for financial assets that are measured at fair value through other comprehensive income in accordance with paragraph 4.1.2A. However, the loss allowance shall be recognised in other comprehensive income and shall not reduce the carrying amount of the financial asset in the balance sheet.

5.5.3 Subject to paragraphs 5.5.13–5.5.16, at each reporting date, an entity shall measure the loss allowance for a financial instrument at an amount equal to the lifetime expected credit losses if the credit risk on that financial instrument has increased significantly since initial recognition.

5.5.4 The objective of the impairment requirements is to recognise lifetime expected credit losses for all financial instruments for which there have been significant increases in credit risk since initial recognition- whether assessed on an individual or collective basis – considering all reasonable and supportable information, including that which is forward-looking.

5.5.5 Subject to paragraphs 5.5.13–5.5.16, if, at the reporting date, the credit risk on a financial instrument has not increased significantly since initial recognition, an entity shall measure the loss allowance for that financial instrument at an amount equal to 12-month expected credit losses.

5.5.6 For loan commitments and financial guarantee contracts, the date that the entity becomes a party to the irrevocable commitment shall be considered to be the date of initial recognition for the purposes of applying the impairment requirements.

5.5.7 If an entity has measured the loss allowance for a financial instrument at an amount equal to lifetime expected credit losses in the previous reporting period, but determines at the current reporting date that paragraph 5.5.3 is no longer met, the entity shall measure the loss allowance at an amount equal to 12- month expected credit losses at the current reporting date.

5.5.8 An entity shall recognise in profit or loss, as an impairment gain or loss, the amount of expected credit losses (or reversal) that is required to adjust the loss allowance at the reporting date to the amount that is required to be recognised in accordance with this Standard.

Determining significant increases in credit risk

5.5.9 At each reporting date, an entity shall assess whether the credit risk on a financial instrument has increased significantly since initial recognition. When making the assessment, an entity shall use the change in the risk of a default occurring over the expected life of the financial instrument instead of the change in the amount of expected credit losses. To make that assessment, an entity shall compare the risk of a default
occurring on the financial instrument as at the reporting date with the risk of a default occurring on the financial instrument as at the date of initial recognition and consider reasonable and supportable information, that is available without undue cost or effort, that is indicative of significant increases in credit risk since initial recognition.

5.5.10 An entity may assume that the credit risk on a financial instrument has not increased significantly since initial recognition if the financial instrument is determined to have low credit risk at the reporting date (see paragraphs B5.5.22‒B5.5.24).

5.5.11 If reasonable and supportable forward-looking information is available without undue cost or effort, an entity cannot rely solely on past due information when determining whether credit risk has increased significantly since initial recognition. However, when information that is more forward-looking than past due status (either on an individual or a collective basis) is not available without undue cost or effort, an
entity may use past due information to determine whether there have been significant increases in credit risk since initial recognition. Regardless of the way in which an entity assesses significant increases in credit risk, there is a rebuttable presumption that the credit risk on a financial asset has increased significantly since initial recognition when contractual payments are more than 30 days past due. An entit can rebut this presumption if the entity has reasonable and supportable information that is available without undue cost or effort, that demonstrates that the credit risk has not increased significantly since
initial recognition even though the contractual payments are more than 30 days past due. When an entity determines that there have been significant increases in credit risk before contractual payments are more than 30 days past due, the rebuttable presumption does not apply.

Modified financial assets

5.5.12 If the contractual cash flows on a financial asset have been renegotiated or modified and the financial asset was not derecognised, an entity shall assess whether there has been a significant increase in the credit risk of the financial instrument in accordance with paragraph 5.5.3 by comparing:

(a) the risk of a default occurring at the reporting date (based on the modified contractual terms); and

(b) the risk of a default occurring at initial recognition (based on the original, unmodified contractual terms).

Purchased or originated credit-impaired financial assets
5.5.13 Despite paragraphs 5.5.3 and 5.5.5, at the reporting date, an entity shall only recognise the cumulative changes in lifetime expected credit losses since initial recognition as a loss allowance for purchased or originated credit-impaired financial assets.

5.5.14 At each reporting date, an entity shall recognise in profit or loss the amount of the change in lifetime expected credit losses as an impairment gain or loss. An entity shall recognise favourable changes in lifetime expected credit losses as an impairment gain, even if the lifetime expected credit losses are less than the amount of expected credit losses that were included in the estimated cash flows on initial recognition.

Simplified approach for trade receivables, contract assets and lease receivables

Despite paragraphs 5.5.3 and 5.5.5, an entity shall always measure the loss allowance at an amount equal to lifetime expected credit losses for:

(a) trade receivables or contract asset that result from transactions that are within the scope of Ind AS 115, and that:

(i) do not contain a significant financing component in accordance with Ind AS 115 (or when the entity applies the practical expedient in accordance with paragraph 63 of Ind AS 115); or

(ii) contain a significant financing component in accordance with Ind AS 115, if the entity chooses as its accounting policy to measure the loss allowance at an amount equal to lifetime expected credit losses. That accounting policy shall be applied to all such trade receivables or contract assets but may be applied separately to trade receivables and contract assets.

lease receivables that result from transactions that are within the scope of Ind AS 116, if the entity chooses as its accounting policy to measure the loss allowance at an amount equal to lifetime expected credit losses. That accounting policy shall be applied to all lease receivables but may be applied separately to finance and operating lease receivables.

(b) lease receivables that result from transactions that are within the s cope of Ind AS 17, if the entity chooses as its accounting policy to measure the loss allowance at an amount equal to lifetime expected credit losses. That accounting policy shall be applied to all lease receivables but may be applied separately to finance and operating lease receivables.

Despite paragraphs 5.5.3 and 5.5.5, an entity shall always measure the loss allowance at an amount equal to lifetime expected credit losses for:

 (a) trade receivables or any contractual right to receive cash or another financial asset that result from transactions that are within the scope of Ind AS 11 and Ind AS 18.

(b) lease receivables that result from transactions that are within the scope of Ind AS 17, if the entity chooses as its accounting policy to measure the loss allowance at an amount equal to lifetime expected credit losses. That accounting policy shall be applied to all lease receivables but may be applied separately to finance and operating lease receivables.

5.5.15 Despite paragraphs 5.5.3 and 5.5.5, an entity shall always measure the loss allowance at an amount equal to lifetime expected credit losses for:

 (a) trade receivables or contract assets that result from transactions that are within the scope of Ind AS115, and that:

(i) do not contain a significant financing component in accordance with Ind AS 115 (or when the entity applies the practical expedient in accordance with paragraph 63 of Ind AS 115); or

(ii) contain a significant financing component in accordance with Ind AS115, if the entity chooses as its accounting policy to measure the loss allowance at an amount equal to lifetime expected credit losses. That accounting policy shall be applied to all such trade receivables or contract assets but may be applied separately to trade receivables and contract assets.

(b) lease receivables that result from transactions that are within the scope of Ind AS 17, if the entity chooses as its accounting policy to measure the loss allowance at an amount equal to lifetime expected credit losses. That accounting policy shall be applied to all lease receivables but may be applied separately to finance and operating lease receivables.

5.5.16 An entity may select its accounting policy for trade receivables, lease receivables and contract assets independently of each other.

Measurement of expected credit losses

5.5.17 An entity shall measure expected credit losses of a financial instrument in a way that reflects: 

(a) an unbiased and probability-weighted amount that is determined by evaluating a range of possible outcomes;

(b) the time value of money; and

(c) reasonable and supportable information that is available without undue cost or effort at the reporting date about past events, current conditions and forecasts of future economic conditions.

5.5.18 When measuring expected credit losses, an entity need not necessarily identify every possible scenario. However, it shall consider the risk or probability that a credit loss occurs by reflecting the possibility that a  credit loss occurs and the possibility that no credit loss occurs, even if the possibility of a credit loss occurring is very low.

5.5.19 The maximum period to consider when measuring expected credit losses is the maximum contractual period (including extension options) over which the entity is exposed to credit risk and not a longer period, even if that longer period is consistent with business practice.

5.5.20 However, some financial instruments include both a loan and an undrawn commitment component and the entity’s contractual ability to demand repayment and cancel the undrawn commitment does not limit the entity’s exposure to credit losses to the contractual notice period. For such financial instruments, and only those financial instruments, the entity shall measure expected credit losses over the period that the entity is exposed to credit risk and expected credit losses would not be mitigated by credit risk management actions, even if that period extends beyond the maximum contractual period.

5.6 Reclassification of financial assets
5.6.1 If an entity reclassifies financial assets in accordance with paragraph 4.4.1, it shall apply the reclassification prospectively from the reclassification date. The entity shall not restate any previously recognised gains, losses (including impairment gains or losses) or interest. Paragraphs 5.6.2–5.6.7 set out the requirements for reclassifications.

5.6.2 If an entity reclassifies a financial asset out of the amortised cost measurement category and into the fair value through profit or loss measurement category, its fair value is measured at the reclassification date. Any gain or loss arising from a difference between the previous amortised cost of the financial asset and fair value is recognised in profit or loss.

5.6.3 If an entity reclassifies a financial asset out of the fair value through profit or loss measurement category and into the amortised cost measurement category, its fair value at the reclassification date becomes its new gross carrying amount. (See paragraph B5.6.2 for guidance on determining an effective interest rate and a loss allowance at the reclassification date.)

5.6.4 If an entity reclassifies a financial asset out of the amortised cost measurement category and into the fair value through other comprehensive income measurement category, its fair value is measured at the reclassification date. Any gain or loss arising from a difference between the previous amortised cost of the financial asset and fair value is recognised in other comprehensive income. The effective
interest rate and the measurement of expected credit losses are not adjusted as a result of the reclassification. (See paragraph B5.6.1.)

5.6.5 If an entity reclassifies a financial asset out of the fair value through other comprehensive income measurement category and into the amortised cost measurement category, the financial asset is reclassified at its fair value at the reclassification date. However, the cumulative gain or loss previously recognised in other comprehensive income is removed from equity and adjusted against
the fair value of the financial asset at the reclassification date. As a result, the financial asset is measured at the reclassification date as if it had always been measured at amortised cost. This adjustment affects other comprehensive income but does not affect profit or loss and therefore is not a reclassification adjustment (see Ind AS 1 Presentation of Financial Statements). The effective interest rate and the measurement of expected credit losses are not adjusted as a result of the
reclassification. (See paragraph B5.6.1.)

5.6.6 If an entity reclassifies a financial asset out of the fair value through profit or loss measurement category and into the fair value through other comprehensive income measurement category, the financial asset continues to be measured at fair value. (See paragraph B5.6.2 for guidance on determining an effective interest rate and a loss allowance at the reclassification date.)

5.6.7 If an entity reclassifies a financial asset out of the fair value through other comprehensive income measurement category and into the fair value through profit or loss measurement category, the financial asset continues to be measured at fair value. The cumulative gain or loss previously recognised in other comprehensive income is reclassified from equity to profit or loss as a reclassification adjustment (see Ind AS 1) at the reclassification date.

5.7 Gains and losses

5.7.1 A gain or loss on a financial asset or financial liability that is measured at fair value shall be recognised in profit or loss unless:

(a) it is part of a hedging relationship (see paragraphs 6.5.8–6.5.14);

(b) it is an investment in an equity instrument and the entity has elected to present gains and on that investment in other comprehensive income in accordance with paragraph 5.7.5;

(c) it is a financial liability designated as at fair value through profit or loss and the entity is required to present the effects of changes in the liability’s credit risk in other comprehensive income in accordance with paragraph 5.7.7; or 

(d) it is a financial asset measured at fair value through other comprehensive income in accordance with paragraph 4.1.2A and the entity is required to recognise some changes in fair value in other comprehensive income in accordance with paragraph 5.7.10.

5.7.1A Dividends are recognised in profit or loss only when:

(a) the entity’s right to receive payment of the dividend is established;

(b) it is probable that the economic benefits associated with the dividend will flow to the entity; and

(c) the amount of the dividend can be measured reliably.

5.7.2 A gain or loss on a financial asset that is measured at amortised cost and is not part of a hedging relationship (see paragraphs 6.5.8–6.5.14) shall be recognised in profit or loss when the financial asset is derecognised, reclassified in accordance with paragraph 5.6.2, through the amortisation process or in order to recognise impairment gains or losses. An entity shall apply paragraphs 5.6.2 and 5.6.4 if it reclassifies financial assets out of the amortised cost measurement category. A gain or loss on a financial liability that is measured at amortised cost and is not part of a hedging relationship (see paragraphs 6.5.8–6.5.14) shall be recognised in profit or loss when the financial liability is derecognised and through the amortisation process. (See paragraph B5.7.2 for guidance on foreign exchange gains or losses.)

5.7.3 A gain or loss on financial assets or financial liabilities that are hedged items in a hedging relationship shall be recognised in accordance with paragraphs 6.5.8–6.5.14.

5.7.4 If an entity recognises financial assets using settlement date accounting (see paragraphs 3.1.2, B3.1.3 and B3.1.6), any change in the fair value of the asset to be received during the period between the trade date and the settlement date is not recognised for assets measured at amortised cost. For assets measured at fair value, however, the change in fair value shall be recognised in profit or loss or in other comprehensive income, as appropriate in accordance with paragraph 5.7.1. The trade date shall be considered the date of initial recognition for the purposes of applying the impairment requirements.

