valid as on 23/06/2019

Section 43.Kinds of share capital.
Effective from 01-04-2014

The capital of a   limited by shares shall be of two kinds, namely:—

(a) equity share capital—

(i) with  ; or

(ii) with differential rights as to dividend, voting or otherwise in accordance with such rules  and

(b) preference share capital:

Provided that nothing contained in this Act shall affect the rights of the preference shareholders who are entitled to participate in the proceeds of winding up before the commencement of this Act.

Explanation.—For the purposes of this section,—

(i) “equity share capital”, with reference to any , means all share capital which is not preference share capital;

(ii) “preference share capital”, with reference to any company limited by shares, means that part of the issued share capital of the company which carries or would carry a preferential right with respect to—

(a) payment of dividend, either as a fixed amount or an amount calculated at a fixed rate, which may either be free of or subject to income-tax; and

(b) repayment, in the case of a winding up or repayment of capital, of the amount of the  or deemed to have been paid-up, whether or not, there is a preferential right to the payment of any fixed premium or premium on any fixed scale, specified in the  or  of the company; 

(iii) capital shall be deemed to be preference capital, notwithstanding that it is entitled to either or both of the following rights, namely:—

(a) that in respect of , in addition to the preferential rights to the amounts specified in sub-clause (a) of clause (ii), it has a right to participate, whether fully or to a limited extent, with capital not entitled to the preferential right aforesaid;

(b) that in respect of capital, in addition to the preferential right to the repayment, on a winding up, of the amounts specified in sub-clause (b) of clause ( ii), it has a right to participate, whether fully or to a limited extent, with capital not entitled to that preferential right in any surplus which may remain after the entire capital has been repaid.

2(84) Share means a share in the share capital of a company and includes stock

1. This section shall not apply to private company where memorandum or articles of association of the company so provides, vide notification no. G.S.R. 464 (E) dated 5th June 2015.

(The exceptions, modifications and adaptations provided above shall be applicable only to those Private Companies which has not committed a default in filing its financial statements under section 137 of the said act or annual return under section 92 of the said act with the registrar, vide notification dated 13th June 2017)

To view the notification,Click Here

2. This section shall not apply to shall not apply to a Specified IFSC public company, where memorandum of association or articles of association of such company provides for it)”  ] Vide Exemption Notification to specified IFSC Public Companies, GSR 08 (E) dated 04.01.2017. To view the notification Click Here

2(93) Voting right means the right of a member of a company to vote in any meeting of the company or by means of postal ballot
Refer rule 4 of the Companies (Share Capital and Debentures) Rules, 2014. To view the rule,Click Here
2(22) Company limited by shares means a company having the liability of its members limited by the memorandum to the amount, if any, unpaid on the shares respectively held by them
2(64) Paid-up share capital or share capital paid-up means such aggregate amount of money credited as paid-up as is equivalent to the amount received as paid-up in respect of shares issued and also includes any amount credited as paid-up in respect of shares of the company, but does not include any other amount received in respect of such shares, by whatever name called
2(56) Memorandum means the memorandum of association of a company as originally framed or as altered from time to time in pursuance of any previous company law or of this Act
2(5) Articles means the articles of association of a company as originally framed or as altered from time to time or applied in pursuance of any previous company law or of this Act
2(35) Dividend includes any interim dividend

4.1.3-Companies (Share Capital and Debentures) Rules, 2014

3. Application.-

The provisions of these rules shall apply to

(a) all unlisted public companies;
(b) all private companies; and
(c) listed companies, so far as they do not contradict or conflict with any other provision framed in this regard by the Securities and Exchange Board of India.

The provisions of these rules shall apply to –

(a) all unlisted public companies;
(b) all private companies; and
(c) listed companies so far as they do not contradict or conflict with any other regulation framed in this regard by the Securities and Exchange Board of India;

This rule substituted vide Notification No. G.S.R. 210(E) dated 18 March 2015. To view the notification,Click Here

4.1.4-Companies (Share Capital and Debentures) Rules, 2014

4. Equity shares with differential rights.-

(1) No company limited by shares shall issue equity shares with differential rights as to dividend, voting or otherwise, unless it complies with the following conditions, namely:-

(a) the articles of association of the company authorizes the issue of shares with differential rights;

(b) the issue of shares is authorized by an ordinary resolution passed at a general meeting of the shareholders:

Provided that where the equity shares of a company are listed on a recognized stock exchange, the issue of such shares shall be approved by the shareholders through postal ballot ;

(c) the shares with differential rights shall not exceed twenty-six percent of the total post-issue paid up equity share capital including equity shares with differential rights issued at any point of time;

(d) the company having consistent track record of distributable profits for the last three years;

(e) the company has not defaulted in filing financial statements and annual returns for three financial years immediately preceding the financial year in which it is decided to issue such shares;

(f) the company has no subsisting default in the payment of a declared dividend to its shareholders or repayment of its matured deposits or redemption of its preference shares or debentures that have become due for redemption or payment of interest on such deposits or debentures or payment of dividend;

(g) the company has not defaulted in payment of the dividend on preference shares or repayment of any term loan from a public financial institution or State level financial institution or scheduled Bank that has become repayable or interest payable thereon or dues with respect to statutory payments relating to its employees to any authority or default in crediting the amount in Investor Education and Protection Fund to the Central Government;

 that a company may issue equity shares with differential rights upon expiry of five years from the end of the financial year in which such default was made good.

