valid as on 12/12/2019

Section 198. Calculation of profits
Effective from 01-04-2014

1) In computing the net profits of a  in any  for the purpose of section 197,—

(a) credit shall be given for the sums specified in sub-section (2), and credit shall not be given for those specified in sub-section (3); and

(b) the sums specified in sub-section (4) shall be deducted, and those specified in sub-section (5) shall not be deducted.

(2) In making the computation aforesaid, credit shall be given for the bounties and subsidies received from any Government, or any public authority constituted or authorised in this behalf, by any Government, unless and except in so far as the Central Government otherwise directs.

(3) In making the computation aforesaid, credit shall not be given for the following sums, namely:—

(a) profits, by way of premium on

(b) profits on sales by the company of forfeited shares;

(c) profits of a capital nature including profits from the sale of the undertaking or any of the undertakings of the company or of any part thereof;

(d) profits from the sale of any immovable property or fixed assets of a capital nature comprised in the undertaking or any of the undertakings of the company, unless the business of the company consists, whether wholly or partly, of buying and selling any such property or assets:

Provided that where the amount for which any fixed asset is sold exceeds the written-down value thereof, credit shall be given for so much of the excess as is not higher than the difference between the original cost of that fixed asset and its written down value;

(e) any change in carrying amount of an asset or of a liability recognised in equity reserves including surplus in profit and loss account on measurement of the asset or the liability at fair value.

(4) In making the computation aforesaid, the following sums shall be deducted, namely:—

(a) all the usual working charges;

(b) directors’ ;

(c) bonus or commission paid or payable to any member of the company’s staff, or to any engineer, technician or person employed or engaged by the company, whether on a whole-time or on a part-time basis;

(d) any tax notified by the Central Government as being in the nature of a tax on excess or abnormal profits;

(e) any tax on business profits imposed for special reasons or in special circumstances and notified by the Central Government in this behalf;

(f) interest on  issued by the company;

(g) interest on mortgages executed by the company and on loans and advances secured by a charge on its fixed or floating assets;

(h) interest on unsecured loans and advances;

(i) expenses on repairs, whether to immovable or to movable property, provided the repairs are not of a capital nature;

(j) outgoings inclusive of contributions made under section 181;

(k) depreciation to the extent specified in section 123;

(l) the excess of expenditure over income, which had arisen in computing the net profits in accordance with this section in any year , in so far as such excess has not been deducted in any subsequent year preceding the year in respect of which the net profits have to be ascertained;

(m) any compensation or damages to be paid in virtue of any legal liability including a liability arising from a breach of contract;

(n) any sum paid by way of insurance against the risk of meeting any liability such as is referred to in clause (m);

(o) debts considered bad and written off or adjusted during the year of account.

(5) In making the computation aforesaid, the following sums shall not be deducted, namely:—

(a) income-tax and super-tax payable by the company under the Income-tax Act, 1961, or any other tax on the income of the company not falling under clauses (d) and (e) of sub-section (4);

(b) any compensation, damages or payments made voluntarily, that is to say, otherwise than in virtue of a liability such as is referred to in clause (m) of sub-section (4);

(c) loss of a capital nature including loss on sale of the undertaking or any of the undertakings of the company or of any part thereof not including any excess of the written-down value of any asset which is sold, discarded, demolished or destroyed over its sale proceeds or its scrap value;

(d) any change in carrying amount of an asset or of a liability recognised in equity reserves including surplus in profit and loss account on measurement of the asset or the liability at fair value.

2(20) Company means a company incorporated under this Act or under any previous company law
2(42) Financial year, in relation to any company or body corporate, means the period ending on the 31st day of March every year, and where it has been incorporated on or after the 1st day of January of a year, the period ending on the 31st day of March of the following year, in respect whereof financial statement of the company or body corporate is made up:

Provided that on an application made by a company or body corporate, which is a holding company or a subsidiary of a company incorporated outside India and is required to follow a different financial year for consolidation of its accounts outside India, the Tribunal may, if it is satisfied, allow any period as its financial year, whether or not that period is a year:

Provided further that a company or body corporate, existing on the commencement of this Act, shall, within a period of two years from such commencement, align its financial year as per the provisions of this clause

Provided also that in case of a Specified IFSC public company, which is a subsidiary of a foreign company, the financial year of the subsidiary may be same as the financial year of its holding company and approval of the Tribunal shall not be required.

Provided also that in case of a Specified IFSC private company, which is a subsidiary of a foreign company, the financial year of the subsidiary may be same as the financial year of its holding company and approval of the Tribunal shall not be required.

2(84) Share means a share in the share capital of a company and includes stock, debenture of the company, which are issued or sold by the company
Inserted vide Companies (Amendment) Act, 2017 dated 03.01.2018 effective from 12.09.2018. To view the notificationClick Here
Inserted vide Companies (Amendment) Act, 2017 dated 03.01.2018 effective from 12.09.2018. To view the notificationClick Here
2(78) Remuneration means any money or its equivalent given or passed to any person for services rendered by him and includes perquisites as defined under the Income-tax Act, 1961 (43 of 1961)
2(30) Debenture, includes debenture stock, bonds or any other instrument of a company evidencing a debt, whether constituting a charge on the assets of the company or not

Provided that— (a) the instruments referred to in Chapter III-D of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934; and

(b) such other instrument, as may be prescribed by the Central Government in consultation with Reserve Bank of India, issued by a company,

shall not be treated as debenture;

Omitted vide Companies (Amendment) Act, 2017 dated 03.01.2018 to be effective from 12.09.2018 . To view the notificationClick Here

Commencement Notification dated 12th September 2018


Enforcement Notification S.O. 902(E) dated 26/03/2014


The Companies (Amendment) Act, 2017 (Effective from 03.01.2018)


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