Investments in equity instruments
5.7.5 At initial recognition, an entity may make an irrevocable election to present in other comprehensive income subsequent changes in the fair value of an investment in an equity instrument within the scope of this Standard that is neither held for trading nor contingent consideration recognised by an acquirer in a business combination to which Ind AS103 applies. (See paragraph B5.7.3 for guidance on foreign exchange gains or losses.)

5.7.6 If an entity makes the election in paragraph 5.7.5, it shall recognise in profit or loss dividends from that investment in accordance with paragraph 5.7.1A.

Liabilities designated as at fair value through profit or loss

5.7.7 An entity shall present a gain or loss on a financial liability that is designated as at fair value through profit or loss in accordance with paragraph 4.2.2 or paragraph 4.3.5 as follows:

(a) The amount of change in the fair value of the financial liability that is attributable to changes in the credit risk of that liability shall be presented in other comprehensive income (see paragraphs B5.7.13–B5.7.20), and

(b) the remaining amount of change in the fair value of the liability shall be presented in profit or loss

unless the treatment of the effects of changes in the liability’s credit risk described in (a) would create or enlarge an accounting mismatch in profit or loss (in which case paragraph 5.7.8 applies). Paragraphs B5.7.5–B5.7.7 and B5.7.10–B5.7.12 provide guidance on determining whether an accounting mismatch would be created or enlarged.

5.7.8 If the requirements in paragraph 5.7.7 would create or enlarge an accounting mismatch in profit or loss, an entity shall present all gains or losses on that liability (including the effects of changes in the credit risk of that liability) in profit or loss.

5.7.9 Despite the requirements in paragraphs 5.7.7 and 5.7.8, an entity shall present in profit or loss all gains and losses on loan commitments and financial guarantee contracts that are designated as at fair value through profit or loss.

Assets measured at fair value through other comprehensive income

5.7.10 A gain or loss on a financial asset measured at fair value through other comprehensive income in accordance with paragraph 4.1.2A shall be recognised in other comprehensive income, except for impairment gains or losses (see Section 5.5) and foreign exchange gains and losses (see paragraphs B5.7.2–B5.7.2A), until the financial asset is derecognised or reclassified. When the financial asset is derecognised the cumulative gain or loss previously recognised in other comprehensive income is reclassified from equity to profit or loss as a reclassification adjustment (see Ind AS 1). If the financial asset is reclassified out of the fair value through other comprehensive income measurement category, the entity shall account for the cumulative gain or loss that was previously recognised in other comprehensive income in accordance with paragraphs 5.6.5 and 5.6.7. Interest calculated using the effective interest method is recognised in profit or loss.

5.7.11 As described in paragraph 5.7.10, if a financial asset is measured at fair value through other comprehensive income in accordance with paragraph 4.1.2A, the amounts that are recognised in profit or loss are the same as the amounts that would have been recognised in profit or loss if the financial asset had been measured at amortised cost.

Chapter 6 Hedge accounting

6.1 Objective and scope of hedge accounting

6.1.1 The objective of hedge accounting is to represent, in the financial statements, the effect of an entity’s risk management activities that use financial instruments to manage exposures arising from particular risks that could affect profit or loss (or other comprehensive income, in the case of investments in equity instruments for which an entity has elected to present changes in fair value in other comprehensive income in
accordance with paragraph 5.7.5). This approach aims to convey the context of hedging instruments for which hedge accounting is applied in order to allow insight into their purpose and effect.

6.1.2 An entity may choose to designate a hedging relationship between a hedging instrument and a hedged item in accordance with paragraphs 6.2.1–6.3.7 and B6.2.1–B6.3.25. For hedging relationships that meet the qualifying criteria, an entity shall account for the gain or loss on the hedging instrument and the hedged item in accordance with paragraphs 6.5.1–6.5.14 and B6.5.1–B6.5.28. When the hedged item is a group of
items, an entity shall comply with the additional requirements in paragraphs 6.6.1–6.6.6 and B6.6.1– B6.6.16.

6.1.3 [Refer Appendix 1].

6.2 Hedging instruments
Qualifying instruments

6.2.1 A derivative measured at fair value through profit or loss may be designated as a hedging instrument, except for some written options (see paragraph B6.2.4).

6.2.2 A non-derivative financial asset or a non-derivative financial liability measured at fair value through profit or loss may be designated as a hedging instrument unless it is a financial liability designated as at fair value through profit or loss for which the amount of its change in fair value that is attributable to changes in the credit risk of that liability is presented in other comprehensive income in accordance with paragraph 5.7.7. For a hedge of foreign currency risk, the foreign currency risk
component of a non-derivative financial asset or a non-derivative financial liability may be designated as a hedging instrument provided that it is not an investment in an equity instrument for which an entity has elected to present changes in fair value in other comprehensive income in accordance with paragraph 5.7.5.

6.2.3 For hedge accounting purposes, only contracts with a party external to the reporting entity (ie. external to the group or individual entity that is being reported on) can be designated as hedging instruments.

Designation of hedging instruments
6.2.4 A qualifying instrument must be designated in its entirety as a hedging instrument. The only exceptions permitted are:

(a) separating the intrinsic value and time value of an option contract and designating as the hedging instrument only the change in intrinsic value of an option and not the change in its time value (see paragraphs 6.5.15 and B6.5.29–B6.5.33);

(b) separating the forward element and the spot element of a forward contract and designating as the hedging instrument only the change in the value of the spot element of a forward contract and not the forward element; similarly, the foreign currency basis spread may be separated and excluded
from the designation of a financial instrument as the hedging instrument (see paragraphs 6.5.16 and B6.5.34–B6.5.39); and

(c) a proportion of the entire hedging instrument, such as 50 per cent of the nominal amount, may be designated as the hedging instrument in a hedging relationship. However, a hedging instrument may not be designated for a part of its change in fair value that results from only a portion of the time period during which the hedging instrument remains outstanding.

6.2.5 An entity may view in combination, and jointly designate as the hedging instrument, any combination of the following (including those circumstances in which the risk or risks arising from some hedging instruments offset those arising from others):

(a) derivatives or a proportion of them; and

(b) non-derivatives or a proportion of them.

6.2.6 However, a derivative instrument that combines a written option and a purchased option (for example, an interest rate collar) does not qualify as a hedging instrument if it is, in effect, a net written option at the date of designation (unless it qualifies in accordance with paragraph B6.2.4). Similarly, two or more instruments (or proportions of them) may be jointly designated as the hedging instrument only if, in combination, they are not, in effect, a net written option at the date of designation (unless it qualifies in accordance with paragraph B6.2.4).

6.3 Hedged items
Qualifying items

6.3.1 A hedged item can be a recognised asset or liability, an unrecognised firm commitment, a forecast transaction or a net investment in a foreign operation. The hedged item can be:

(a) a single item; or

(b) a group of items (subject to paragraphs 6.6.1–6.6.6 and B6.6.1–B6.6.16).

A hedged item can also be a component of such an item or group of items(see paragraphs 6.3.7 and B6.3.7–B6.3.25).

6.3.2 The hedged item must be reliably measurable.

6.3.3 If a hedged item is a forecast transaction (or a component thereof), that transaction must be highly probable.

6.3.4 An aggregated exposure that is a combination of an exposure that could qualify as a hedged item in accordance with paragraph 6.3.1 and a derivative may be designated as a hedged item (see paragraphs B6.3.3–B6.3.4). This includes a forecast transaction of an aggregated exposure (ie. uncommitted but anticipated future transactions that would give rise to an exposure and a derivative) if that aggregated exposure is highly probable and, once it has occurred and is therefore no longer forecast, is eligible as a hedged item. 

6.3.5 For hedge accounting purposes, only assets, liabilities, firm commitments or highly probable forecast transactions with a party external to the reporting entity can be designated as hedged items. Hedge accounting can be applied to transactions between entities in the same group only in the individual or separate financial statements of those entities and not in the consolidated financial statements of the group, except for the consolidated financial statements of an investment entity, as
defined in Ind AS110, where transactions between an investment entity and its subsidiaries measured at fair value through profit or loss will not be eliminated in the consolidated financial statements.

6.3.6 However, as an exception to paragraph 6.3.5, the foreign currency risk of an intragroup monetary item (for example, a payable/receivable between two subsidiaries) may qualify as a hedged item in the consolidated financial statements if it results in an exposure to foreign exchange rate gains or losses that are not fully eliminated on consolidation in accordance with Ind AS 21 The Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange
Rates. In accordance with Ind AS 21, foreign exchange rate gains and losses on intragroup monetary items are not fully eliminated on consolidation when the intragroup monetary item is transacted between two group entities that have different functional currencies. In addition, the foreign currency risk of a highly probable forecast intragroup transaction may qualify as a hedged item in consolidated financial statements provided that the transaction is denominated in a currency other than the functional currency of the entity
entering into that transaction and the foreign currency risk will affect consolidated profit or loss.

Designation of hedged items

6.3.7 An entity may designate an item in its entirety or a component of an item as the hedged item in a hedging relationship. An entire item comprises all changes in the cash flows or fair value of an item. A component comprises less than the entire fair value change or cash flow variability of an item. In that case, an entity may designate only the following types of components (including combinations) as hedged items:

(a) only changes in the cash flows or fair value of an item attributable to a specific risk or risks (risk component), provided that, based on an assessment within the context of the particular market structure, the risk component is separately identifiable and reliably measurable (see paragraphs B6.3.8– B6.3.15). Risk components include a designation of only changes in the cash flows or the fair value of a hedged item above or below a specified price or other variable (a one-sided risk).

(b) one or more selected contractual cash flows.

(c) components of a nominal amount, ie a specified part of the amount of an item (see paragraphs B6.3.16– B6.3.20).

6.4 Qualifying criteria for hedge accounting
6.4.1 A hedging relationship qualifies for hedge accounting only if all of the following criteria are met:

(a) the hedging relationship consists only of eligible hedging instruments and eligible hedged items.

(b) at the inception of the hedging relationship there is formal designation and documentation of the hedging relationship and the entity’s risk management objective and strategy for undertaking the hedge. That documentation shall include identification of the hedging instrument, the hedged item, the nature of the risk being hedged and how the entity will assess whether the hedging
relationship meets the hedge effectiveness requirements (including its analysis of the sources of hedge ineffectiveness and how it determines the hedge ratio).

(c) the hedging relationship meets all of the following hedge effectiveness requirements:

(i) there is an economic relationship between the hedged item and the hedging instrument (see paragraphs B6.4.4–B6.4.6);

(ii) the effect of credit risk does not dominate the value changes that result from that economic relationship (see paragraphs B6.4.7–B6.4.8); and

(iii) the hedge ratio of the hedging relationship is the same as that resulting from the quantity of the hedged item that the entity actually hedges and the quantity of the hedging instrument that the entity actually uses to hedge that quantity of hedged item. However, that designation shall not reflect an imbalance between the weightings of the hedged item and the hedging instrument that would create hedge ineffectiveness (irrespective of whether recognised or not) that could result in an accounting outcome that would be inconsistent with the purpose of hedge accounting (see paragraphs B6.4.9–B6.4.11).

6.5 Accounting for qualifying hedging relationships
6.5.1 An entity applies hedge accounting to hedging relationships that meet the qualifying criteria in paragraph 6.4.1 (which include the entity’s decision to designate the hedging relationship).

6.5.2 There are three types of hedging relationships:

(a) fair value hedge: a hedge of the exposure to changes in fair value of a recognised asset or liability or an unrecognised firm commitment, or a component of any such item, that is attributable to a particular risk and could affect profit or loss.

(b) cash flow hedge: a hedge of the exposure to variability in cash flows that is attributable to a particular risk associated with all, or a component of, a recognised asset or liability (such as all or some future interest payments on variable-rate debt) or a highly probable forecast transaction, and could affect profit or loss.

(c) hedge of a net investment in a foreign operation as defined in Ind AS 21.

6.5.3 If the hedged item is an equity instrument for which an entity has elected to present changes in fair value in other comprehensive income in accordance with paragraph 5.7.5, the hedged exposure referred to in paragraph 6.5.2(a) must be one that could affect other comprehensive income. In that case, and only in that case, the recognised hedge ineffectiveness is presented in other comprehensive income.

6.5.4 A hedge of the foreign currency risk of a firm commitment may be accounted for as a fair value hedge or a cash flow hedge.

6.5.5 If a hedging relationship ceases to meet the hedge effectiveness requirement relating to the hedge ratio  (see paragraph 6.4.1(c)(iii)) but the risk management objective for that designated hedging relationship remains the same, an entity shall adjust the hedge ratio of the hedging relationship so that it meets the qualifying criteria again (this is referred to in this Standard as ‘rebalancing’—see paragraphs B6.5.7–B6.5.21).