(h) the company has not been penalized by Court or Tribunal during the last three years of any offence under the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 , the Securities and Exchange Board of India Act, 1992, the Securities Contracts Regulation Act, 1956, the Foreign Exchange Management Act, 1999 or any other special Act, under which such companies being regulated by sectoral regulators.

(2) The explanatory statement to be annexed to the notice of the general meeting in pursuance of section 102 or of a postal ballot in pursuance of section 110 shall contain the following particulars, namely:-

(a) the total number of shares to be issued with differential rights;

(b) the details of the differential rights ;

(c) the percentage of the shares with differential rights to the total post issue paid up equity share capital including equity shares with differential rights issued at any point of time;

(d) the reasons or justification for the issue;

(e) the price at which such shares are proposed to be issued either at par or at premium;

(f) the basis on which the price has been arrived at;

(g) (i) in case of private placement or preferential issue-

(a) details of total number of shares proposed to be allotted to promoters, directors and key managerial personnel;

(b) details of total number of shares proposed to be allotted to persons other than promoters, directors and key managerial personnel and their relationship if any with any promoter, director or key managerial personnel;

(ii) in case of public issue – reservation, if any, for different classes of applicants including promoters, directors or key managerial personnel;

(h) the percentage of which the equity share capital with differential voting right shall carry to the total voting right of the aggregate equity share capital;

(i) the scale or proportion in which the voting rights of such class or type of shares shall vary;

(j) the change in control, if any, in the company that may occur consequent to the issue of equity shares with differential voting rights;

(k) the diluted Earning Per Share pursuant to the issue of such shares, calculated in accordance with the applicable accounting standards;

(l) the pre and post issue shareholding pattern along with voting rights as per clause 35 of the listing agreement issued by Security Exchange Board of India from time to time.

(3) The company shall not convert its existing equity share capital with voting rights into equity share capital carrying differential voting rights and vice–versa.

(4) The Board of Directors shall, inter alia, disclose in the Board’s Report for the financial year in which the issue of equity shares with differential rights was completed, the following details, namely:-

(a) the total number of shares allotted with differential rights;

(b) the details of the differential rights relating to voting rights and dividends;

(c) the percentage of the shares with differential rights to the total post issue equity share capital with differential rights issued at any point of time and percentage of voting rights which the equity share capital with differential voting right shall carry to the total voting right of the aggregate equity share capital;

(d) the price at which such shares have been issued;

(e) the particulars of promoters, directors or key managerial personnel to whom such shares are issued;

(f) the change in control, if any, in the company consequent to the issue of equity shares with differential voting rights;

(g) the diluted Earning Per Share pursuant to the issue of each class of shares, calculated in accordance with the applicable accounting standards;

(h) the pre and post issue shareholding pattern along with voting rights in the format specified under sub-rule (2) of rule 4.

(5) The holders of the equity shares with differential rights shall enjoy all other rights such as bonus shares, rights shares etc., which the holders of equity shares are entitled to, subject to the differential rights with which such shares have been issued.

(6) Where a company issues equity shares with differential rights, the Register of Members maintained under section 88 shall contain all the relevant particulars of the shares so issued along with details of the shareholders.

Explanation.- For the purposes of this rule it is hereby clarified that equity shares with differential rights issued by any company under the provisions of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956) and the rules made thereunder, shall continue to be regulated under such provisions and rules.

Explanation.-For the purposes of this rule, it is hereby clarified that differential rights attached to such shares issued by any company under the provisions of Companies Act, 1956, shall continue till such rights are converted with the differential rights in accordance with the provisions of the Companies Act, 2013.

Inserted vide Companies (Share Capital and Debentures) Third Amendment Rules, 2016. To view the notification,Click Here
 “voting right” means the right of a member of a company to vote in any meeting of the company or by means of postal ballot
Explanation substituted vide notification G.S.R. 413 (E) dated 18 June, 2014. To view the notification,Click Here

Companies (Share Capital and Debentures) Amendment Rules, 2015


GSR 413 E


Companies (Share Capital and Debentures) Third Amendment Rules, 2016 [GSR 704(E)] dated 19/07/2016


Enforcement Notification S.O. 902(E) dated 26/03/2014


Exemption to Specified IFSC Public company [GSR 08(E)] dated 04/01/2017


Exemptions to Private Companies [Amendment to GSR 464(E)] dated 13/06/2017


Exemptions to private companies [GSR 464 (E)] dated 05/06/2015


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