valid as on 12/12/2019

Section 180. Restrictions on powers of Board
Effective from 12-09-2013

(1) The  of a  shall exercise the following powers only with the consent of the company by a , namely:—

(a) to sell, lease or otherwise dispose of the whole or substantially the whole of the undertaking of the company or where the company owns more than one undertaking, of the whole or substantially the whole of any of such undertakings.

Explanation.—For the purposes of this clause,—

(i) “undertaking” shall mean an undertaking in which the investment of the company exceeds twenty per cent. of its  as per the audited balance sheet of the preceding  or an undertaking which generates twenty per cent. of the total income of the company during the previous financial year;

(ii) the expression “substantially the whole of the undertaking” in any financial year shall mean twenty per cent. or more of the value of the undertaking as per the audited balance sheet of the preceding financial year;

(b) to invest otherwise in trust securities the amount of compensation received by it as a result of any merger or amalgamation;

(c) to borrow money, where the money to be borrowed, together with the money already borrowed by the company will exceed aggregate of its paid-up share capital and  free reserves   , apart from temporary loans obtained from the company’s bankers in the ordinary course of business:

Provided that the acceptance by a , in the ordinary course of its business, of deposits of money from the public, repayable on demand or otherwise, and withdrawable by cheque, draft, order or otherwise, shall not be deemed to be a borrowing of monies by the banking company within the meaning of this clause.

Explanation.—For the purposes of this clause, the expression “temporary loans” means loans repayable on demand or within six months from the date of the loan such as short-term, cash credit arrangements, the discounting of bills and the issue of other short-term loans of a seasonal character, but does not include loans raised for the purpose of financial expenditure of a capital nature;

(d) to remit, or give time for the repayment of, any debt due from a director.

(2) Every special resolution passed by the company in general meeting in relation to the exercise of the powers referred to in clause (c) of sub-section (1) shall specify the total amount up to which monies may be borrowed by the Board of Directors.

(3) Nothing contained in clause (a) of sub-section (1) shall affect—

(a) the title of a buyer or other person who buys or takes on lease any property, investment or undertaking as is referred to in that clause, in good faith; or

(b) the sale or lease of any property of the company where the ordinary business of the company consists of, or comprises, such selling or leasing.

(4) Any special resolution passed by the company consenting to the transaction as is referred to in clause (a) of sub-section (1) may stipulate such conditions as may be specified in such resolution, including conditions regarding the use, disposal or investment of the sale proceeds which may result from the transactions:

Provided that this sub-section shall not be deemed to authorise the company to effect any reduction in its capital except in accordance with the provisions contained in this Act.

(5) No debt incurred by the company in excess of the limit imposed by clause (c) of sub-section (1) shall be valid or effectual, unless the lender proves that he advanced the loan in good faith and without knowledge that the limit imposed by that clause had been exceeded.

1.This section does not apply to Private Companies, GSR 464 (E) dated 05.06.2015.

(The exceptions, modifications and adaptations provided above shall be applicable only to those Private Companies which has not committed a default in filing its financial statements under section 137 of the said act or annual return under section 92 of the said act with the registrar, vide notification dated 13th June 2017)

To view the notification,Click Here

2. This section  shall apply in case of a Specified IFSC public company, unless the articles of the company provides otherwise vide Exemption Notification to specified IFSC Public Companies, GSR 08 (E) dated 04.01.2017.

To view the notification Click Here

2(10) Board of Directors, in relation to a company, means the collective body of the directors of the company
2(20) Company means a company incorporated under this Act or under any previous company law
Refer circular 04/2014. To view the clarification,Click Here
2(57) Net Worth, means the aggregate value of the paid-up share capital and all reserves created out of the profits, securities premium account and debit or credit balance of profit and loss account, after deducting the aggregate value of the accumulated losses, deferred expenditure and miscellaneous expenditure not written off, as per the audited balance sheet, but does not include reserves created out of revaluation of assets, write-back of depreciation and amalgamation
2(41) Financial Year, in relation to any company or body corporate, means the period ending on the 31st day of March every year, and where it has been incorporated on or after the 1st day of January of a year, the period ending on the 31st day of March of the following year, in respect whereof financial statement of the company or body corporate is made up:

Provided that on an application made by a company or body corporate, which is a holding company or a subsidiary or associate company of a company incorporated outside India and is required to follow a different financial year for consolidation of its accounts outside India, the Tribunal may, if it is satisfied, allow any period as its financial year, whether or not that period is a year:

Provided further that a company or body corporate, existing on the commencement of this Act, shall, within a period of two years from such commencement, align its financial year as per the provisions of this clause

Provided also that in case of a Specified IFSC public company, which is a subsidiary of a foreign company, the financial year of the subsidiary may be same as the financial year of its holding company and approval of the Tribunal shall not be required.

Provided also that in case of a Specified IFSC private company, which is a subsidiary of a foreign company, the financial year of the subsidiary may be same as the financial year of its holding company and approval of the Tribunal shall not be required.

Substituted vide Companies (Amendment) Act, 2017 dated 03.01.2018 effective from 09.02.2018. To view the notification,Click Here
2(9) Banking Company means a banking company as defined in clause (c) of section 5 of the Banking Regulation Act, 1949 (10 of 1949)

Commencement Notification dated 09.02.2018


Enforcement notification S.O.2754 (E) dated 12/09/2013


Exemption to Specified IFSC Public company [GSR 08(E)] dated 04/01/2017


Exemptions to Private Companies [Amendment to GSR 464(E)] dated 13/06/2017


Exemptions to private companies [GSR 464 (E)] dated 05/06/2015


The Companies (Amendment) Act, 2017 (Effective from 03.01.2018)


General Circular 04/2014


CAIRR PLUS on Google Playsecretarial automation?Subscribe for Updates