6.5.6 An entity shall discontinue hedge accounting prospectively only when the hedging relationship (or a part of a hedging relationship) ceases to meet the qualifying criteria (after taking into account any rebalancing of the hedging relationship, if applicable). This includes instances when the hedging
instrument expires or is sold, terminated or exercised. For this purpose, the replacement or rollover of a hedging instrument into another hedging instrument is not an expiration or termination if such a replacement or rollover is part of, and consistent with, the entity’s documented risk management objective. Additionally, for this purpose there is not an expiration or termination of the hedging
instrument if:

(a) as a consequence of laws or regulations or the introduction of laws or regulations, the parties to the hedging instrument agree that one or more clearing counterparties replace their original counterparty to become the new counterparty to each of the parties. For this purpose, a clearing
counterparty is a central counterparty (sometimes called a ‘clearing organisation’ or ‘clearing agency’) or an entity or entities, for example, a clearing member of a clearing organisation or a client of a clearing member of a clearing organisation, that are acting as a counterparty in order to effect clearing by a central counterparty. However, when the parties to the hedging instrument
replace their original counterparties with different counterparties the requirement in this subparagraph is met only if each of those parties effects clearing with the same central counterparty.

(b) other changes, if any, to the hedging instrument are limited to those that are necessary to effect such a replacement of the counterparty. Such changes are limited to those that are consistent with the terms that would be expected if the hedging instrument were originally cleared with the clearing counterparty. These changes include changes in the collateral requirements, rights to offset receivables and payables balances, and charges levied. Discontinuing hedge accounting can either affect a hedging relationship in its entirety or only a part of
it (in which case hedge accounting continues for the remainder of the hedging relationship).

6.5.7 An entity shall apply:

(a) paragraph 6.5.10 when it discontinues hedge accounting for a fair value hedge for which the hedged item is (or is a component of) a financial instrument measured at amortised cost; and

(b) paragraph 6.5.12 when it discontinues hedge accounting for cash flow hedges.

Fair value hedges
6.5.8 As long as a fair value hedge meets the qualifying criteria in paragraph 6.4.1, the hedging relationship shall be accounted for as follows:

(a) the gain or loss on the hedging instrument shall be recognised in profit or loss (or other comprehensive income, if the hedging instrument hedges an equity instrument for which an entity has elected to present changes in fair value in other comprehensive income in accordance with paragraph 5.7.5).

(b) the hedging gain or loss on the hedged item shall adjust the carrying amount of the hedged item (if applicable) and be recognised in profit or loss. If the hedged item is a financial asset (or a component thereof) that is measured at fair value through other comprehensive income in accordance with paragraph 4.1.2A, the hedging gain or loss on the hedged item shall be recognised in profit or loss. However, if the hedged item is an equity instrument for which an entity has elected to present changes in fair value in other comprehensive income in accordance with paragraph 5.7.5, those amounts shall remain in other comprehensive income. When a hedged item is an unrecognised firm commitment (or a component thereof), the cumulative change in the fair value of the hedged item subsequent to its designation is recognised as an asset
or a liability with a corresponding gain or loss recognised in profit or loss.

6.5.9 When a hedged item in a fair value hedge is a firm commitment (or a component thereof) to acquire an asset or assume a liability, the initial carrying amount of the asset or the liability that results from the entity meeting the firm commitment is adjusted to include the cumulative change in the fair value of the hedged item that was
recognised in the balance sheet.

6.5.10 Any adjustment arising from paragraph 6.5.8(b) shall be amortised to profit or loss if the hedged item is a financial instrument (or a component thereof) measured at amortised cost. Amortisation may begin as soon as an adjustment exists and shall begin no later than when the hedged item ceases to be adjusted for hedging gains and losses. The amortisation is based on a recalculated effective interest rate at the date that amortisation
begins. In the case of a financial asset (or a component thereof) that is a hedged item and that is measured at fair value through other comprehensive income in accordance with paragraph 4.1.2A, amortisation applies in the same manner but to the amount that represents the cumulative gain or loss previously recognised in accordance with paragraph 6.5.8(b) instead of by adjusting the carrying amount.

Cash flow hedges
6.5.11 As long as a cash flow hedge meets the qualifying criteria in paragraph 6.4.1, the hedging relationship shall be accounted for as follows:

(a) the separate component of equity associated with the hedged item (cash flow hedge reserve) is adjusted to the lower of the following (in absolute amounts):

(i) the cumulative gain or loss on the hedging instrument from inception of the hedge; and

(ii) the cumulative change in fair value (present value) of the hedged item (ie. the present value of the cumulative change in the hedged expected future cash flows) from inception of the hedge.

(b) the portion of the gain or loss on the hedging instrument that is determined to be an effective hedge (ie. the portion that is offset by the change in the cash flow hedge reserve calculated in accordance with (a)) shall be recognised in other comprehensive income.

(c) any remaining gain or loss on the hedging instrument [or any gain or loss required to balance the change in the cash flow hedge reserve calculated in accordance with (a)] is hedge ineffectiveness that shall be recognised in profit or loss.

(d) the amount that has been accumulated in the cash flow hedge reserve in accordance with (a) shall be accounted for as follows:

(i) if a hedged forecast transaction subsequently results in the recognition of a non-financial asset or non-financial liability, or a hedged forecast transaction for a non-financial asset or a non-financial liability becomes a firm commitment for which fair value hedge accounting is applied, the entity shall remove that amount from the cash flow hedge reserve and
include it directly in the initial cost or other carrying amount of the asset or the liability. This is not a reclassification adjustment (see Ind AS 1) and hence it does not affect other comprehensive income.

(ii) for cash flow hedges other than those covered by (i), that amount shall be reclassified from the cash flow hedge reserve to profit or loss as a reclassification adjustment (see Ind AS 1) in the same period or periods during which the hedged expected future cash flows affect profit or loss (for example, in the periods that interest income or interest expense is
recognised or when a forecast sale occurs).

(iii) however, if that amount is a loss and an entity expects that all or a portion of that loss will not be recovered in one or more future periods, it shall immediately reclassify the amount that is not expected to be recovered into profit or loss as a reclassification adjustment (see Ind AS 1).

6.5.12 When an entity discontinues hedge accounting for a cash flow hedge (see paragraphs 6.5.6 and 6.5.7(b)) it shall account for the amount that has been accumulated in the cash flow hedge reserve in accordance withparagraph 6.5.11(a) as follows:

(a) if the hedged future cash flows are still expected to occur, that amount shall remain in the cash flow hedge reserve until the future cash flows occur or until paragraph 6.5.11(d)(iii) applies. When the future cash flows occur, paragraph 6.5.11(d) applies.

(b) if the hedged future cash flows are no longer expected to occur, that amount shall be immediately reclassified from the cash flow hedge reserve to profit or loss as a reclassification adjustment (see Ind AS 1). A hedged future cash flow that is no longer highly probable to occur may still be expected to occur.

Hedges of a net investment in a foreign operation
6.5.13 Hedges of a net investment in a foreign operation, including a hedge of a monetary item that is accounted for as part of the net investment (see Ind AS 21), shall be accounted for similarly to cash flow hedges:

(a) the portion of the gain or loss on the hedging instrument that is determined to be an effective hedge shall be recognised in other comprehensive income (see paragraph 6.5.11); and

(b) the ineffective portion shall be recognised in profit or loss.

6.5.14 The cumulative gain or loss on the hedging instrument relating to the effective portion of the hedge that has been accumulated in the foreign currency translation reserve shall be reclassified from equity to profit or loss as a reclassification adjustment (see Ind AS 1) in accordance with paragraphs 48–49 of
Ind AS 21 on the disposal or partial disposal of the foreign operation.

Accounting for the time value of options
6.5.15 When an entity separates the intrinsic value and time value of an option contract and designates as the hedging instrument only the change in intrinsic value of the option (see paragraph 6.2.4(a)), it shall account for the time value of the option as follows (see paragraphs B6.5.29–B6.5.33):

(a) an entity shall distinguish the time value of options by the type of hedged item that the option hedges (see paragraph B6.5.29):

(i) a transaction related hedged item; or
(ii) a time-period related hedged item.

(b) the change in fair value of the time value of an option that hedges a transaction related hedged item shall be recognised in other comprehensive income to the extent that it relates to the hedged item and shall be accumulated in a separate component of equity. The cumulative change in fair value arising from the time value of the option that has been accumulated in a separate component of equity (the ‘amount’) shall be accounted for as follows:

 (i) if the hedged item subsequently results in the recognition of a non-financial asset or a nonfinancial liability, or a firm commitment for a non-financial asset or a non-financial liability for which fair value hedge accounting is applied, the entity shall remove the amount from the
separate component of equity and include it directly in the initial cost or other carrying amount of the asset or the liability. This is not a reclassification adjustment (see Ind AS 1) and hence does not affect other comprehensive income.

(ii) for hedging relationships other than those covered by (i), the amount shall be reclassified from the separate component of equity to profit or loss as a reclassification adjustment (see Ind AS 1) in the same period or periods during which the hedged expected future cash flows affect profit
or loss (for example, when a forecast sale occurs).

(iii) however, if all or a portion of that amount is not expected to be recovered in one or more future periods, the amount that is not expected to be recovered shall be immediately reclassified into profit or loss as a reclassification adjustment (see Ind AS 1).

(c) the change in fair value of the time value of an option that hedges a time-period related hedged item shall be recognised in other comprehensive income to the extent that it relates to the hedged item and shall be accumulated in a separate component of equity. The time value at the date of designation of
the option as a hedging instrument, to the extent that it relates to the hedged item, shall be amortised on a systematic and rational basis over the period during which the hedge adjustment for the option’s intrinsic value could affect profit or loss (or other comprehensive income, if the hedged item is an equity instrument for which an entity has elected to present changes in fair value in other
comprehensive income in accordance with paragraph 5.7.5). Hence, in each reporting period, the amortisation amount shall be reclassified from the separate component of equity to profit or loss as a reclassification adjustment (see Ind AS 1). However, if hedge accounting is discontinued for the hedging relationship that includes the change in intrinsic value of the option as the hedging instrument,
the net amount (ie. including cumulative amortisation) that has been accumulated in the separate component of equity shall be immediately reclassified into profit or loss as a reclassification adjustment (see Ind AS 1).

Accounting for the forward element of forward contracts and foreign currency basis spreads of financial instruments
6.5.16 When an entity separates the forward element and the spot element of a forward contract and designates as the hedging instrument only the change in the value of the spot element of the forward contract, or when an entity separates the foreign currency basis spread from a financial instrument and excludes it from the designation of that financial instrument as the hedging instrument (see paragraph 6.2.4(b)), the entity may apply paragraph6.5.15 to the forward element of the forward contract or to the foreign currency basis spread in the same manner as it is applied to the time value of an option. In that case, the entity shall apply the application guidance in paragraphs B6.5.34–B6.5.39.

6.6 Hedges of a group of items
Eligibility of a group of items as the hedged item
6.6.1 A group of items (including a group of items that constitute a net position; see paragraphs B6.6.1– B6.6.8) is an eligible hedged item only if:

(a) it consists of items (including components of items) that are, individually, eligible hedged items;

(b) the items in the group are managed together on a group basis for risk management purposes; and

(c) in the case of a cash flow hedge of a group of items whose variabilities in cash flows are not expected to be approximately proportional to the overall variability in cash flows of the group so that offsetting risk positions arise:

(i) it is a hedge of foreign currency risk; and

(ii) the designation of that net position specifies the reporting period in which the forecast transactions are expected to affect profit or loss, as well as their nature and volume (see paragraphs B6.6.7–B6.6.8).

Designation of a component of a nominal amount
6.6.2 A component that is a proportion of an eligible group of items is an eligible hedged item provided that designation is consistent with the entity’s risk management objective.

6.6.3 A layer component of an overall group of items (for example, a bottom layer) is eligible for hedge accounting only if:

(a) it is separately identifiable and reliably measurable;
(b) the risk management objective is to hedge a layer component;
(c) the items in the overall group from which the layer is identified are exposed to the same hedged risk (so that the measurement of the hedged layer is not significantly affected by which particular items from the overall group form part of the hedged layer);
(d) for a hedge of existing items (for example, an unrecognised firm commitment or a recognised asset) an entity can identify and track the overall group of items from which the hedged layer is defined (so that the entity is able to comply with the requirements for the accounting for qualifying hedging relationships); and
(e) any items in the group that contain prepayment options meet the requirements for components of a nominal amount (see paragraph B6.3.20).

Presentation
6.6.4 For a hedge of a group of items with offsetting risk positions (ie. in a hedge of a net position) whose hedged risk affects different line items in the statement of profit and loss, any hedging gains or losses in that statement shall be presented in a separate line from those affected by the hedged items. Hence, in that statement the amount in the line item that relates to the hedged item itself (for example, revenue or cost of sales) remains unaffected.

6.6.5 For assets and liabilities that are hedged together as a group in a fair value hedge, the gain or loss in the balance sheet on the individual assets and liabilities shall be recognised as an adjustment of the carrying amount of the respective individual items comprising the group in accordance with paragraph 6.5.8(b).

Nil net positions
6.6.6 When the hedged item is a group that is a nil net position (ie. the hedged items among themselves fully offset the risk that is managed on a group basis), an entity is permitted to designate it in a hedging relationship that does not include a hedging instrument, provided that:

 (a) the hedge is part of a rolling net risk hedging strategy, whereby the entity routinely hedges new positions of the same type as time moves on (for example, when transactions move into the time horizon for which the entity hedges);
(b) the hedged net position changes in size over the life of the rolling net risk hedging strategy and the entity uses eligible hedging instruments to hedge the net risk (ie. when the net position is not nil);
(c) hedge accounting is normally applied to such net positions when the net position is not nil and it is hedged with eligible hedging instruments; and
(d) not applying hedge accounting to the nil net position would give rise to inconsistent accounting outcomes, because the accounting would not recognise the offsetting risk positions that would otherwise be recognised in a hedge of a net position.

6.7 Option to designate a credit exposure as measured at fair value through profit or loss
Eligibility of credit exposures for designation at fair value through profit or loss
6.7.1 If an entity uses a credit derivative that is measured at fair value through profit or loss to manage the credit risk of all, or a part of, a financial instrument (credit exposure) it may designate that financial instrument to the extent that it is so managed (ie. all or a proportion of it) as measured at fair value through profit or loss if:

(a) the name of the credit exposure (for example, the borrower, or the holder of a loan commitment) matches the reference entity of the credit derivative (‘name matching’); and
(b) the seniority of the financial instrument matches that of the instruments that can be delivered in accordance with the credit derivative.
An entity may make this designation irrespective of whether the financial instrument that is managed for credit risk is within the scope of this Standard (for example, an entity may designate loan commitments that are outside the scope of this Standard). The entity may designate that financial instrument at, or subsequent to, initial recognition, or while it is unrecognised. The entity shall
document the designation concurrently. 

Accounting for credit exposures designated at fair value through profit or loss
6.7.2 If a financial instrument is designated in accordance with paragraph 6.7.1 as measured at fair value through profit or loss after its initial recognition, or was previously not recognised, the difference at the time of designation between the carrying amount, if any, and the fair value shall immediately be recognised in profit or loss. For financial assets measured at fair value through other comprehensive income in accordance with
paragraph 4.1.2A, the cumulative gain or loss previously recognised in other comprehensive income shall immediately be reclassified from equity to profit or loss as a reclassification adjustment (see Ind AS 1).

6.7.3 An entity shall discontinue measuring the financial instrument that gave rise to the credit risk, or a proportion of that financial instrument, at fair value through profit or loss if:

(a) the qualifying criteria in paragraph 6.7.1 are no longer met, for example:

(i) the credit derivative or the related financial instrument that gives rise to the credit risk expires or is sold, terminated or settled; or
(ii) the credit risk of the financial instrument is no longer managed using credit derivatives. For example, this could occur because of improvements in the credit quality of the borrower or the loan commitment holder or changes to capital requirements imposed on an entity; and

(b) the financial instrument that gives rise to the credit risk is not otherwise required to be measured at fair value through profit or loss (ie. the entity’s business model has not changed in the meantime so that a reclassification in accordance with paragraph 4.4.1 was required).

6.7.4 When an entity discontinues measuring the financial instrument that gives rise to the credit risk, or a proportion of that financial instrument, at fair value through profit or loss, that financial instrument’s fair value at the date of discontinuation becomes its new carrying amount. Subsequently, the same measurement that was used before designating the financial instrument at fair value through profit or loss shall be applied (including
amortisation that results from the new carrying amount). For example, a financial asset that had originally been classified as measured at amortised cost would revert to that measurement and its effective interest rate would be recalculated based on its new gross carrying amount on the date of discontinuing measurement at fair value through profit or loss.

Effective Date (Section 7.1)

7.1.1 *

7.1.2 *

7.1.3 *

7.1.4 As a consequence of issuance of Ind AS 115, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, paragraphs 2.1, 2.2, 4.2.1, 5.1.1, 5.5.1, 5.5.15, Appendix A and Appendix B were amended. Paragraph 5.1.3 and a definition in Appendix A are added. An entity shall apply those amendments when it applies Ind AS 115.

Ind AS 116 amended paragraphs 2.1, 5.5.15, B4.3.8, B5.5.34 and B5.5.46. An entity shall apply those amendments when it applies Ind AS 116.

*
Prepayment Features with Negative Compensation (Amendments to Ind AS 109), added paragraphs 7.2.1 – 7.2.34 and B4.1.12A and amended paragraphs B4.1.11(b) and
B4.1.12(b). An entity shall apply these amendments for annual periods beginning on
or after 1 April, 2019.
7.2.1 An entity shall apply this Standard retrospectively, in accordance with Ind AS 8, Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors , except as specified in paragraphs 7.2.4 -7.2.14. This Standard shall not be applied to items that have already been derecognised at the date of initial application.
7.2.2 *
Transition for classification and measurement (Chapters 4 and 5)
7.2.3 At the date of initial application, an entity shall assess whether a financial asset meets the condition in paragraphs 4.1.2(a) or 4.1.2A(a) on the basis of the facts and circumstances that exist at that date. The resulting classification shall be applied retrospectively irrespective of the entity’s business model in prior reporting periods.
7.2.4 If, at the date of initial application, it is impracticable (as defined in Ind AS 8) for an entity to assess a modified time value of money element in accordance with paragraphs B4.1.9B –B4.1.9D on the basis of the facts and circumstances that existed at the initial recognition of the financial asset, an entity shall assess the contractual cash flow characteristics of that financial asset on the basis of the facts and circumstances that existed at the initial recognition of the financial asset without taking into account the requirements related to the modification of the time value of money element in paragraphs B4.1.9B –B4.1.9D.
7.2.5 If, at the date of initial application, it is impracticable (as defined in Ind AS 8) for an
entity to assess whether the fair value of a prepayment feature was insignificant in accordance with paragraph B4.1.12(c) on the basis of the facts and circumstances that existed at the initial recognition of the financial asset, an entity shall assess the contractual cash flow characteristics of that financial asset on the basis of the facts and circumstances that existed at the initial recognition of the financial asset without taking into account the exception for prepayment features in paragraph B4.1.12.
7.2.6 *
7.2.7 *
7.2.8 At the date of initial application an entity may designate:
(a) a financial asset as measured at fair value through profit or loss in accordance
with paragraph 4.1.5; or
(b) an investment in an equity instrument as at fair value through other
comprehensive income in accordance with paragraph 5.7.5.
Such a designation shall be made on the basis of the facts and circumstances that exist
at the date of initial application. That classification shall be applied retrospectively.
7.2.9 At the date of initial application an entity:
(a) shall revoke its previous designation of a financial asset as measured at fair value
through profit or loss if that financial asset does not meet the condition in
paragraph 4.1.5.
(b) may revoke its previous designation of a financial asset as measured at fair value
through profit or loss if that financial asset meets the condition in paragraph 4.1.5.
Such a revocation shall be made on the basis of the facts and circumstances that exist
at the date of initial application. That classification shall be applied retrospectively.

7.2.10 At the date of initial application, an entity:

(a) may designate a financial liability as measured at fair value through profit or loss in accordance with paragraph 4.2.2(a).

(b) shall revoke its previous designation of a financial liability as measured at fair value through profit or loss if such designation was made at initial recognition in accordance with the condition now in paragraph 4.2.2(a) and such designation does not satisfy that condition at the date of initial application.

(c)may revoke its previous designation of a financial liability as measured at fair value through profit or loss if such designation was made at initial recognition in accordance with the condition now in paragraph 4.2.2(a) and such designation satisfies that condition at the date of initial application.

Such a designation and revocation shall be made on the basis of the facts and circumstances that exist at the date of initial application. That classification shall be applied retrospectively.

7.2.11 If it is impracticable (as defined in Ind AS 8) for an entity to apply retrospectively the effective interest method, the entity shall treat:

(a) the fair value of the financial asset or the financial liability at the end of each comparative period presented as the gross carrying amount of that financial asset or the amortised cost of that financial liability if the entity restates prior periods; and

(b) the fair value of the financial asset or the financial liability at the date of initial application as the new gross carrying amount of that financial asset or the new amortised cost of that financial liability at the date of initial application of this Standard.

7.2.12 *

7.2.13 *

7.2.14 At the date of initial application, an entity shall determine whether the treatment in paragraph 5.7.7 would create or enlarge an accounting mismatch in profit or loss on the basis of the facts and circumstances that exist at the date of initial application. This Standard shall be applied retrospectively on the basis of that determination.

7.2.14A *

7.2.15 *

7.2.16 *

7.2.17 *

7.2.18 *

7.2.19 *

7.2.20 *

7.2.21 *

7.2.22 *

7.2.23 *

7.2.24 *

7.2.25 *

7.2.26 *

7.2.27 *

7.2.28 *

Transition for Prepayment Features with Negative Compensation

7.2.29 An entity shall apply Prepayment Features with Negative Compensation (Amendments to Ind AS 109) retrospectively in accordance with Ind AS 8, except as specified in paragraphs 7.2.30–7.2.34.

7.2.30 An entity that first applies these amendments at the same time it first applies this Standard shall apply relevant provisions of Ind AS 101 instead of paragraphs 7.2.31–7.2.34.

7.2.31 An entity that first applies these amendments after it first applies this Standard shall apply paragraphs 7.2.32–7.2.34. The entity shall also apply the other transition requirements in this Standard necessary for applying these amendments. For that purpose, references to the date of initial application shall be read as referring to the beginning of the reporting period in which an entity first applies these amendments (date of initial application of these amendments).

7.2.32 With regard to designating a financial asset or financial liability as measured at fair value through profit or loss, an entity:

(a) shall revoke its previous designation of a financial asset as measured at fair value  through profit or loss if that designation was previously made in accordance with the condition in paragraph 4.1.5 but that condition is no longer satisfied as a result of the application of these amendments;

(b) may designate a financial asset as measured at fair value through profit or loss if that designation would not have previously satisfied the condition in paragraph 4.1.5 but that condition is now satisfied as a result of the application of these amendments;

(c) shall revoke its previous designation of a financial liability as measured at fair value through profit or loss if that designation was previously made in accordance with the condition in paragraph 4.2.2(a) but that condition is no longer satisfied as a result of the application of these amendments; and

(d) may designate a financial liability as measured at fair value through profit or loss if that designation would not have previously satisfied the condition in paragraph 4.2.2(a) but that condition is now satisfied as a result of the application of these amendments.

Such a designation and revocation shall be made on the basis of the facts and circumstances that exist at the date of initial application of these amendments. That classification shall be applied retrospectively.

7.2.33 An entity is not required to restate prior periods to reflect the application of these amendments. The entity may restate prior periods if, and only if, it is possible without the use of hindsight and the restated financial statements reflect all the requirements in this Standard. If an entity does not restate prior periods, the entity shall recognise any difference between the previous carrying amount and the carrying amount at the beginning of the annual reporting period that includes the date of initial application of these amendments in the opening retained earnings (or other component of equity, as appropriate) of the annual reporting period that includes the date of initial application of these amendments.

7.2.34 In the reporting period that includes the date of initial application of these amendments, the entity shall disclose the following information as at that date of initial application for each class of financial assets and financial liabilities that were affected by these amendments:

(a) the previous measurement category and carrying amount determined immediately before applying these amendments;

(b) the new measurement category and carrying amount determined after applying these amendments;

(c) the carrying amount of any financial assets and financial liabilities in the Balance Sheet that were previously designated as measured at fair value through profit or loss but are no longer so designated; and

(d) the reasons for any designation or de-designation of financial assets or financial liabilities as measured at fair value through profit or loss

Appendix A

Defined terms
This appendix is an integral part of the Standard.

12-month expected credit losses The portion of lifetime expected credit losses that represent the expected credit losses that result from default events on a financial instrument that are possible within the 12 months after the reporting date.

amortised cost of a financial asset or financial liability The amount at which the financial asset or financial liability is measured at initial recognition minus the principal repayments, plus or minus the cumulative amortisation using the effective interest method of any difference between that initial amount and the maturity amount and, for financial assets, adjusted for any loss allowance.

 Those rights that Ind AS 115, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, specifies are accounted for in accordance with this Standard for the purposes of recognising and measuring impairment gains or losses.

contract assets Those rights that Ind AS115 Revenue from Contracts with Customers specifies are accounted for in accordance with this Standard for the purposes of
recognising and measuring impairment gains or losses. 

credit impaired financial asset A financial asset is credit-impaired when one or more events that have a detrimental impact on the estimated future cash flows of that financial asset have occurred. Evidence that a financial asset is credit-impaired include observable data about the following events:

(a) significant financial difficulty of the issuer or the borrower;
(b) a breach of contract, such as a default or past due event;
(c) the lender(s) of the borrower, for economic or contractual reasons relating to the borrower’s financial difficulty,having granted to the borrower a concession(s) that thelender(s) would not otherwise consider;
(d) it is becoming probable that the borrower will enterbankruptcy or other financial reorganisation;
(e) the disappearance of an active market for that financialasset because of financial difficulties; or
(f) the purchase or origination of a financial asset at a deepdiscount that reflects the incurred credit losses.
It may not be possible to identify a single discrete event-instead, the combined effect of several events may have caused financial assets to become credit impaired.

credit loss The difference between all contractual cash flows that are due to an entity in
accordance with the contract and all the cash flows that the entity expects to receive (ie. all cash shortfalls),discounted at the original effective interest rate (or credit-adjusted effective interest rate for purchased or originated credit-impaired financial assets). An entity shall estimate cash flows by considering all contractual terms of the financial instrument (for example, prepayment, extension, calland similar options) through the expected life of that financial instrument. The cash flows that are considered shall include cash flows from the sale of collateral held or other credit enhancements that are integral to the contractual terms. There is a presumption that the expected life of a financial instrument can be estimated reliably. However, in those rare cases when it is not possible to reliably estimate the expected life of a financial instrument, the entity shall use the remaining contractual term of the financial instrument.

credit-adjusted effective interest rate The rate that exactly discounts the estimated future cash payments or receipts through the expected life of the financial asset to the amortised cost of a financial asset that is a purchased or originated credit-impaired financial asset. When calculating the credit-adjusted effective interest rate, an  entity shall
estimate the expected cash flows by considering all contractual terms of the financial asset (for example, prepayment, extension, call and similar options) and expected credit losses. The calculation includes all fees and points paid or received between parties to the contract that are an integral part of the effective interest rate (see paragraphs B5.4.1‒B5.4.3), transaction costs, and all other premiums or discounts. There is a presumption that the cash flows and the expected life of a group of similar financial instruments can be estimated reliably. However, in those rare cases when it is not possible to reliably estimate the cash flows or the remaining life of a financial instrument (or group of financial instruments), the entity shall use the contractual cash flows over the full contractual term of the financial instrument (or group of financial instruments).

Derecognition The removal of a previously recognised financial asset or financial liability from an entity’s balance sheet.

Derivative A financial instrument or other contract within the scope of this Standard with all three of the following characteristics.

(a) its value changes in response to the change in a specified interest rate, financial instrument price, commodity price, foreign exchange rate, index of prices or rates, credit rating or credit index, or other variable, provided in the case of a non-financial variable that the variable isnot specific to a party to the contract (sometimes called the ‘underlying’).

(b) it requires no initial net investment or an initial net investment that is smaller than would be required for other types of contracts that would be expected to have a similar response to changes in market factors.
(c) it is settled at a future date.

Dividends
Distributions of profits to holders of equity instruments in proportion to their holdings of a particular class of capital.

effective interest method The rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash payments or receipts through the expected life of the financial asset or financial liability to the gross carrying amount of a financial asset or to the amortised cost of a financial liability. When calculating the effective interest rate, an entity shall estimate the expected cash flows by considering all the contractual terms of the financial instrument (for example, prepayment, extension, call and similar options) but shall not consider the expected credit losses. The calculation includes all fees and points paid or received between parties to the contract that are an integral part of the effective interest rate (see paragraphs B5.4.1– B5.4.3),transaction costs, and all other premiums or discounts. There is a presumption that the cash flows and the expected life of a group of similar financial instruments can be estimated reliably. However, in those rare cases when it is not possible to reliably estimate the cash flows or the expected life of a financial instrument (or group of financial instruments), the entity shall use the contractual cash flows over the full contractual term of the financial instrument (or group of financial instruments).

expected credit losses The weighted average of credit losses with the respective risks of a default occurring as the weights.

financial guarantee contract A contract that requires the issuer to make specified payments to reimburse the holder for a loss it incurs because a specified debtor fails to make payment when due in accordance with the original or modified terms of a debt instrument.

financial liability at fair value through profit or loss A financial liability that meets one of the following conditions:

(a) it meets the definition of held for trading.
(b) upon initial recognition it is designated by the entity as at fair value through profit or loss in accordance with paragraph 4.2.2 or 4.3.5.
(c) it is designated either upon initial recognition or subsequently as at fair
value through profit or loss in accordance with paragraph 6.7.1.

firm commitment A binding agreement for the exchange of a specified quantity of resources at a specified price on a specified future date or dates.

forecast transaction An uncommitted but anticipated future transaction.

gross carrying amount of a financial asset The amortised cost of a financial asset, before adjusting for any loss allowance.

hedging instrument a designated derivative or (for a hedge of the risk of changes in foreign currency exchange rates only) a designated non-derivative financial asset or non-derivative financial liability whose fair value or cash flows are expected to offset changes in the fair value or cash flows of a designated hedged item

hedge ratio The relationship between the quantity of the hedging instrument and the quantity of the hedged item in terms of their relative weighting.

held for trading A financial asset or financial liability that:

(a) is acquired or incurred principally for the purpose of selling or repurchasing it in the near term;
(b) on initial recognition is part of a portfolio of identified financial instruments that are managed together and for which there is evidence of a recent actual pattern of short-term profit-taking; or
(c) is a derivative (except for a derivative that is a financial guarantee contract or a designated and effective hedging instrument).

impairment gain or loss Gains or losses that are recognised in profit or loss in accordance with paragraph 5.5.8 and that arise from applying the impairment requirements in Section 5.5.

lifetime expected credit losses The expected credit losses that result from all possible default events over the expected life of a financial instrument.

loss allowance The allowance for expected credit losses on financial assets measured in accordance with paragraph 4.1.2, lease receivables and contract assets, the accumulated impairment amount for financial assets measured in accordance with paragraph 4.1.2A and the provision for expected credit losses on loan  commitments and financial guarantee contracts.

modification gain or loss The amount arising from adjusting the gross carrying amount of a financial asset to reflect the renegotiated or modified contractual cash flows. The entity
recalculates the gross carrying amount of a financial asset as the present value of the estimated future cash payments or receipts through the expected life of there negotiated or modified financial asset that are discounted at the financial asset’s original effective interest rate (or the Original credit-adjusted effective interest rate for purchased or originated credit-impaired financial assets) or, when applicable, the revised effective interest rate calculated in accordance with paragraph 6.5.10.When estimating the expected cash flows of a financial asset, an entity shall consider all contractual terms of the financial asset (for example, prepayment, call and similar options) but shall not consider the expected credit losses, unless the financial asset is a purchased or originated credit-impaired financial asset, in which case an entity shall also consider the initial expected credit losses that were considered when calculating the original credit-adjusted effective interest rate.

past due A financial asset is past due when a counterparty has failed to make a payment when that payment was contractually due.

purchased or originated
credit-impaired financial asset  Purchased or originated financial asset(s) that are credit impaired on initial recognition.

reclassification date The first day of the first reporting period following the change in business model that results in an entity reclassifying financial assets.

regular way purchase or sale A purchase or sale of a financial asset under a contract whose terms require delivery of the asset within the time frame established generally by regulation or convention in the market place concerned.

transaction costs Incremental costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition, issue or disposal of a financial asset or financial liability (see paragraph B5.4.8). An incremental cost is one that would not have been incurred if the entity had not acquired, issued or disposed of the financial instrument.

(a) credit risk;1

(b) equity instrument;

(c) fair value;

(d) financial asset;

(e) financial instrument;

(f) financial liability;

(g) transaction price.

1 This term (as defined in Ind AS 107) is used in the requirements for presenting the effects of changes in credit risk on liabilities designated as at fair value through profit or loss (see paragraph 5.7.7).

(a) credit risk;

(b) equity instrument;

(c) fair value;

(d) financial asset;

(e) financial instrument;

(f) financial liability

The following terms are defined in paragraph 11 of Ind AS 32, Appendix A of Ind AS107, Appendix A of Ind AS 113 or Appendix A of Ind AS115 and are used in this Standard with the meanings specified in Ind AS 32, Ind AS107, Ind AS113 or Ind AS115:
(a) credit risk;
(b) equity instrument;
(c) fair value;
(d) financial asset;
(e) financial instrument;

(f) financial liability;
(g) transaction price.

Substituted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2019 dated 30.03.2019. To view the Notification, Click Here.
Substituted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2018 dated 28.03.2018 effective from 01.04.2018. To view the notification,Click Here
Substituted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2016, GSR 365(E) dated 30.03.2016. To view the notification,Click Here
Substituted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2018 dated 28.03.2018 effective from 01.04.2018. To view the notification,Click Here
Substituted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2016, GSR 365(E) dated 30.03.2016. To view the notification,Click Here
Substituted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting
Standards) Amendment Rules, 2018 dated 28.03.2018 effective from 01.04.2018. To view the notification,Click Here
Substituted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2016, GSR 365(E) dated 30.03.2016. To view the notification,Click Here
Substituted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2018 dated 28.03.2018 effective from 01.04.2018. To view the notification,Click Here
Substituted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2016, GSR 365(E) dated 30.03.2016. To view the notification,Click Here
Substituted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2018 dated 28.03.2018 effective from 01.04.2018. To view the notification,Click Here
Substituted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2016, GSR 365(E) dated 30.03.2016. To view the notification,Click Here
Inserted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2018 dated 28.03.2018 effective from 01.04.2018. To view the notification,Click Here
vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2016, GSR 365(E) dated 30.03.2016. To view the notification,Click Here
Substituted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2018 dated 28.03.2018 effective from 01.04.2018. To view the notification,Click Here
Substituted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2016, GSR 365(E) dated 30.03.2016. To view the notification,Click Here
Substituted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting
Standards) Amendment Rules, 2018 dated 28.03.2018 effective from 01.04.2018. To view the notification,Click Here
Substituted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2019 dated 30.03.2019. To view the Notification, Click Here.
Substituted  vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2016, GSR 365(E) dated 30.03.2016. To view the notification,Click Here
Inserted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2018 dated 28.03.2018 effective from 01.04.2018. To view the notification,Click Here
Substituted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2019 dated 30.03.2019. To view the Notification, Click Here.
Substituted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Second Amendment Rules, 2019 dated 30.03.2019. To view the Notification, Click Here.
Substituted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Second Amendment Rules, 2019 dated 30.03.2019. To view the Notification, Click Here.
Substituted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Second Amendment Rules, 2019 dated 30.03.2019. To view the Notification, Click Here.
Substituted vide the Companies (Indian Accounting
Standards) Amendment Rules, 2018 dated 28.03.2018 effective from 01.04.2018. To view the notification,Click Here
vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2016, GSR 365(E) dated 30.03.2016. To view the notification,Click Here
 Substituted  vide the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2018 dated 28.03.2018 effective from 01.04.2018. To view the notification,Click Here
Substituted vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) (Amendment) Rules, 2016, GSR 365(E) dated 30.03.2016. To view the notification,Click Here

Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 109 (Appendix B, C, D and E)

Appendix B

Application guidance
This appendix is an integral part of the Standard.

Scope (Chapter 2)
B2.1 Some contracts require a payment based on climatic, geological or other physical variables. (Those based on climatic variables are sometimes referred to as ‘weather derivatives’.) If those contracts are not within the scope of Ind AS 104 Insurance Contracts, they are within the scope of this Standard.

This Standard does not change the requirements relating to royalty agreements based on the volume of sales or service revenues that are accounted for under Ind AS 115, Revenue from Contracts with Customers.

This Standard does not change the requirements relating to royalty agreements based on the volume of sales or service revenues that are accounted for under Ind AS 18, Revenue.

B2.2 This Standard does not change the requirements relating to royalty agreements based on the volume of sales or service revenues that are accounted for under Ind AS115 Revenue from Contracts with Customers.

B2.3 Sometimes, an entity makes what it views as a ‘strategic investment’ in equity instruments issued by another entity, with the intention of establishing or maintaining a long-term operating relationship with the entity in which the investment is made. The investor or joint venturer entity uses Ind AS 28 Investments in Associates and Joint Ventures to determine whether the equity method of accounting shall be applied to such an investment.

B2.4 This Standard applies to the financial assets and financial liabilities of insurers, other than rights and obligations that paragraph 2.1(e) excludes because they arise under contracts within the scope of Ind AS104.

B2.5 Financial guarantee contracts may have various legal forms, such as a guarantee, some types of letter of credit, a credit default contract or an insurance contract. Their accounting treatment does not depend on their legal form. The following are examples of the appropriate treatment (see paragraph 2.1(e)):

(a) Although a financial guarantee contract meets the definition of an insurance contract in Ind AS104 if the risk transferred is significant, the issuer applies this Standard. Nevertheless, if the issuer has previously asserted explicitly that it regards such contracts as insurance contracts and has used accounting that is applicable to insurance contracts, the issuer may elect to apply either this Standard or Ind AS104 to such financial guarantee contracts. If this Standard applies, paragraph 5.1.1 requires the issuer to recognise a financial guarantee contract initially at fair value. If the financial guarantee contract was issued to an unrelated party in a stand-alone arm’s length transaction, its fair value at inception is likely to equal the premium received, unless there is evidence to the contrary. Subsequently, unless the financial guarantee contract was designated at inception as at fair value through profit or loss or unless paragraphs 3.2.15–3.2.23 and B3.2.12–B3.2.17 apply (when a transfer of a financial asset does not qualify for derecognition or the continuing involvement approach applies), the issuer measures it at the higher of:

(i) the amount determined in accordance with Section 5.5; and

the amount initially recognised less, when appropriate, the cumulative amount of income recognised in accordance with the principles of Ind AS 115 [see paragraph 4.2.1(c)].

the amount initially recognised less, when appropriate, the cumulative amount of income recognised in accordance with Ind AS 18 (see paragraph 4.2.1(c)).

(ii) the amount initially recognised less, when appropriate, the cumulative amount of income recognised in accordance with the principles of Ind AS115 (see paragraph 4.2.1(c)).

(b) Some credit-related guarantees do not, as a precondition for payment, require that the holder is exposed to, and has incurred a loss on, the failure of the debtor to make payments on the guaranteed asset when due. An example of such a guarantee is one that requires payments in response to changes in a specified credit rating or credit index. Such guarantees are not financial guarantee contracts as defined in this Standard, and are not insurance contracts as defined in Ind AS104. Such guarantees are derivatives and the issuer applies this Standard to them.

If a financial guarantee contract was issued in connection with the sale of goods, the issuer applies Ind AS 115 in determining when it recognises the revenue from the guarantee and from the sale of goods.

If a financial guarantee contract was issued in connection with the sale of goods, the issuer applies Ind AS 18 in determining when it recognises the revenue from the guarantee and from the sale of goods.

(c) If a financial guarantee contract was issued in connection with the sale of goods, the issuer applies Ind AS115 in determining when it recognises the revenue from the guarantee and from the sale of goods.

B2.6 Assertions that an issuer regards contracts as insurance contracts are typically found throughout the issuer’s communications with customers and regulators, contracts, business documentation and financial statements. Furthermore, insurance contracts are often subject to accounting requirements that are distinct from the requirements for other types of transaction, such as contracts issued by banks or commercial companies. In such cases, an issuer’s financial statements typically include a statement that the issuer has used those accounting requirements.

Recognition and derecognition (Chapter 3)
Initial recognition (Section 3.1)
B3.1.1 As a consequence of the principle in paragraph 3.1.1, an entity recognises all of its contractual rights and obligations under derivatives in its balance sheet as assets and liabilities, respectively, except for derivatives that prevent a transfer of financial assets from being accounted for as a sale (see paragraph B3.2.14). If a transfer of a financial asset does not qualify for derecognition, the transferee does not recognise the transferred
asset as its asset (see paragraph B3.2.15).

B3.1.2 The following are examples of applying the principle in paragraph 3.1.1:

(a) Unconditional receivables and payables are recognised as assets or liabilities when the entity becomes a party to the contract and, as a consequence, has a legal right to receive or a legal obligation to pay cash.
(b) Assets to be acquired and liabilities to be incurred as a result of a firm commitment to purchase or sell goods or services are generally not recognised until at least one of the parties has performed under the agreement. For example, an entity that receives a firm order does not generally recognise an asset (and the entity that places the order does not recognise a liability) at the time of the commitment but, instead, delays recognition until the ordered goods or services have been shipped, delivered or rendered. If a firm commitment to buy or sell non-financial items is within the scope of this Standard in accordance with paragraphs 2.4–2.7, its net fair value is recognised as an asset or a liability on the commitment date (see paragraph B4.1.30(c)). In addition, if a previously unrecognised firm commitment is designated as a hedged item in a fair value hedge, any change in the net fair value attributable to the hedged risk is recognised as an asset or a liability after the inception of the hedge (see paragraphs 6.5.8(b) and 6.5.9).
(c) A forward contract that is within the scope of this Standard (see paragraph 2.1) is recognised as an asset or a liability on the commitment date, instead of on the date on which settlement takes place. When an entity becomes a party to a forward contract, the fair values of the right and obligation are often equal, so that the net fair value of the forward is zero. If the net fair value of the right and obligation is not zero, the contract is recognised as an asset or liability.
(d) Option contracts that are within the scope of this Standard (see paragraph 2.1) are recognised as assets or liabilities when the holder or writer becomes a party to the contract.
(e) Planned future transactions, no matter how likely, are not assets and liabilities because the entity has not become a party to a contract.

Regular way purchase or sale of financial assets
B3.1.3 A regular way purchase or sale of financial assets is recognised using either trade date accounting or settlement date accounting as described in paragraphs B3.1.5 and

B3.1.6. An entity shall apply the same method consistently for all purchases and sales of financial assets that are classified in the same way in accordance with this Standard. For this purpose assets that are mandatorily measured at fair value through profit or loss form a separate classification from assets designated as measured at fair value through profit or
loss. In addition, investments in equity instruments accounted for using the option provided in paragraph 5.7.5 form a separate classification.

B3.1.4 A contract that requires or permits net settlement of the change in the value of the contract is not a regular way contract. Instead, such a contract is accounted for as a derivative in the period between the trade date and the settlement date.

B3.1.5 The trade date is the date that an entity commits itself to purchase or sell an asset. Trade date accounting refers to (a) the recognition of an asset to be received and the liability to pay for it on the trade date, and (b) derecognition of an asset that is sold, recognition of any gain or loss on disposal and the recognition of a receivable from the buyer for payment on the trade date. Generally, interest does not start to accrue on the
asset and corresponding liability until the settlement date when title passes.

B3.1.6 The settlement date is the date that an asset is delivered to or by an entity. Settlement date accounting refers to (a) the recognition of an asset on the day it is received by the entity, and (b) the derecognition of an asset and recognition of any gain or loss on disposal on the day that it is delivered by the entity. When settlement date accounting is applied an entity accounts for any change in the fair value of the asset to be received during the period between the trade date and the settlement date in the same way as it accounts for the acquired asset. Inother words, the change in value is not recognised for assets measured at amortised cost; it is recognised in profit or loss for assets classified as financial assets measured at fair value through profit or loss; and it is
recognised in other comprehensive income for financial assets measured at fair value through other comprehensive income in accordance with paragraph 4.1.2A and for investments in equity instruments accounted for in accordance with paragraph 5.7.5.

Derecognition of financial assets (Section 3.2)
B3.2.1 The following flow chart illustrates the evaluation of whether and to what extent a financial asset is derecognised.

Arrangements under which an entity retains the contractual rights to receive the cash flows of a financial asset, but assumes a contractual obligation to pay the cash flows to one or more recipients [paragraph 3.2.4(b)]

B3.2.2 The situation described in paragraph 3.2.4(b) (when an entity retains the contractual rights to receive the cash flows of the financial asset, but assumes a contractual obligation to pay the cash flows to one or more recipients) occurs,for example, if the entity is a trust, and issues to investors beneficial interests in the underlying financial assets that it owns and provides servicing of those financial assets. In that case, the financial assets qualify for derecognition if the conditions in paragraphs 3.2.5 and 3.2.6 are met.

B3.2.3 In applying paragraph 3.2.5, the entity could be, for example, the originator of the financial asset, or it could be a group that includes a subsidiary that has acquired the financial asset and passes on cash flows to unrelated third party investors.

Evaluation of the transfer of risks and rewards of ownership (paragraph 3.2.6)
B3.2.4 Examples of when an entity has transferred substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership are:

(a) an unconditional sale of a financial asset;
(b) a sale of a financial asset together with an option to repurchase the financial asset at its fair value at the time of repurchase; and
(c) a sale of a financial asset together with a put or call option that is deeply out of the money (ie. an option that is so far out of the money it is highly unlikely to go into the money before expiry).

B3.2.5 Examples of when an entity has retained substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership are:

(a) a sale and repurchase transaction where the repurchase price is a fixed price or the sale price plus a lender’s return;
(b) a securities lending agreement;
(c) a sale of a financial asset together with a total return swap that transfers the market risk exposure back to the entity;
(d) a sale of a financial asset together with a deep in-the-money put or call option (ie. an option that is so far in the money that it is highly unlikely to go out of the money before expiry); and
(e) a sale of short-term receivables in which the entity guarantees to compensate the transferee for credit losses that are likely to occur.

B3.2.6 If an entity determines that as a result of the transfer, it has transferred substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the transferred asset, it does not recognise the transferred asset again in a future period, unless it reacquires the transferred asset in a new transaction.

Evaluation of the transfer of control
B3.2.7 An entity has not retained control of a transferred asset if the transferee has the practical ability to sell the transferred asset. An entity has retained control of a transferred asset if the transferee does not have the practical ability to sell the transferred asset. A transferee has the practical ability to sell the transferred asset if it is traded in an active market because the transferee could repurchase the transferred asset in the market if
it needs to return the asset to the entity. For example, a transferee may have the practical ability to sell a transferred assetif the transferred asset is subject to an option that allows the entity to repurchase it, but the transferee can readily obtain the transferred asset in the market if the option is exercised. A transferee does not have the practical ability to sell the transferred asset if the entity retains such an option and the transferee cannot readily obtain the transferred asset in the market if the entity exercises its option.

B3.2.8 The transferee has the practical ability to sell the transferred asset only if the transferee can sell the transferred asset in its entirety to an unrelated third party and is able to exercise that ability unilaterally and without imposing additional restrictions on the transfer. The critical question is what the transferee is able to do in practice, not what contractual rights the transferee has concerning what it can do with the transferred
asset or what contractual prohibitions exist. In particular:

(a) a contractual right to dispose of the transferred asset has little practical effect if there is no market for the transferred asset, and
(b) an ability to dispose of the transferred asset has little practical effect if it cannot be exercised freely. For that reason:

(i) the transferee’s ability to dispose of the transferred asset must be independent of the actions of others (ie. it must be a unilateral ability), and
(ii) the transferee must be able to dispose of the transferred asset without needing to attach restrictive conditions or ‘strings’ to the transfer (eg conditions about how a loan asset is serviced or an option giving the transferee the right to repurchase the asset).

B3.2.9 That the transferee is unlikely to sell the transferred asset does not, of itself, mean that the transferor has retained control of the transferred asset. However, if a put option or guarantee constrains the transferee from selling the transferred asset, then the transferor has retained control of the transferred asset. For example, if a put option or guarantee is sufficiently valuable it constrains the transferee from selling the transferred asset because the transferee would, in practice, not sell the transferred asset to a third party without attaching a similar option or other restrictive conditions. Instead, the transferee would hold the transferred asset so as to obtain payments under the guarantee or put option. Under these circumstances the transferor has retained control of the transferred asset.

Transfers that qualify for derecognition
B3.2.10 An entity may retain the right to a part of the interest payments on transferred assets as compensation for servicing those assets. The part of the interest payments that the entity would give up upon termination or transfer of the servicing contract is allocated to the servicing asset or servicing liability. The part of the interest payments that the entity would not give up is an interest-only strip receivable. For example, if the entity would not give up any interest upon termination or transfer of the servicing contract, the entire interest spread is an interest-only strip receivable. For the purposes of applying paragraph 3.2.13, the fair values of the servicing asset and interest-only stripreceivable are used to allocate the carrying amount of the receivable between the part of the asset that is derecognised and the part that continues to be recognised. If there is no servicing fee specified or the fee to be received is not expected to compensate the entity adequately for
performing the servicing, a liability for the servicing obligation is recognised at fair value.

B3.2.11 When measuring the fair values of the part that continues to be recognised and the part that is derecognised for the purposes of applying paragraph 3.2.13, an entity applies the fair value measurement requirements in Ind AS113Fair Value Measurement in addition to paragraph 3.2.14.

Transfers that do not qualify for derecognition
B3.2.12 The following is an application of the principle outlined in paragraph 3.2.15. If a guarantee provided by the entity for default losses on the transferred asset prevents a transferred asset from being derecognised because the entity has retained substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the transferred asset, the transferred asset continues to be recognised in its entirety and the consideration received is recognised as a
liability.

Continuing involvement in transferred assets
B3.2.13 The following are examples of how an entity measures a transferred asset and the associated liability under paragraph 3.2.16.

All assets

If a guarantee provided by an entity to pay for default losses on a transferred asset prevents the transferred asset from being derecognised to the extent of the continuing involvement, the transferred asset at the date of the transfer is measured at the lower of (i) the carrying amount of the asset and (ii) the
maximum amount of the consideration received in the transfer that the entity could be required to repay (‘the guarantee amount’). The associated liability is initially measured at the guarantee amount plus the fair value of the guarantee (which is normally the consideration received for the guarantee). Subsequently, the initial fair value of the guarantee is recognised in profit or loss when (or as) the obligation is satisfied (in accordance with the principles of Ind AS 115) and the carrying value of the asset is reduced by any loss allowance.

If a guarantee provided by an entity to pay for default losses on a transferred asset prevents the transferred asset from being derecognised to the extent of the continuing involvement, the transferred asset at the date of the transfer is measured at the lower of (i) the carrying amount of the asset and (ii) the maximum amount of the consideration received in the transfer that the entity could be required to repay (‘the guarantee amount’). The associated liability is initially measured at the guarantee amount plus the fair value of the guarantee (which is normally the consideration received for the guarantee). Subsequently, the initial fair value of the guarantee is recognised in profit or loss on a time proportion basis (see Ind AS 18) and the carrying value of the asset is reduced by any loss allowance.
(a) If a guarantee provided by an entity to pay for default losses on a transferred asset prevents the transferred asset from being derecognised to the extent of the continuing involvement, the transferred asset at the date of the transfer is measured at the lower of (i) the carrying amount of the asset and (ii) the maximum amount of the consideration received in the transfer that the entity could be required to repay (‘the guarantee amount’). The associated liability is initially measured at the guarantee amount plus the fair value of the guarantee (which is normally the consideration received for the  uarantee).
Subsequently, the initial fair value of the guarantee is recognised in profit or loss when (or as) the obligation is satisfied (in accordance with the principles of Ind AS115) and the carrying value of the asset is reduced by any loss allowance.

Assets measured at amortised cost
(b) If a put option obligation written by an entity or call option right held by an entity prevents a transferred asset from being derecognised and the entity measures the transferred asset at amortised cost, the associated liability is measured at its cost (ie. the consideration received) adjusted for the amortisation of any difference between that cost and the gross carrying amount of the transferred asset at the expiration date of the option. For example, assume that the gross carrying amount of the asset on the date of the transfer is Rs.98 and that the consideration received is Rs.95. The gross carrying amount
of the asset on the option exercise date will be Rs.100. The initial carrying amount of the associated liability is Rs.95 and the difference between Rs.95 and Rs.100 is recognised in profit or loss using the effective interest method. If the option is exercised, any difference between the carrying amount of the associated liability and the exercise price is recognised in profit or loss.

Assets measured at fair value
(c) If a call option right retained by an entity prevents a transferred asset from being derecognised and the entity measures the transferred asset at fair value, the asset continues to be measured at its fair value. The associated liability is measured at (i) the option exercise price less the time value of the option if the option is in or at the money, or (ii) the fair value of the transferred asset less the time value of the option if the option is out of the money. The adjustment to the measurement of the associated liability ensures that the net carrying amount of the asset and the associated liability is the fair value of the call option right. For example, if the fair value of the underlying asset is Rs.80, the option exercise price is Rs.95 and the time value of the option is Rs.5, the carrying amount of the associated liability is Rs.75 (Rs.80 – Rs.5) and the carrying amount of the transferred asset is Rs.80 (ie. its fair value).

(d) If a put option written by an entity prevents a transferred asset from being derecognised and the entity measures the transferred asset at fair value, the associated liability is measured at the option exercise price plus the time value of the option. The measurement of the asset at fair value is limited to the lower of the fair value and the option exercise price because the entity has no right to increases in the fair value of the transferred asset above the exercise price of the option. This ensures that the net carrying amount of the asset and the associated liability is the fair value of the put option obligation. For example, if the fair value of the underlying asset is Rs.120, the option exercise price is Rs.100 and the time value of the option is Rs.5, the carrying amount of the associated liability is Rs.105 (Rs.100 + Rs.5) and the carrying amount of the asset is Rs.100 (in this case the option exercise price).

(e) If a collar, in the form of a purchased call and written put, prevents a transferred asset from being derecognised and the entity measures the asset at fair value, it continues to measure the asset at fair value. The associated liability is measured at (i) the sum of the call exercise price and fair value of the put option less the time value of the call option, if the call option is in or at the money, or (ii) the sum of the fair value of the asset and the fair value of the put option less the time value of the call option if the call option is out of the money. The adjustment to the associated liability ensures that the net carrying amount of the asset and the associated liability is the fair value of the options held and written by the entity. For example, assume an entity transfers a financial asset that is measured at fair value while simultaneously purchasing a call with an exercise price of Rs.120 and writing a put with an exercise price of Rs.80. Assume also that the fair value of the asset is Rs.100 at the date of the transfer. The time value of the put and call are Rs.1 and Rs.5 respectively. In this case, the entity recognises an asset of Rs.100 (the fairvalue of the asset) and a liability of Rs.96 [(RRs.100 + Rs.1) – Rs.5]. This gives a net asset value of Rs.4, which is the fair value of the options held and written by the entity.

All transfers
B3.2.14 To the extent that a transfer of a financial asset does not qualify for derecognition, the transferor’s contractual rights or obligations related to the transfer are not accounted for separately as derivatives if recognising both the derivative and either the transferred asset or the liability arising from the transfer would result in recognising the same rights or obligations twice. For example, a call option retained by the transferor may prevent a transfer of financial assets from being accounted for as a sale. In that case, the call option is not separately recognised as a derivative asset.

B3.2.15 To the extent that a transfer of a financial asset does not qualify for derecognition, the transferee does not recognise the transferred asset as its asset. The transferee derecognises the cash or other consideration paid and recognises a receivable from the transferor. If the transferor has both a right and an obligation to reacquire control of the entire transferred asset for a fixed amount (such as under a repurchase agreement), the transferee may measure its receivable at amortised cost if it meets the criteria in paragraph 4.1.2.

Examples
B3.2.16 The following examples illustrate the application of the derecognition principles of this Standard.

(a) Repurchase agreements and securities lending. If a financial asset is sold underan agreement to repurchase it at a fixed price or at the sale price plus a lender’s return or if it is loaned under an agreement to return it to the transferor, it is not derecognised because the transferor retains substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership. If the transferee obtains the right to sell or pledge the asset, the transferor reclassifies the asset in its statement of balance sheet, for example, as a loaned asset or repurchase receivable.
(b) Repurchase agreements and securities lending—assets that are substantially the same. If a financial asset is sold under an agreement to repurchase thesame or substantially the same asset at a fixed price or at the sale price plus a lender’s return or if a financial asset is borrowed or loaned under an agreement to return the same or substantially the same asset to the transferor, it is not derecognised because the transferor retains substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership.
(c) Repurchase agreements and securities lending—right of substitution. If arepurchase agreement at a fixed repurchase price or a price equal to the sale price plus a lender’s return, or a similar securities lending transaction, provides the transferee with a right to substitute assets that are similar and of equal fair value to the transferred asset at the repurchase date, the asset sold or lent under a repurchase or securities lending transaction is not derecognised because the transferor retains substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership.
(d) Repurchase right of first refusal at fair value. If an entity sells a financial assetand retains only a right of first refusal to repurchase the transferred asset at fair value if the transferee subsequently sells it, the entity derecognises the asset because it has transferred substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership.
(e) Wash sale transaction. The repurchase of a financial asset shortly after ithas been sold is sometimes referred to as a wash sale. Such a repurchase does not preclude derecognition provided that the original transaction met the derecognition requirements. However, if an agreement to sell a financial asset is entered into concurrently with an agreement to repurchase the same asset at a fixed price or the sale price plus a lender’s return, then the asset is not derecognised.
(f) Put options and call options that are deeply in the money. If a transferredfinancial asset can be called back by the transferor and the call option is deeply in the money, the transfer does not qualify for derecognition because the transferor has retained substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership. Similarly, if the financial asset can be put back by the transferee and the put option is deeply in the money, the transfer does not qualify for derecognition because the transferor has retained substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership.
(g) Put options and call options that are deeply out of the money. A financial asset that is transferred subject only to a deep out-of-the-money put option held by the transferee or a deep out-of-the-money call option held by the transferor is derecognised. This is because the transferor has transferred substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership.
(h) Readily obtainable assets subject to a call option that is neither deeply in the money nor deeply out of the money. If an entity holds a call option on an asset thatis readily obtainable in the market and the option is neither deeply in the money nor deeply out of the money, the asset is derecognised. This is because the entity (i) has neither retained nor transferred substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership, and (ii) has not retained control. However, if the asset is not readily obtainable in the market, derecognition is precluded to the extent of the amount of the asset that is subject to the call option because the entity has retained control of the asset.
(i) A not readily obtainable asset subject to a put option written by an entity that is neither deeply in the money nor deeply out of the money. If an entity transfers a financial asset that is not readily obtainable in the market, and writes a put option that is not deeply out of the money, the entity neither retains nor transfers substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership because of the written put option. The entity retains control of the asset
if the put option is sufficiently valuable to prevent the transferee from selling the asset, in which case the asset continues to be recognised to the extent of the transferor’s continuing involvement (see paragraph B3.2.9). The entity transfers control of the asset if the put option is not sufficiently valuable to prevent the transferee from selling the asset, in which case the asset is derecognised.
(j) Assets subject to a fair value put or call option or a forward repurchase agreement.A transfer of a financial asset that is subject only to a put or call option or a forward repurchase agreement that has an exercise or repurchase price equal to the fair value of the financial asset at the time of repurchase results in derecognition because of the transfer of substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership.
(k) Cash-settled call or put options. An entity evaluates the transfer of afinancial asset that is subject to a put or call option or a forward repurchase agreement that will be settled net in cash to determine whether it has retained or transferred substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership. If the entity has not retained substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the transferred asset, it determines whether it has retained control of the transferred asset. That the put or the call or the forward repurchase agreement is settled net in cash does not automatically mean that the entity has transferred control (see paragraphs B3.2.9 and (g), (h) and (i) above).
(l) Removal of accounts provision. A removal of accounts provision is anunconditional repurchase (call) option that gives an entity the right to reclaim assets transferred subject to some restrictions. Provided that such an option results in the entity neither retaining nor transferring substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership, it precludes derecognition only to the extent of the amount subject to repurchase
(assuming that the transferee cannot sell the assets). For example, if the carrying amount and proceeds from the transfer of loan assets are Rs.100,000 and any individual loan could be called back but the aggregate amount of loans that could be repurchased could not exceed Rs.10,000, Rs.90,000 of the loans would qualify for derecognition.
(m) Clean-up calls. An entity, which may be a transferor, that servicestransferred assets may hold a cleanup call to purchase remaining transferred assets when the amount of outstanding assets falls to a specified level at which the cost of servicing those assets becomes burdensome in relation to the benefits of servicing. Provided that such a clean-up call results in the entity neither retaining nor transferring substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership and the transferee cannot sell the
assets, it precludes derecognition only to the extent of the amount of the assets that is subject to the call option.
(n) Subordinated retained interests and credit guarantees. An entity may providethe transferee with credit enhancement by subordinating some or all of its interest retained in the transferred asset. Alternatively, an entity may provide the transferee with credit enhancement in the form of a credit guarantee that could be unlimited or limited to a specified amount. If the entity retains substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the transferred asset, the asset continues to be recognised in its entirety. If the entity retains some, but not substantially all, of the risks and rewards of ownership and has retained control, derecognition is precluded to the extent of the amount of cash or other assets that the entity could be required to pay.
(o) Total return swaps. An entity may sell a financial asset to a transferee andenter into a total return swap with the transferee, whereby all of the interest payment cash flows from the underlying asset are remitted to the entity in exchange for a fixed payment or variable rate payment and any increases or declines in the fair value of the underlying asset are absorbed by the entity. In such a case, derecognition of all of the asset is prohibited.
(p) Interest rate swaps. An entity may transfer to a transferee a fixed ratefinancial asset and enter into an interest rate swap with the transferee to receive a fixed interest rate and pay a variable interest rate based on a notional amount that is equal to the principal amount of the transferred financial asset. The interest rate swap does not preclude derecognition of the transferred asset provided the payments on the swap are not conditional on payments being made on the transferred asset.
(q) Amortising interest rate swaps. An entity may transfer to a transferee a fixedrate financial asset that is paid off over time, and enter into an amortising interest rate swap with the transferee to receive a fixed interest rate and pay a variable interest rate based on a notional amount. If the notional amount of the swap amortises so that it equals the principal amount of the transferred financial asset outstanding at any point in time, the swap would generally result in the entity retaining substantial prepayment risk, in which case the entity either continues to recognise all of the transferred asset or continues to recognise the transferred asset to the extent of its continuing involvement. Conversely, if the amortisation of the notional amount of the swap is not linked to the principal amount outstanding of the transferred asset, such a swap would not result in the entity retaining prepayment risk on the asset. Hence, it would not preclude derecognition of the transferred asset provided the payments on the swap are not conditional on interest payments being made on the transferred asset and the swap does not result in the entity retaining any other significant risks and rewards of ownership on the transferred asset.
(r) Write-off. An entity has no reasonable expectations of recovering thecontractual cash flows on a financial asset in its entirety or a portion thereof.

B3.2.17 This paragraph illustrates the application of the continuing involvement approach when the entity’s continuing involvement is in a part of a financial asset.

Assume an entity has a portfolio of prepayable loans whose coupon and effective interest rate is 10 per cent and whose principal amount and amortised cost is Rs.10,000. It enters into a transaction in which, in return for a payment of Rs.9,115, the transferee obtains the right to Rs.9,000 of any collections of principal plus interest thereon at 9.5 per cent. The entity retains rights to Rs.1,000 of any collections of principal plus interest thereon at 10 per cent, plus the excess spread of 0.5 per cent on the remaining Rs.9,000 of principal. Collections from prepayments are allocated between the entity and the transferee proportionately in the ratio of 1:9, but any defaults are deducted from the entity’s interest of Rs.1,000 until that interest is exhausted. The fair value of the loans at the date of the transaction is Rs.10,100 and the fair value of the excess spread of 0.5 per cent is Rs.40.

The entity determines that it has transferred some significant risks and rewards of ownership (for example, significant prepayment risk) but has also retained some significant risks and rewards of ownership (because of its subordinated retained interest) and has retained control. It therefore applies the continuing involvement approach.

To apply this Standard, the entity analyses the transaction as (a) a retention of a fully proportionate retained interest of Rs.1,000, plus (b) the subordination of that retained interest to provide credit enhancement to the transferee for credit losses.

The entity calculates that Rs.9,090 (90% × Rs.10,100) of the consideration received of Rs.9,115 represents the consideration for a fully proportionate 90 per cent share. The remainder of the consideration received (Rs.25) represents consideration received for subordinating its retained interest to provide credit enhancement to the transferee for credit losses. In addition, the excess spread of 0.5 per cent represents consideration received for the credit enhancement. Accordingly, the total consideration received for the credit enhancement is Rs.65 (Rs.25 + Rs.40).

The entity calculates the gain or loss on the sale of the 90 per cent share of cash flows. Assuming that separate fair values of the 90 per cent part transferred and the 10 per cent part retained are not available at the date of the transfer, the entity allocates the carrying amount of the asset in accordance with paragraph 3.2.14 of Ind AS109 as follows:
 
Fair valuePercentageAllocated carrying
amount
Portion transferred9,09090%9,000
Portion retained1,01010%1,000
Total10,10010,000
 
The entity computes its gain or loss on the sale of the 90 per cent share of the cash flows by deducting the allocated carrying amount of the portion transferred from the consideration received, ieRs.90 (Rs.9,090 – Rs.9,000). The carrying amount of the portion retained by the entity is Rs.1,000.

In addition, the entity recognises the continuing involvement that results from the subordination of its retained interest for credit losses. Accordingly, it recognises an asset of Rs.1,000 (the maximum amount of the cash flows it would not receive under the subordination), and an associated liability of Rs.1,065 (which is the maximum amount of the cash flows it would not receive under the subordination, ieRs.1,000 plus the fair value of the subordination of Rs.65).

The entity uses all of the above information to account for the transaction as follows:
 
DebitCredit
Original asset9,000
Asset recognised for subordination or the residual interest1,000
Asset for the consideration received in the form of excess spread40
Profit or loss (gain on transfer)90
Liability1,065
Cash received9,115
Total10,15510,155
 
Immediately following the transaction, the carrying amount of the asset is Rs.2,040 comprising Rs.1,000, representing the allocated cost of the portion retained, and Rs.1,040, representing the entity’s additional continuing involvement from the subordination of its retained interest for credit losses (which includes the excess spread of Rs.40).

In subsequent periods, the entity recognises the consideration received for the credit enhancement (Rs.65) on a time proportion basis, accrues interest on the recognised asset using the effective interest method and recognises any impairment losses on the recognised assets. As an example of the latter, assume that in the following year there is an impairment loss on the underlying loans of Rs.300. The entity reduces its recognised asset by Rs.600 (Rs.300 relating to its retained interest and Rs.300 relating to the additional continuing involvement that arises from the subordination of its
retained interest for impairment losses), and reduces its recognised liability by Rs.300. The net result is a charge to profit or loss for impairment losses of Rs.300.

Derecognition of financial liabilities (Section 3.3)
B3.3.1 A financial liability (or part of it) is extinguished when the debtor either:
(a) discharges the liability (or part of it) by paying the creditor, normally with cash, other financial assets, goods or services; or
(b) is legally released from primary responsibility for the liability (or part of it) either by process of law or by the creditor. (If the debtor has given a guarantee this condition may still be met.)

B3.3.2 If an issuer of a debt instrument repurchases that instrument, the debt is extinguished even if the issuer is a market maker in that instrument or intends to resell it in the near term.

B3.3.3 Payment to a third party, including a trust (sometimes called ‘in-substance defeasance’), does not, by itself, relieve the debtor of its primary obligation to the creditor, in the absence of legal release.

B3.3.4 If a debtor pays a third party to assume an obligation and notifies its creditor that the third party has assumed its debt obligation, the debtor does not derecognise the debt obligation unless the condition in paragraph B3.3.1(b) is met. If the debtor pays a third party to assume an obligation and obtains a legal release from its creditor, the debtor has extinguished the debt. However, if the debtor agrees to make payments on the debt to the third party or direct to its original creditor, the debtor recognises a new debt obligation to the third party.

B3.3.5 Although legal release, whether judicially or by the creditor, results in derecognition of a liability, the entity may recognise a new liability if the derecognition criteria in paragraphs 3.2.1–3.2.23 are not met for the financial assets transferred. If those criteria are not met, the transferred assets are not derecognised, and the entity recognises a new liability relating to the transferred assets.

B3.3.6 For the purpose of paragraph 3.3.2, the terms are substantially different if the discounted present value of the cash flows under the new terms, including any fees paid net of any fees received and discounted using the original effective interest rate, is at least 10 per cent different from the discounted present value of the remaining cash flows of the original financial liability. If an exchange of debt instruments or modification of terms is accounted for as an extinguishment, any costs or fees incurred are recognised as part of the gain or loss on the extinguishment. If the exchange or modification is not accounted for as an extinguishment, any costs or fees incurred adjust the carrying amount of the liability and are amortised over the remaining term of the modified liability.

B3.3.7 In some cases, a creditor releases a debtor from its present obligation to make payments, but the debtor assumes a guarantee obligation to pay if the party assuming primary responsibility defaults. In these circumstances the debtor:

(a) recognises a new financial liability based on the fair value of its obligation for the guarantee, and
(b) recognises a gain or loss based on the difference between (i) any proceeds paid and (ii) the carrying amount of the original financial liability less the fair value of the new financial liability.

Classification (Chapter 4)

Classification of financial assets (Section 4.1)
The entity’s business model for managing financial assets
B4.1.1 Paragraph 4.1.1(a) requires an entity to classify financial assets on the basis of the entity’s business model for managing the financial assets, unless paragraph 4.1.5 applies. An entity assesses whether its financial assets meet the condition in paragraph 4.1.2(a) or the condition in paragraph 4.1.2A(a) on the basis of the business model as determined by the entity’s key management personnel (as defined in Ind AS 24 Related Party Disclosures).

B4.1.2 An entity’s business model is determined at a level that reflects how groups of financial assets are managed together to achieve a particular business objective. The entity’s business model does not depend on management’s intentions for an individual instrument. Accordingly, this condition is not an instrument-by-instrument approach to classification and should be determined on a higher level of aggregation. However, a single entity may have more than one business model for managing its financial instruments. Consequently, classification need not be determined at the reporting entity level. For example, an entity may hold a portfolio of investments that it manages in order to collect contractual cash flows and another portfolio of  investments that it manages in order to trade to realise fair value changes. Similarly, in some circumstances, it may be appropriate to separate a portfolio of financial assets into subportfolios in order to reflect the level at which an entity manages those financial assets. For example, that may be the case if an entity originates or purchases a portfolio of mortgage loans and manages some of the loans with an objective of collecting contractual cash flows and manages the other loans with an objective of selling them.

B4.1.2A An entity’s business model refers to how an entity manages its financial assets in order to generate cash flows. That is, the entity’s business model determines whether cash flows will result from collecting contractual cash flows, selling financial assets or both. Consequently, this assessment is not performed on the basis of scenarios that the entity does not reasonably expect to occur, such as so-called ‘worst case’ or ‘stress case’ scenarios. For example, if an entity expects that it will sell a particular portfolio of financial assets only in a stress case scenario, that scenario would not affect the entity’s assessment of the business model for those assets if the entity reasonably expects that such a scenario will not occur. If cash flows are realised in a way that is different from the entity’s expectations at the date that the entity assessed the business model (for example, if the entity sells more or fewer financial assets than it expected when it classified the assets), that does not give rise to a prior period error in the entity’s financial statements (see Ind AS 8 Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors) nor does it change the classification of the remaining financial assets held in that business model (ie. those assets that the entity recognised in prior periods and still holds) as long as the entity considered all relevant information that was available at the time that it made the business model assessment. However, when an entity assesses the businessmodel for newly originated or
newly purchased financial assets, it must consider information about how cash flows were realised in the past, along with all other relevant information.

B4.1.2B An entity’s business model for managing financial assets is a matter of fact and not merely an assertion. It is typically observable through the activities that the entity undertakes to achieve the objective of the business model. An entity will need to use judgement when it assesses its business model for managing financial assets and that assessment is not determined by a single factor or activity. Instead, the entity must consider all relevant evidence that is available at the date of the assessment. Such relevant evidence includes, but is not limited to:

(a) how the performance of the business model and the financial assets held within that business model are evaluated and reported to the entity’s key management personnel;
(b) the risks that affect the performance of the business model (and the financial assets held within that business model) and, in particular, the way in which those risks are managed; and
(c) how managers of the business are compensated (for example, whether the compensation is based on the fair value of the assets managed or on the contractual cash flows collected).

A business model whose objective is to hold assets in order to collect contractual cash flows
B4.1.2C Financial assets that are held within a business model whose objective is to hold assets in order to collect contractual cash flows are managed to realise cash flows by collecting contractual payments over the life of the instrument. That is, the entity manages the assets held within the portfolio to collect those particular contractual cash flows (instead of managing the overall return on the portfolio by both holding and selling assets). In determining whether cash flows are going to be realised by collecting the financial assets’ contractual cash flows, it is necessary to consider the frequency, value and timing of sales in prior periods, the reasons for those sales and expectations about future sales activity. However sales in themselves do not determine the business model and therefore cannot be considered in isolation. Instead, information about past sales and expectations about future sales provide evidence related to how the entity’s stated objective for managing the financial assets is achieved and, specifically, how cash flows are realised. An entity must consider information about past sales within the context of the reasons for those sales and the conditions that existed at that time as compared to current conditions.

B4.1.3 Although the objective of an entity’s business model may be to hold financial assets in order to collect contractual cash flows, the entity need not hold all of those instruments until maturity. Thus an entity’s business model can be to hold financial assets to collect contractual cash flows even when sales of financial assets occur or are expected to occur in the future.

B4.1.3A The business model may be to hold assets to collect contractual cash flows even if the entity sells financial assets when there is an increase in the assets’ creditrisk. To determine whether there has been an increase in the assets’ credit risk, the entity considers reasonable and supportable information, including forward looking information. Irrespective of their frequency and value, sales due to an increase in the assets’ credit risk are not inconsistent with a business model whose objective is to hold financial assets to collect contractual cash flows because the credit quality of financial assets is relevant to the entity’s ability to collect contractual cash flows. Credit risk management activities that are aimed at minimising potential credit losses due to credit
deterioration are integral to such a business model. Selling a financial asset because it no longer meets the credit criteria specified in the entity’s documented investment policy is an example of a sale that has occurred due to an increase in credit risk. However, in the absence of such a policy, the entity may demonstrate in other ways that the sale occurred due to an increase in credit risk.

B4.1.3B Sales that occur for other reasons, such as sales made to manage credit concentration risk (without an increase in the assets’ credit risk), may also be consistent with a business model whose objective is to hold financial assets in order to collect contractual cash flows. In particular, such sales may be consistent with a business model whose objective is to hold financial assets in order to collect contractual cash flows if those sales are infrequent (even if significant in value) or insignificant in value both individually and in aggregate (even if frequent). If more than an infrequent number of such sales are made out of a portfolio and those sales are more than insignificant in value (either individually or in aggregate), the entity needs to assess whether and how such sales are consistent with an objective of collecting contractual cash flows. Whether a third party imposes the requirement to sell the financial assets, or that activity is at the entity’s discretion, is not relevant to this assessment. An increase in the frequency or value of sales in a particular period is not necessarily inconsistent with an objective to hold financial assets in order to collect contractual cash flows, if an entity can explain the reasons for those sales and demonstrate why those sales do not reflect a change in the entity’s business model. In addition, sales may be consistent with the objective of holding financial assets in order to collect contractual cash flows if the sales are made close to the maturity of the financial assets and the proceeds from the sales approximate the collection of the remaining contractual cash flows.

B4.1.4 The following are examples of when the objective of an entity’s business model may be to hold financial assets to collect the contractual cash flows. This list of examples is not exhaustive. Furthermore, the examples are not intended to discuss all factors that may be relevant to the assessment of the entity’s business model nor specify the relative importance of the factors.

ExampleAnalysis
An entity holds investments to collect their contractual cash flows.
The funding needs of the entity are predictable and the maturity of its
financial assets is matched to the entity’s estimated funding needs.

The entity performs credit risk management activities with the objective of minimising credit losses. In the past, sales have typically occurred when the financial assets’ credit risk has increased such that the assets no longer meet the credit criteria specified in the entity’s documented investment policy. Inaddition, infrequent sales have occurred as a result of unanticipated funding needs.

Reports to key management personnel focus on the credit quality of the financial assets and the contractual return. The entity also monitors fair values of the financial assets, among other information.
Although the entity considers, among other information, the financial assets’ fair values from a liquidity perspective (ie. the cash amount that would be realised if the entity needs to sell assets), the entity’s objective is to
hold the financial assets in order to collect the contractual cash flows. Sales would not contradict that objective if they were in response to an increase in the assets’ credit risk, for example if the assets no longer meet the credit criteria specified in the entity’s documented investment policy. Infrequent sales resulting from unanticipated funding needs (eg. in a stress case scenario) also would not contradict that objective, even if such sales are significant in value.
Example 2

An entity’s business model is to purchase portfolios of financial assets, such as loans. Those portfolios may or may not include financial assets that are credit impaired.

If payment on the loans is not made on a timely basis, the entity attempts to realise the contractual cash flows through various means—for example, by contacting the debtor by mail, telephone or other methods. The entity’s objective is to collect the contractual cash flows and the e